Publications by authors named "Eu Chang Hwang"

157 Publications

Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors for premature ejaculation in adult men.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 03 21;3:CD012799. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Urology Section, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common problem among men that occurs when ejaculation happens sooner than a man or his partner would like during sex; it may cause unhappiness and relationship problems. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are most commonly used as antidepressants are being used to treat this condition.

Objectives: To assess the effects of SSRIs in the treatment of PE in adult men.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive search using multiple databases (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL), clinical trial registries, conference proceedings, and other sources of grey literature, up to 1 May 2020. We applied no restrictions on publication language or status.

Selection Criteria: We included only randomized controlled clinical trials (parallel group and cross-over trials) in which men with PE  were administered SSRIs or placebo. We also considered 'no treatment' to be an eligible comparator but did not find any relevant studies.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently classified and abstracted data from the included studies. Primary outcomes were participant-perceived change with treatment, satisfaction with intercourse and study withdrawal due to adverse events. Secondary outcomes included self-perceived control over ejaculation, participant distress about PE, adverse events and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model. We rated the certainty of evidence according to GRADE.

Main Results: We identified 31 studies in which 8254 participants were randomized to receiving either SSRIs or placebo. Primary outcomes: SSRI treatment probably improves self-perceived PE symptoms (defined as a rating of 'better' or 'much better') compared to placebo (risk ratio (RR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.66 to 2.23; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on 220 participants per 1000 reporting improvement with placebo, this corresponds to 202 more men per 1000 (95% CI 145 more to 270 more) with improved symptoms with SSRIs.  SSRI treatment probably improves satisfaction with intercourse compared to placebo (defined as a rating of 'good' or 'very good'; RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.87; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on 278 participants per 1000 reporting improved satisfaction with placebo, this corresponds to 175 more (117 more to 242 more) per 1000 men with greater satisfaction with intercourse with SSRIs. SSRI treatment may increase treatment cessations due to adverse events compared to placebo (RR 3.80, 95% CI 2.61 to 5.51; low-certainty evidence). Based 11 study withdrawals per 1000 participants with placebo, this corresponds to 30 more men per 1000 (95% CI 17 more to 49 more) ceasing treatment due to adverse events with SSRIs.  Secondary outcomes: SSRI treatment likely improve participants' self-perceived control over ejaculation (defined as rating of 'good' or 'very good') compared to placebo (RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.05; moderate-certainty evidence). Assuming 132 per 1000 participants perceived at least good control, this corresponds to 170 more (95 more to 270 more) reporting at least good control with SSRIs.  SSRI probably lessens distress (defined as rating of 'a little bit' or 'not at all') about PE (RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.88; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on 353 per 1000 participants reporting low levels of distress, this corresponds to 191 more men (92 more to 311 more) per 1000 reporting low levels of distress with SSRIs.  SSRI treatment probably increases adverse events compared to placebo (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.99; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on 243 adverse events per 1000 among men receiving placebo, this corresponds to 173 more (117 more to 241 more) men having an adverse event with SSRIs.  SSRI treatment may increase IELT compared to placebo (mean difference (MD) 3.09 minutes longer, 95% CI 1.94 longer to 4.25 longer; low-certainty evidence).

Authors' Conclusions: SSRI treatment for PE appears to substantially improve a number of outcomes of direct patient importance such as symptom improvement, satisfaction with intercourse and perceived control over ejaculation when compared to placebo. Undesirable effects are a small increase in treatment withdrawals due to adverse events as well as substantially increased adverse event rates. Issues affecting the certainty of evidence of outcomes were study limitations and imprecision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012799.pub2DOI Listing
March 2021

A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing Buccal Mucosal Graft Harvest Site Non-Closure Closure in Patients Undergoing Urethral Reconstruction.

World J Mens Health 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Purpose: To assess the effects of buccal mucosal graft site non-closure versus closure on postoperative oral morbidity for male undergoing augmentation urethroplasty for urethral stricture.

Materials And Methods: We included randomized controlled trials. Inclusion criteria were male over the age of 18 with urethral stricture disease requiring reconstruction with buccal mucosal graft harvest. Primary outcomes of the review were postoperative oral pain, need for secondary oral procedures and cosmetic defects.

