Publications by authors named "Eugene E Kulikov"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bacteriophage Control of   pv. in Soybean.

Plants (Basel) 2022 Mar 30;11(7). Epub 2022 Mar 30.

Department of Plant Protection, Russian State Agrarian University-Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Timiryazevskaya Str. 49, 127434 Moscow, Russia.

Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) have been considered as potential agents for the biological control of bacterial phytopathogens due to their safety and host specificity pv. (Psg) is a causative agent of the bacterial spotting of soybean (). The harm caused by this bacterium to crop production and the development of antibiotic resistance in Psg and other pathogenic microorganisms has led to the pursuit of alternative management strategies. In this study, three Psg-specific lytic bacteriophages were isolated from soybean field soil in geographically distant regions of Russia, and their potential for protective action on plants was assessed. Sequencing of phage genomes has revealed their close relatedness and attribution to the genus , subfamily , family . Extensive testing of the biological properties of P421, the representative of the isolated phage group, has demonstrated a relatively broad host range covering closely related species and stability over wide temperature (4-40 °C) and pH (pH 4-7) ranges, as well as stability under ultraviolet irradiation for 30 min. Application of the phages to prevent, and treat, Psg infection of soybean plants confirms that they are promising as biocontrol agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants11070938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9003214PMC
March 2022

Novel K23-Specific Bacteriophages From Different Families: Similarity of Depolymerases and Their Therapeutic Potential.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:669618. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Federal Research and Clinical Center of Physical-Chemical Medicine, Moscow, Russia.

Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern in many countries worldwide. The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is the main driving force for the development of novel non-antibiotic antimicrobials as a therapeutic alternative. Here, we isolated and characterized three virulent bacteriophages that specifically infect and lyse MDR with K23 capsule type. The phages belonged to the (vB_KpnP_Dlv622) and (vB_KpnM_Seu621, KpS8) families and contained highly similar receptor-binding proteins (RBPs) with polysaccharide depolymerase enzymatic activity. Based on phylogenetic analysis, a similar pattern was also noted for five other groups of depolymerases, specific against capsule types K1, K30/K69, K57, K63, and KN2. The resulting recombinant depolymerases Dep622 (phage vB_KpnP_Dlv622) and DepS8 (phage KpS8) demonstrated narrow specificity against with capsule type K23 and were able to protect larvae in a model infection with a multidrug-resistant strain. These findings expand our knowledge of the diversity of phage depolymerases and provide further evidence that bacteriophages and phage polysaccharide depolymerases represent a promising tool for antimicrobial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.669618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381472PMC
August 2021

Equine Intestinal O-Seroconverting Temperate Coliphage Hf4s: Genomic and Biological Characterization.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 10 18;87(21):e0112421. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of Russian Academy of Sciencesgrid.4886.2, Moscow, Russia.

Tailed bacteriophages constitute the bulk of the intestinal viromes of vertebrate animals. However, the relationships between lytic and lysogenic lifestyles of phages in these ecosystems are not always clear and may vary between the species or even between the individuals. The human intestinal (fecal) viromes are dominated mostly by temperate phages, while in horse feces virulent phages are more prevalent. To our knowledge, all the previously reported isolates of horse fecal coliphages are virulent. Temperate coliphage Hf4s was isolated from horse feces, from the indigenous equine Escherichia coli 4s strain. It is a podovirus related to the genus (including the well-characterized Salmonella bacteriophage P22). Hf4s recognizes the host O antigen as its primary receptor and possesses a functional O antigen seroconversion cluster that renders the lysogens protected from superinfection by the same bacteriophage and also abolishes the adsorption of some indigenous equine virulent coliphages, such as DT57C, while other phages, such as G7C or phiKT, retain the ability to infect E. coli 4s (Hf4s) lysogens. The relationships between virulent and temperate bacteriophages and their impact on high-density symbiotic microbial ecosystems of animals are not always clear and may vary between species or even between individuals. The horse intestinal virome is dominated by virulent phages, and Hf4s is the first temperate equine intestinal coliphage characterized. It recognizes the host O antigen as its primary receptor and possesses a functional O antigen seroconversion cluster that renders the lysogens protected from superinfection by some indigenous equine virulent coliphages, such as DT57C, while other phages, such as G7C or phiKT, retain the ability to infect E. coli 4s (Hf4s) lysogens. These findings raise questions on the significance of bacteriophage-bacteriophage interactions within the ecology of microbial viruses in mammal intestinal ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01124-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516047PMC
October 2021

Free SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein S1 Particles May Play a Role in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 Infection.