Results: We included 5 studies with 346 randomized patients with urethral strictures, of whom 260 completed the trials. In terms of primary outcomes, non-closure graft site may reduce oral pain on postoperative day #1 (standard mean difference [SMD] 0.24 lower; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 lower to 0.12 higher; low certainty evidence [CoE]) but we are uncertain how this impacts pain on postoperative days 3 to 6 (SMD 0.35; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.81 higher; very low CoE). We are also very uncertain as to how it affects the need for secondary oral procedures (risk ratio [RR] 0.22; 95% CI 0.01 to 4.28; very low CoE). Non-closure may increase the risk of cosmetic defects (RR 2.40; 95% CI 0.93 to 6.22; low CoE).

Conclusions: This review describes the trade-off for buccal mucosal graft site non-closure versus closure for various patient-important outcomes; decision-making will likely hinge on the relative value individual patients and surgeons place on them. The supporting evidence was rated as low and very low, thereby signaling substantial underlying uncertainty and the need for better trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.200175DOI Listing
February 2021

Prognostic significance of pathologic nodal positivity in non-metastatic patients with renal cell carcinoma who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 4;11(1):3079. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Urology, Center for Urologic Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, 10408, Republic of Korea.

This retrospective, five-multicenter study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of pathologic nodal positivity on recurrence-free (RFS), metastasis-free (MFS), overall (OS), and cancer-specific (CSS) survivals in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (nmRCC) who underwent either radical or partial nephrectomy with/without LN dissection. A total of 4236 nmRCC patients was enrolled between 2000 and 2012, and followed up through the end of 2017. Survival measures were compared between 52 (1.2%) stage pT1-4N1 (LN+) patients and 4184 (98.8%) stage pT1-4N0 (LN-) patients using Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis to determine the prognostic risk factors for each survival measure. During the median 43.8-month follow-up, 410 (9.7%) recurrences, 141 (3.3%) metastases, and 351 (8.3%) deaths, including 212 (5.0%) cancer-specific deaths, were reported. The risk factor analyses showed that predictive factors for RFS, CSS, and OS were similar, whereas those of MFS were not. After adjusting for significant clinical factors affecting survival outcomes considering the hazard ratios (HR) of each group, the LN+ group, even those with low pT stage, had similar to or worse survival outcomes than the pT3N0 (LN-) group in multivariable analysis and had significantly more relationship with RFS than MFS. All survival measures were significantly worse in pT1-2N1 patients (MFS/RFS/OS/CSS; HR 4.12/HR 3.19/HR 4.41/HR 7.22) than in pT3-4N0 patients (HR 3.08/HR 2.92/HR 2.09/HR 3.73). Therefore, LN+ had an impact on survival outcomes worse than pT3-4N0 and significantly affected local recurrence rather than distant metastasis compared to LN- in nmRCC after radical or partial nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82750-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862313PMC
February 2021

Targeted therapy response in early versus late recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after surgical treatment: A propensity score-matched study using the Korean Renal Cancer Study Group database.

Int J Urol 2021 Apr 1;28(4):417-423. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Urology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Objectives: To investigate the clinicopathological features and outcomes of targeted therapy in patients with recurrence of renal cell carcinoma in <5 years or ≥5 years after the surgical treatment for renal cell carcinoma.

Methods: Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy in a multicenter database were retrospectively characterized according to time from surgery to recurrence. Early recurrence was defined as recurrence within 5 years after surgery, and late recurrence was defined as occurring ≥5 years after surgery. The propensity scores for recurrence status were calculated, and patients with late recurrence were matched to patients with early recurrence at a 1:3 ratio. The oncological outcomes of targeted therapy in both groups were compared.

Results: Among 716 patients, 512 (71.5%) experienced early recurrence and 204 (28.5%) experienced late recurrence. The patients with late recurrence presented with younger age at surgery, lower tumor stages and Fuhrman grade, and fewer sarcomatoid features and lymphovascular invasion (all P < 0.005). All differences in clinicopathological characteristics before targeted therapy disappeared after matching. Patients with late recurrence had significantly longer median overall survival (56 months vs 36 months; P < 0.0001) and median first-line progression-free survival (12 months vs 8 months; P = 0.031). The early recurrence status was a significantly worse predictor for overall survival and first-line progression-free survival (hazard ratio 1.30, P = 0.007; and hazard ratio 1.76, P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: Late recurrence might have prognostic value in terms of oncological outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14485DOI Listing
April 2021

Alpha-blockers after shock wave lithotripsy for renal or ureteral stones in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 11 12;11:CD013393. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Urology Section, Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a widely used method to treat renal and ureteral stone. It fragments stones into smaller pieces that are then able to pass spontaneously down the ureter and into the bladder. Alpha-blockers may assist in promoting the passage of stone fragments, but their effectiveness remains uncertain.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alpha-blockers as adjuvant medical expulsive therapy plus usual care compared to placebo and usual care or usual care alone in adults undergoing shock wave lithotripsy for renal or ureteral stones.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase, several clinical trial registries and grey literature for published and unpublished studies irrespective of language. The date of the most recent search was 27 February 2020.

Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials of adults undergoing SWL. Participants in the intervention group had to have received an alpha-blocker as adjuvant medical expulsive therapy plus usual care. For the comparator group, we considered studies in which participants received placebo.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion/exclusion, and performed data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. We conducted meta-analysis for the identified dichotomous and continuous outcomes using RevManWeb according to Cochrane methods using a random-effects model. We judged the certainty of evidence on a per outcome basis using GRADE.

Main Results: We included 40 studies with 4793 participants randomized to usual care and an alpha-blocker versus usual care alone. Only four studies were placebo controlled. The mean age of participants was 28.6 to 56.8 years and the mean stone size prior to SWL was 7.1 mm to 13.2 mm. The most widely used alpha-blocker was tamsulosin; others were silodosin, doxazosin, terazosin and alfuzosin.  Alpha-blockers may improve clearance of stone fragments after SWL (risk ratio (RR) 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 to 1.23; I² = 78%; studies = 36; participants = 4084; low certainty evidence). Based on the stone clearance rate of 69.3% observed in the control arm, an alpha-blocker may increase stone clearance to 80.4%. This corresponds to 111 more (62 more to 159 more) participants per 1000 clearing their stone fragments. Alpha-blockers may reduce the need for auxiliary treatments after SWL (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.00; I² = 16%; studies = 12; participants = 1251; low certainty evidence), but also includes the possibility of no effect. Based on a rate of auxiliary treatments in the usual care arm of 9.7%, alpha-blockers may reduce the rate to 6.5%. This corresponds 32 fewer (53 fewer to 0 fewer) participants per 1000 undergoing auxiliary treatments. Alpha-blockers may reduce major adverse events (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.80; I² = 0%; studies = 7; participants = 747; low certainty evidence). Major adverse events occurred in 25.8% of participants in the usual care group; alpha-blockers would reduce this to 15.5%. This corresponds to 103 fewer (139 fewer to 52 fewer) major adverse events per 1000 with alpha-blocker treatment. None of the reported major adverse events appeared drug-related; most were emergency room visits or rehospitalizations. Alpha-blockers may reduce stone clearance time in days (mean difference (MD) -3.74, 95% CI -5.25 to -2.23; I² = 86%; studies = 14; participants = 1790; low certainty evidence). We found no evidence for the outcome of quality of life. For those outcomes for which we were able to perform subgroup analyses, we found no evidence of interaction with stone location, stone size or type of alpha-blocker. We were unable to conduct an analysis by lithotripter type. The results were also largely unchanged when the analyses were limited to placebo controlled studies and those in which participants explicitly only received a single SWL session.

Authors' Conclusions: Based on low certainty evidence, adjuvant alpha-blocker therapy following SWL in addition to usual care may result in improved stone clearance, less need for auxiliary treatments, fewer major adverse events and a reduced stone clearance time compared to usual care alone. We did not find evidence for quality of life. The low certainty of evidence means that our confidence in the effect estimate is limited; the true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013393.pub2DOI Listing
November 2020

Targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 10 14;10:CD012796. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Several comparative randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been performed including combinations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and immune checkpoint inhibitors since the publication of a Cochrane Review on targeted therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in 2008. This review represents an update of that original review.

Objectives: To assess the effects of targeted therapies for clear cell mRCC in patients naïve to systemic therapy.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions on language or publication status. The date of the latest search was 18 June 2020.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials, recruiting patients with clear cell mRCC naïve to previous systemic treatment. The index intervention was any TKI-based targeted therapy.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently assessed the included studies and extracted data for the primary outcomes: progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and serious adverse events (SAEs); and the secondary outcomes: health-related quality of life (QoL), response rate and minor adverse events (AEs). We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach.