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2021 Mar;86(3):257-261

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Biotechnology Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312, Russia.

The imbalance of the renin-angiotensin system is currently considered as a potentially important factor of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. It has been shown previously in the murine model, that the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on the cell surface is downregulated in response to the infection by SARS-CoV virus or recombinant spike protein (S protein) alone. In the case of natural infection, circulation of the S protein in a soluble form is unlikely. However, in SARS-CoV-2, a large fraction of S protein trimers is pre-processed during virion morphogenesis due to the presence of furin protease cleavage site between the S1 and S2 subunits. Therefore, S protein transition into the fusion conformation may be accompanied by the separation of the S1 subunits carrying the receptor-binding domains from the membrane-bound S2 subunits. The fate of the S1 particles shed due to the spontaneous "firing" of some S protein trimers exposed on the virions and on the surface of infected cells has been never investigated. We hypothesize that the soluble S1 subunits of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein shed from the infected cells and from the virions in vivo may bind to the ACE2 and downregulate cell surface expression of this protein. The decrease in the ACE2 activity on the background of constant or increased ACE activity in the lungs may lead to the prevalence of angiotensin II effects over those of angiotensin (1-7), thus promoting thrombosis, inflammation, and pulmonary damage. This hypothesis also suggests the association between less pronounced shedding of the S1 particles reported for the S protein carrying the D614G mutation (vs. the wild type D614 protein), and lack of increased severity of the COVID-19 infection caused by the mutant (D614G) SARS-CoV-2 strain, despite its higher infectivity and higher in vivo viral load.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297921030032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772528PMC
March 2021

Origin and Evolution of Bacteriophages Infecting : Horizontal Transfer Assists Adaptation to New Niches.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 31;8(11). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia.

Black leg and soft rot are devastating diseases causing up to 50% loss of potential potato yield. The search for, and characterization of, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) suitable for the control of these diseases is currently a sought-after task for agricultural microbiology. Isolated lytic bacteriophages Q19, PP47 and PP81 possess a similar broad host range but differ in their genomic properties. The genomic features of characterized phages have been described and compared to other bacteriophages. Thorough phylogenetic analysis has clarified the taxonomy of the phages and their positioning relative to other genera of the family. phage Q19 seems to represent a new genus not described previously. The genomes of the phages are generally similar to the genome of phage T7 of the genus but possess a number of specific features. Examination of the structure of the genes and proteins of the phages, including the tail spike protein, underlines the important role of horizontal gene exchange in the evolution of these phages, assisting their adaptation to hosts. The results provide the basis for the development of bacteriophage-based biocontrol of potato soft rot as an alternative to the use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7693777PMC
October 2020

Untangling the Metabolic Reprogramming in Brain Cancer: Discovering Key Molecular Players Using Mass Spectrometry.

Curr Top Med Chem 2019 ;19(17):1521-1534

Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Cells metabolism alteration is the new hallmark of cancer, as well as an important method for carcinogenesis investigation. It is well known that the malignant cells switch to aerobic glycolysis pathway occurring also in healthy proliferating cells. Recently, it was shown that in malignant cells de novo synthesis of the intracellular fatty acid replaces dietary fatty acids which change the lipid composition of cancer cells noticeably. These alterations in energy metabolism and structural lipid production explain the high proliferation rate of malignant tissues. However, metabolic reprogramming affects not only lipid metabolism but many of the metabolic pathways in the cell. 2-hydroxyglutarate was considered as cancer cell biomarker and its presence is associated with oxidative stress influencing the mitochondria functions. Among the variety of metabolite detection methods, mass spectrometry stands out as the most effective method for simultaneous identification and quantification of the metabolites. As the metabolic reprogramming is tightly connected with epigenetics and signaling modifications, the evaluation of metabolite alterations in cells is a promising approach to investigate the carcinogenesis which is necessary for improving current diagnostic capabilities and therapeutic capabilities. In this paper, we overview recent studies on metabolic alteration and oncometabolites, especially concerning brain cancer and mass spectrometry approaches which are now in use for the investigation of the metabolic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026619666190729154543DOI Listing
October 2019

High-throughput LPS profiling as a tool for revealing of bacteriophage infection strategies.

Sci Rep 2019 02 27;9(1):2958. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya, 7 bld. 2, 117312, Moscow, Russian Federation.

O-antigens of Gram-negative bacteria modulate the interactions of bacterial cells with diverse external factors, including the components of the immune system and bacteriophages. Some phages need to acquire specific adhesins to overcome the O-antigen layer. For other phages, O-antigen is required for phage infection. In this case, interaction of phage receptor binding proteins coupled with enzymatic degradation or modification of the O-antigen is followed by phage infection. Identification of the strategies used by newly isolated phages may be of importance in their consideration for various applications. Here we describe an approach based on screening for host LPS alterations caused by selection by bacteriophages. We describe an optimized LPS profiling procedure that is simple, rapid and suitable for mass screening of mutants. We demonstrate that the phage infection strategies identified using a set of engineered E. coli 4 s mutants with impaired or altered LPS synthesis are in good agreement with the results of simpler tests based on LPS profiling of phage-resistant spontaneous mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39590-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6393563PMC
February 2019

Host Specificity of the Bacteriophage PP35 Is Directed by a Tail Spike Interaction With Bacterial -Antigen, Enabling the Infection of Alternative Non-pathogenic Bacterial Host.

Front Microbiol 2018 11;9:3288. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

is a recently emerged virulent bacterial potato pathogen that poses a major threat to world agriculture. Because of increasing antibiotic resistance and growing limitations in antibiotic use, alternative antibacterials such as bacteriophages are being developed. bacteriophages recently re-ranked as a separate family, such as phage PP35 described in this work, are the attractive candidates for this bacterial biocontrol. PP35 has a very specific host range due to the presence of tail spike protein PP35 gp156, which can depolymerize the -polysaccharide (OPS) of . The OPS structure, →2)-β-D-6-deoxy-D-altrose-(1→, is so far unique among soft-rot , though it may exist in non-virulent environmental . The phage tail spike depolymerase degrades the shielding polysaccharide, and launches the cell infection process. We hypothesize that non-pathogenic commensal bacteria may maintain the population of the phage in soil environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336734PMC
January 2019

Escherichia coli bacteriophage Gostya9, representing a new species within the genus T5virus.

Arch Virol 2019 Mar 1;164(3):879-884. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Federal State Institution «Federal Research Centre «Fundamentals of Biotechnology» of the Russian Academy of Sciences», Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya, 7/2, 117312, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Escherichia coli bacteriophage Gostya9 (genus T5virus) was isolated from horse feces collected in Moscow, Russia, in 2013. This phage was associated in a single plaque with the previously reported phage 9g and was subsequently purified. Analysis of the complete genomic sequence of Gostya9 revealed that it is closely related to the T5-like bacteriophage DT57C, which had been isolated at the same location in 2007. These two viruses share 79.5% nucleotide sequence identity, which is below the 95% threshold applied currently to demarcate bacteriophage species. The most significant features distinguishing Gostya9 from DT57C include 1) the presence of one long tail fiber protein gene, 122c (ltf), instead of the two genes, ltfA and ltfB, that are present in DT57C; 2) the absence of the gene for the receptor-blocking lytic conversion lipoprotein precursor llp; and 3) the divergence of the receptor-recognition protein, pb5, which is only distantly related at the amino acid sequence level. The observed features of the Gostya9 adsorption apparatus are suggestive of a possible novel specificity for the final receptor and make this phage interesting for possible direct application in phage therapy of E. coli infections or as a source of receptor-recognition protein for engineering new phage specificities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4113-2DOI Listing
March 2019

Structure and gene cluster of the O antigen of Escherichia coli F17, a candidate for a new O-serogroup.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Mar 15;124:389-395. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russian Federation; Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Escherichia coli F17 isolated from horse feces was studied in respect to the O antigen (O polysaccharide) structure and genetics. The lipopolysaccharide was isolated by phenol-water extraction of bacterial cells and cleaved by mild acid hydrolysis to yield the O polysaccharide, which was studied by sugar analysis and selective solvolysis with CFCOH along with one- and two-dimensional H and C NMR spectroscopy. The O polysaccharide was found to have a branched pentasaccharide repeat (O-unit) containing one residue each of d-galactose, d-mannose, l-rhamnose, d-glucuronic acid, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine; about 2/3 units bear a side-chain glucose residue. To our knowledge, the F17 O-polysaccharide structure established is unique among known bacterial polysaccharide structures. The O-antigen gene cluster of E. coli F17 between the conserved genes galF and gnd was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to that of E. coli 102,755 assigned to a novel OgN8 genotype (A. Iguchi, S. Iyoda, K. Seto, H. Nishii, M. Ohnishi, H. Mekata, Y. Ogura, T. Hayashi, Front. Microbiol. 7 (2016) 765). Genes in the cluster were annotated taking into account the F17 O-polysaccharide structure. The data obtained confirm that E. coli F17 and E. coli strains belonging to the OgN8 genotype can be considered as a candidate to a new E. coli O-serogroup. The O antigen of this novel type was demonstrated to make for an effective shield protecting the intimate outer membrane surface of bacteria from direct interaction with bacteriophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.149DOI Listing
March 2019

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage PGT2.