Main Results: We included 18 RCTs reporting on 11,590 participants randomised across 18 comparisons. This abstract focuses on the primary outcomes of select comparisons. 1. Pazopanib versus sunitinib Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in PFS as compared to sunitinib (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.23; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 420 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 18 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 76 fewer to 38 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in OS compared to sunitinib (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.06; 1 study, 1110 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 27 more OSs (95% CI 19 fewer to 70 more) per 1000 participants. Pazopanib may result in little to no difference in SAEs as compared to sunitinib (risk ratio (RR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.09; 1 study, 1102 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 734 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more participants experiencing SAEs (95% CI 44 fewer to 66 more) per 1000 participants. 2. Sunitinib versus avelumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to avelumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.80; 1 study, 886 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 550 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 130 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 209 fewer to 53 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in OS (HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.79; 1 study, 886 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 890 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 29 fewer OSs (95% CI 78 fewer to 8 more) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may result in little to no difference in SAEs (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.10; 1 study, 873 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 705 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 7 more SAEs (95% CI 49 fewer to 71 more) per 1000 participants.  3. Sunitinib versus pembrolizumab and axitinib Sunitinib probably reduces PFS as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.76; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 590 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this corresponds to 125 fewer participants experiencing PFS (95% CI 195 fewer to 56 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably reduces OS (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.65; 1 study, 861 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 880 per 1000 in this trial at 12 months, this would result in 96 fewer OSs (95% CI 167 fewer to 40 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib may reduce SAEs as compared to pembrolizumab plus axitinib (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.02; 1 study, 854 participants; low-certainty evidence) although the CI includes the possibility of no effect. Based on the control event risk of 604 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 60 fewer SAEs (95% CI 115 fewer to 12 more) per 1000 participants.  4. Sunitinib versus nivolumab and ipilimumab Sunitinib may reduce PFS as compared to nivolumab plus ipilimumab (HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.52; 1 study, 847 participants; low-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 280 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months' follow-up, this corresponds to 89 fewer PFSs (95% CI 136 fewer to 37 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib reduces OS (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.89; 1 study, 847 participants; high-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk 600 per 1000 in this trial at 30 months, this would result in 140 fewer OSs (95% CI 219 fewer to 67 fewer) per 1000 participants. Sunitinib probably increases SAEs (RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.53; 1 study, 1082 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Based on the control event risk of 457 per 1000 in this trial, this corresponds to 169 more SAEs (95% CI 101 more to 242 more) per 1000 participants.

Authors' Conclusions: Based on the low to high certainty of evidence, several combinations of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be superior to single-agent targeted therapy in terms of PFS and OS, and with a favourable AE profile. Some single-agent targeted therapies demonstrated a similar or improved oncological outcome compared to others; minor differences were observed for AE within this group. The certainty of evidence was variable ranging from high to very low and all comparisons were based on single trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012796.pub2DOI Listing
October 2020

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas: Clinical features and treatment outcome.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 12;123(1):204-213. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background And Objectives: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the pancreas (PM-RCC) is infrequent; we sought to describe the characteristics of PM-RCC and analyze the outcome following treatment.

Methods: Data of 3107 mRCC patients treated between 1992 and 2007 from the Korean Renal Cancer Study Group database were obtained to identify 300 (9.7%) PM-RCC patients. Characteristics and survival were analyzed and compared to the rest of the mRCC, according to the timing of metastasis and surgical treatments received.

Results: PM-RCC was younger at initial diagnosis (55.0 vs. 58.2 years), more frequently in women (30.3% vs. 22.3%), and metachronous (65.3% vs. 41.9%) with a longer disease-free period (82.0 vs. 33.0 months). Overall survival (OS) was significantly better in PM-RCC but pancreas metastasectomy was associated with improved OS only among metachronous PM-RCC. In the 132 metachronous PM-RCC with pancreas metastasectomy, median recurrence-free survival was 17.2 months and we found Heng risk group (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.384, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.213-4.684), younger age (HR = 0.965, 95% CI = 0.945-0.987), shorter interval to pancreas metastasis (HR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.986-0.999), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status to be predictive of early progression following pancreas metastasectomy.

Conclusion: Compared to the other mRCC, PM-RCC demonstrated a favorable prognosis. Pancreas metastasectomy was associated with prolonged survival in the metachronous PM-RCC with a long progression-free period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26251DOI Listing
January 2021

Does multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) T staging classification correspond with pathologic T staging in upper tract urothelial carcinoma?