Genome Announc 2018 Jan 18;6(3). Epub 2018 Jan 18.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, RC Biotechnology RAS, Moscow, Russia

Bacteriophage PGT2 was isolated from horse feces by using an uncharacterized strain, 7s, isolated from the same sample as the host. Bacteriophage PGT2 and a related phage, phiKT, which was previously isolated from the same source, are likely to represent a new genus within the subfamily of the family of viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01370-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773715PMC
January 2018

Complete Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage St11Ph5, Which Infects Uropathogenic Strain up11.

Genome Announc 2018 Jan 11;6(2). Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Moscow, Russian Federation

Bacteriophage St11Ph5 was isolated from a sewage sample on a particularly phage-resistant uropathogenic (UPEC) up11 host strain. It appeared to be closely related to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from horse feces; however, it carries a highly divergent host recognition module.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01371-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5764931PMC
January 2018

Determination of the Bacteriophage Host Range: Culture-Based Approach.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1693:75-84

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology RC Biotechnology RAS, Leninski pr. 33, Build. 2, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

The bacteriophage host range is one of the most practically important characteristics of each bacterial virus. Here the classical plate-culture-based approach for bacteriophage host range determination is described. The important considerations related to interpretation of the data and limitations of the methods are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7395-8_7DOI Listing
July 2018

Outer membrane vesicles secreted by pathogenic and nonpathogenic Bacteroides fragilis represent different metabolic activities.

Sci Rep 2017 07 10;7(1):5008. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Federal Research and Clinical Centre of Physical-Chemical Medicine Federal Medical Biological Agency, Malaya Pirogovskaya str., 1a, Moscow, 119435, Russian Federation.

Numerous studies are devoted to the intestinal microbiota and intercellular communication maintaining homeostasis. In this regard, vesicles secreted by bacteria represent one of the most popular topics for research. For example, the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Bacteroides fragilis play an important nutritional role with respect to other microorganisms and promote anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. However, toxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) contributes to bowel disease, even causing colon cancer. If nontoxigenic B. fragilis (NTBF) vesicles exert a beneficial effect on the intestine, it is likely that ETBF vesicles can be utilized for potential pathogenic implementation. To confirm this possibility, we performed comparative proteomic HPLC-MS/MS analysis of vesicles isolated from ETBF and NTBF. Furthermore, we performed, for the first time, HPLC-MS/MS and GS-MS comparative metabolomic analysis for the vesicles isolated from both strains with subsequent reconstruction of the vesicle metabolic pathways. We utilized fluxomic experiments to validate the reconstructed biochemical reaction activities and finally observed considerable difference in the vesicle proteome and metabolome profiles. Compared with NTBF OMVs, metabolic activity of ETBF OMVs provides their similarity to micro reactors that are likely to be used for long-term persistence and implementing pathogenic potential in the host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05264-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5503946PMC
July 2017

Branched Lateral Tail Fiber Organization in T5-Like Bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 is Revealed by Genetic and Functional Analysis.

Viruses 2016 Jan 21;8(1). Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Ave. 33, build. 2, Moscow 119071, Russia.

The T5-like siphoviruses DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from horse feces, are very closely related to each other, and most of their structural proteins are also nearly identical to T5 phage. Their LTFs (L-shaped tail fibers), however, are composed of two proteins, LtfA and LtfB, instead of the single Ltf of bacteriophage T5. In silico and mutant analysis suggests a possible branched structure of DT57C and DT571/2 LTFs, where the LtfB protein is connected to the phage tail via the LtfA protein and with both proteins carrying receptor recognition domains. Such adhesin arrangement has not been previously recognized in siphoviruses. The LtfA proteins of our phages are found to recognize different host O-antigen types: E. coli O22-like for DT57C phage and E. coli O87 for DT571/2. LtfB proteins are identical in both phages and recognize another host receptor, most probably lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O81 type. In these two bacteriophages, LTF function is essential to penetrate the shield of the host's O-antigens. We also demonstrate that LTF-mediated adsorption becomes superfluous when the non-specific cell protection by O-antigen is missing, allowing the phages to bind directly to their common secondary receptor, the outer membrane protein BtuB. The LTF independent adsorption was also demonstrated on an O22-like host mutant missing O-antigen O-acetylation, thus showing the biological value of this O-antigen modification for cell protection against phages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v8010026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728585PMC
January 2016

Complete genome sequences of T5-related Escherichia coli bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 isolated from horse feces.