Int Urol Nephrol 2021 Jan 28;53(1):69-75. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Seoyang-ro, Hwasun-eup, Hwasun-gun, 26458128, Jeollanam-do, Korea.

Purpose: Multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) is not yet sufficient to be used in the clinical staging of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MDCTU T stage classification and pathologic T staging for UTUC.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 125 patients with UTUC who underwent preoperative MDCTU. A single radiologist classified the MDCTU pattern of the tumors as either low or advanced T stage for localized or locally advanced tumors, respectively. The diagnostic values of MDCTU for locally advanced tumors and the kappa agreement between MDCTU and pathologic T stage were investigated.

Results: Among 85 pathologic low T stage (Ta-T2) tumors, 71 low T stage tumors were correctly detected by MDCTU, while 30 out of 40 advanced T stage (T3-T4) tumors were correctly diagnosed by MDCTU. MDCTU led to under-staging in 8% (10/125) tumors and over-staging in 11.2% (14/125) tumors. Therefore, the overall accuracy of MDCTU in the diagnosis of low and advanced T stage tumors was 80.8% (101/125 patients). The sensitivity for advanced T stage tumors was 75% (30/40), the specificity was 83.5% (71/85), and the positive and negative predictive values were 68.1% (30/44) and 87.6% (71/81), respectively. The kappa agreement value between the MDCTU T stage and pathologic T stage was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.72), which was statistically significant (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: MDCTU T stage classification may be relatively accurate for the detection and staging of UTUC correspondence with a pathologic stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-020-02622-8DOI Listing
January 2021

The platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio as a significant prognostic factor to predict survival outcomes in patients with synchronous metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Investig Clin Urol 2020 09 23;61(5):475-481. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Purpose: The clinical impact of the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remains controversial. We investigated the associations between elevation of the PLR and disease prognosis in patients with synchronous mRCC.

Materials And Methods: The data of 1,505 patients with synchronous mRCC were retrospectively analyzed. The entire cohort was stratified into two subgroups according to PLR. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional analyses were performed to investigate the possible associations between the PLR and disease prognosis.

Results: There were 921 patients with a high PLR and 584 patients with a low PLR by use of the cutoff of 146. The patients with a high PLR had worse clinical characteristics in terms of advanced clinical stage (p<0.001) and rate of lymph node invasion (p=0.036). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with a high PLR had significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p<0.001) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (p<0.001). The multivariate Cox analysis revealed that the PLR was an independent predictor for shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.345; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.183-1.530; p<0.001) and CSS (HR, 1.318; 95% CI, 1.156-1.502; p<0.001). In the subgroup analyses, the PLR showed a significant association with survival outcomes in the subgroup with clear cell type (all p<0.05) but not in the subgroup with the non-clear cell type.

Conclusions: The PLR was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcomes in patients with mRCC. However, the association was statistically significant only in patients with clear cell type mRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.20200002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458873PMC
September 2020

The prognostic role of preoperative serum albumin/globulin ratio in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing partial or radical nephrectomy.

Sci Rep 2020 07 20;10(1):11999. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Urology, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 807 Hoguk-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

This multi-institutional study sought to clarify the association between the preoperative serum albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) and the prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a large cohort. This study encompassed eight institutions and 2,970 non-metastatic RCC patients who underwent a radical or partial nephrectomy from the Korean RCC (KORCC) database. A low AGR (1,143 patients; 38.5%) was defined as a preoperative AGR of less than 1.47 and a high AGR (1,827 patients; 61.5%) was defined as that 1.47 or greater. In the low AGR group, older age, female gender, the incidence of symptom presentation when diagnosed, diabetes, and hypertension was higher than in the high AGR group. Patients with low AGRs showed more progressive tumor stages with higher Fuhrman nuclear grades (all P-values < 0.05). Patients in the low AGR group had a significantly lower overall survival rate (OS) and recurrence-free survival rate (RFS) in the Kaplan-Meier curves (all P-values < 0.05). AGR was an independent prognostic factor for predicting the OS and RFS in the multivariate analysis (all P-values < 0.05). The preoperative AGR is approachable and economical to use clinically for estimating the prognosis of RCC patients treated with surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68975-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371633PMC
July 2020

Impact of short warm ischemic time on longitudinal kidney function and survival rate after partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease stage III: A multi-institutional propensity score-matched study.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 02 17;47(2):470-476. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: It remains unclear whether a short warm ischemic time (WIT) improves long-term renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN) for patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). We evaluated renal function after PN according to WIT duration in patients with stage III CKD.