Arch Virol 2015 Dec 9;160(12):3133-7. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Research Center of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Ave 33, build. 2, Moscow, 119071, Russia.

We report the complete genome sequencing of two Escherichia coli T5-related bacteriophages, DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from the same specimen of horse feces. These two isolates share 96% nucleotide sequence identity and can thus be considered representatives of the same novel species within the genus T5likevirus. The observed variation in the ltfA gene of these phages, resulting from a recent recombination event, may explain the observed host-range differences, suggesting that a modular mechanism makes a significant contribution to the short-term evolution (or adaptation) of T5-like phage genomes in the intestinal ecosystem. Comparison of our isolates to their closest relative, coliphage T5, revealed high overall synteny of the genomes and high conservation of the sequences of almost all structural proteins as well as of the other proteins with identified functions. At the same time, numerous alterations and non-orthologous replacements of non-structural protein genes (mostly of those with unknown functions) as well as substantial differences in tail fiber locus organization support the conclusion that DT57C and DT571/2 form a species-level group clearly distinct from bacteriophage T5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-015-2582-0DOI Listing
December 2015

Genomic sequencing and biological characteristics of a novel Escherichia coli bacteriophage 9g, a putative representative of a new Siphoviridae genus.

Viruses 2014 Dec 19;6(12):5077-92. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Laboratory of microbial viruses, Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, prosp. 60-letiya Oktyabrya, 7/2, 117312 Moscow, Russia.

Bacteriophage 9 g was isolated from horse feces using Escherichia coli C600 as a host strain. Phage 9 g has a slightly elongated capsid 62 × 76 nm in diameter and a non-contractile tail about 185 nm long. The complete genome sequence of this bacteriophage consists of 56,703 bp encoding 70 predicted open reading frames. The closest relative of phage 9 g is phage PhiJL001 infecting marine alpha-proteobacterium associated with Ircinia strobilina sponge, sharing with phage 9 g 51% of amino acid identity in the main capsid protein sequence. The DNA of 9 g is resistant to most restriction endonucleases tested, indicating the presence of hypermodified bases. The gene cluster encoding a biosynthesis pathway similar to biosynthesis of the unusual nucleoside queuosine was detected in the phage 9 g genome. The genomic map organization is somewhat similar to the typical temperate phage gene layout but no integrase gene was detected. Phage 9 g efficiently forms stable associations with its host that continues to produce the phage over multiple passages, but the phage can be easily eliminated via viricide treatment indicating that no true lysogens are formed. Since the sequence, genomic organization and biological properties of bacteriophage 9 g are clearly distinct from other known Enterobacteriaceae phages, we propose to consider it as the representative of a novel genus of the Siphoviridae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v6125077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276943PMC
December 2014

Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Giant Pseudomonas Phage PaBG.

Genome Announc 2014 Jan 9;2(1). Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry RAS, Moscow, Russia.

The novel giant Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage PaBG was isolated from a water sample of the ultrafreshwater Lake Baikal. We report the complete genome sequence of this Myoviridae bacteriophage, comprising 258,139 bp of double-stranded DNA containing 308 predicted open reading frames.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.00929-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3886941PMC
January 2014

Mitochondrial 12S rDNA sequence relationships suggest that the enigmatic bovid "Linh Duong" Pseudonovibos spiralis is closely related to buffalo.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2002 Apr;23(1):91-4

Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow.

The phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of the recently described Southeast Asian endemic bovid Pseudonovibos spiralis were deduced from nearly complete 12S mitochondrial rDNA sequences of this species and Bubalus bubalis alongside 26 sequences of Bovidae from GenBank using Cervus elaphus (Cervidae) as outgroup. Maximum-likelihood analyses performed by PUZZLE and fastDNAml nested P. spiralis at the base of the subtribe buffalo Bovini, suggesting the close relationship of this enigmatic species with buffalo and enabling its distinction into the separate
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/mpev.2001.1061DOI Listing
April 2002
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