Materials And Methods: We identified 277 patients with stage III CKD who underwent PN during 2004-2017. Propensity score matching was used to created two matched groups of patients: Group A (WIT of <25 min) and Group B (WIT of ≥25 min). The outcomes of interest were longitudinal kidney function change, new-onset stage IV CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m) and overall survival.

Results: The two matched groups contained 85 patients each. The median follow-up durations were 49 months in Group A and 42 months in Group B. The median pre-treatment eGFRs were 52.4 mL/min/1.73 m in Group A and 52.6 mL/min/1.73 m in Group B. There were no differences in kidney function between the two groups throughout the follow-up period (P > 0.05). The 5-year rates of new-onset stage IV CKD were not significantly different between Group A and Group B (8.2% vs. 7.1%), with no significant difference in the risk of developing stage IV CKD in Group A (vs. group B, hazard ratio: 0.527, 95% confidence interval: 0.183-1.521; P = 0.236). The 5-year overall survival rates were 90.3% for Group A and 96.2% for Group B (P = 0.549).

Conclusions: A short WIT was not associated with better postoperative kidney function or survival after PN in patients with stage III CKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.06.016DOI Listing
February 2021

Observational Study of Peritoneal Washing Cytology-Positive Gastric Cancer without Gross Peritoneal Metastasis in Patients who Underwent Radical D2 Gastrectomy.

Sci Rep 2020 06 12;10(1):9549. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Gwangju, Korea.

Background The clinical features and therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer with positive peritoneal washing cytology but without visible gross peritoneal metastasis have not been defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and clinical prognostic value of postoperative chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients with positive peritoneal washing cytology without gross peritoneal metastasis who underwent radical D2 gastrectomy in terms of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Materials and Methods Intraoperative peritoneal washing cytology was performed in 285 patients who underwent radical D2 gastrectomy between April 2004 and May 2016. Of them, 88 patients with positive cytology but without gross peritoneal metastasis were included in the study. In total, 64 patients received postoperative chemotherapy, whereas 24 patients underwent surgery only. Results Most gastric cancer patients with positive cytology without gross peritoneal metastasis demonstrated pT4 and/or pN3 disease. Postoperative chemotherapy improved DFS and OS compared to surgery only in gastric cancer patients with positive cytology without gross peritoneal metastasis (median DFS 11.63 vs. 6.98 months, p < 0.001; median OS 25.50 vs. 12.11 months, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses of gastric cancer patients with positive cytology without gross peritoneal metastasis, no chemotherapy was the strongest clinical factor for poorer DFS (hazard ratio [HR] 3.76, p < 0.001) or OS (HR 4.37, p < 0.001). Conclusion Postoperative chemotherapy improves the survival outcome compared to surgery alone in gastric cancer patients with positive peritoneal washing cytology but without visible gross peritoneal metastasis who underwent radical D2 gastrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66637-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293245PMC
June 2020

Intraoperative allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with adverse oncological outcomes in patients with surgically treated non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Int J Clin Oncol 2020 Aug 5;25(8):1551-1561. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, 1st Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28644, South Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to provide more definitive information about the prognostic impact of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on patients with surgically treated renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

Methods: A database of 4019 patients with clear cell RCC, all of whom underwent radical or partial nephrectomy as primary therapy as part of a multi-institutional Korean collaboration between 1988 and 2015, was analyzed retrospectively. PBT was defined as transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells during surgery or postsurgical period. Receipt of a PBT, as well as the amount and time of blood transfusion (BT), was compared.

Results: Overall, 335 (8.3%) patients received a PBT: 84 received postoperative BT, 202 received intraoperative BT, and 49 received both intraoperative and postoperative BT. Patients receiving a PBT had a poor preoperative immuno-nutritional status, and aggressive tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses identified PBT as an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific survival. Prognostic impact of PBT was restricted to those with locally advanced stage (pT3-4), and who underwent radical nephrectomy. Among patients who received a PBT, intraoperative (but not postoperative) BT was a prognostic factor for survival. Among patients who received intraoperative BT, those receiving three or more transfusion units had a significantly worse survival.

Conclusion: Receipt of a PBT was an independent predictor of RFS and CSS in patients with surgically treated RCC, specifically locally advanced disease. Regarding the prognostic impact of timing or dose of PBT on survival, intraoperative BT and ≥ 3 pRBC units were associated with adverse oncological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10147-020-01694-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Development of the clinical calculator for mortality of patients with metastatic clear cell type renal cell carcinoma: An analysis of patients from Korean Renal Cancer Study Group database.

Investig Clin Urol 2020 05 10;61(3):260-268. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Anesthesia Consultants of Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Purpose: To develop the clinical calculator for mortality of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) using Korean Renal Cancer Study Group (KRoCS) database.

Materials And Methods: Data from 1,115 patients with mRCC treated in 4 hospitals joining KRoCS between 1993 and 2016 were pooled. Five-year survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier curve. A clinical calculator for 5-year mortality was developed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and validated externally using dataset including 916 patients from 4 other hospitals.

Results: Overall survival rates and cancer specific survival rate at 5 years were 28.5% and 29.4%, respectively. Among baseline factors, increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (≥4), synchronous metastasis, low albumin (<3.0 g/dL), and low hemoglobin (
Conclusions: A clinical calculator has been developed to quantify the risk of death for individual patients after treatment of mRCC. This tool may be useful for patients or their guardians who want to know their prognosis and to identify patients requiring aggressive therapy and additional supportive measures during and after treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.2020.61.3.260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189103PMC
May 2020

Early experience with Watson for Oncology: a clinical decision-support system for prostate cancer treatment recommendations.

World J Urol 2021 Feb 25;39(2):407-413. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Urological oncologists have difficulty providing optimal personalized care due to rapid alterations in scientific research results, medical advancements, and treatment guidelines. IBM's Watson for Oncology (WFO) is an artificial intelligence clinical decision-support system that assists oncologists with evidence-based treatment recommendations. In the present study, we examined the level of concordance between the treatment recommendations for prostate cancer according to WFO and the actual treatments that the patients received in the department of urology.

Methods: We enrolled 201 patients who received prostate cancer treatment between January 2018 and June 2018. WFO provided treatment recommendations using clinical data in three categories: recommended, for consideration, and not recommended. These were compared with the actual treatments received by patients. Prostate cancer treatments were considered concordant if the received treatments were included in the "recommended" or "for consideration" categories by WFO.

Results: The patients' mean age was 71.2 years. There were 60 (29.9%) and 114 (56.7%) patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score ≥ 1 and non-organ confined disease (stage III/IV), respectively. The overall prostate cancer treatment concordance rate was 73.6% ("recommended": 53.2%; "for consideration": 20.4%). An ECOG performance score ≥ 1 and older age (≥ 75 years) were significantly associated with discordance (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026, respectively) on multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: In the present study, the treatment recommendations by WFO and the actual received treatments in the department of urology showed a relatively high concordance rate in prostate cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03214-yDOI Listing
February 2021

The number of metabolic features as a significant prognostic factor in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2020 04 24;10(1):6967. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

The effect of metabolic characteristics on the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma remains controversial. We investigated the associations between metabolic features of each individual and disease prognosis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Data of 1,584 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma from a multi-institutional database were retrospectively analyzed. The entire cohort was stratified into three subgroups according to how many patients had abnormal metabolic features (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and low body mass index). The Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional analyses were performed to investigate the associations between abnormal metabolic features and disease prognosis. mThere were 465 subjects without any metabolic features, 995 with one or two, and 124 with three. When the survival outcomes were compared according to the number of metabolic features, patients with higher numbers of metabolic features had significantly shorter overall and cancer-specific survival than those with fewer metabolic features (all p values <0.05). The multivariate Cox analysis showed that the number of metabolic features was an independent predictor for shorter cancer-specific and overall survival (all p values < 0.05). When performing subgroup analysis according to the cellular type, significant results were only obtained among the clear cell subtype subgroup, with the association not being significant in the non-clear cell subtype cohort. Patients with more metabolic features had significantly worse survival outcomes than those with fewer metabolic features. However, the association was only statistically significant in patients with clear cell-type metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63816-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181597PMC
April 2020

Convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 03 25;3:CD013251. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Urology Section, One Veterans Drive, Mail Code 112D, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, 55417.

Background: New minimal invasive surgeries have been suggested as alternative options to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy is a new technology that uses targeted, controlled water vapour energy (steam) to create necrotic tissue in the prostate.

Objectives: To assess the effects of convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive search of multiple databases (the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American and the Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Scopus, Web of Science), trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings published up to 18 February 2020, with no restriction on the language or status of publication.

Selection Criteria: We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and non-randomised observational prospective studies with concurrent comparison groups, in which men with BPH underwent convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy, another active therapy, or a sham procedure.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We had planned to perform statistical analyses using a random-effects model, and interpret them according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We rated the certainty of the evidence according to the GRADE approach.

Main Results: We included a single, industry-sponsored RCT, with 197 randomised men, that compared convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy to a sham procedure. The mean age 62.9 years, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) was 21.97, and the mean prostate volume was 45.4 mL. We only found short-term data, measured up to three months. Primary outcomes Convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy may improve urologic symptom scores more than a sham procedure, measured on a IPSS scale (0 to 35; higher score represents worse urological symptoms) by a mean difference (MD) of -6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) -9.06 to -4.74; 195 men; low-certainty evidence), and likely improves quality of life (QoL), measured on a IPSS-QoL scale (0 to 6; higher score represents worse QoL), by a MD of -1.2 (95% CI -1.66 to -0.74; 195 men; moderate-certainty evidence). We are very uncertain about the effects of convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy on major adverse events (risk ratio (RR) 6.79, 95% CI 0.39 to 117.00; 197 men; very low-certainty evidence) assessed by the Clavien-Dindo classification system of III, IV, and V complications. Secondary outcomes We are very uncertain about the effects of convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy on retreatment (RR 1.36, 95% CI 0.06 to 32.86; 197 men; very low-certainty evidence). Convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy may have little to no effect on erectile function (MD 0.4, 95% CI -1.91 to 2.71; 130 men; low-certainty evidence) and ejaculatory function (MD 0.5, 95% CI -0.83 to 1.83; 130 men; low-certainty evidence). Convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy may increase minor adverse events assessed by the Clavien-Dindo classification system of Grade I and II complications (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.15 to 3.11; 197 men; low-certainty evidence). This would correspond to 434 minor adverse events per 1000 men (95% CI 264 more to 714 more). We are very uncertain about the effects of convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy on acute urinary retention (RR 4.98, 95% CI 0.28 to 86.63; 197 men; very low-certainty evidence). It likely greatly increases the rate of men requiring indwelling urinary catheters (RR 35.58, 95% CI 15.37 to 82.36; 197 men; moderate-certainty evidence). We were unable to perform any of the predefined secondary analyses. We found no evidence for other comparisons, such as convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy versus TURP or other minimal invasive procedures.

Authors' Conclusions: Compared to a sham procedure, urologic symptom scores and quality of life appear to improve with convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy, but we are very uncertain about major adverse events. The certainty of evidence ranged from moderate to very low, with study limitations and imprecision being the most common reasons for rating down. These findings are based on a single industry-sponsored study, with three-month short-term follow-up. We did not find any studies comparing convective radiofrequency water vapour thermal therapy to any other active treatment form, such as TURP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013251.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7093307PMC
March 2020

Comparison of surgical outcomes between lateral and posterior approaches for retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy: A single surgeon's experience.

Investig Clin Urol 2020 03 5;61(2):180-187. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

Purpose: To compare surgical outcomes between the lateral and the posterior approach for retroperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (RLA).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 130 patients who underwent RLA for adrenal tumors by a single surgeon between January 2015 and December 2018. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed and compared between two surgical groups: lateral approach (n=56) and posterior approach (n=74).

Results: There were no significant differences in perioperative outcomes between the two groups except for operative time (lateral approach, 105.4±41.21 minutes vs. posterior approach, 71.5±31.51 minutes; p=0.001). In the lateral approach group, two patients (3.6%) underwent open conversion, but there were no major complications in either group (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥3). Male sex was associated with an operative time of ≥90 minutes in the univariate analysis (p=0.019), but this effect did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, large tumor size (>5 cm; p=0.020) and preoperative diagnosis of malignancy (p=0.043) were significantly associated with an operative time of ≥90 minutes.

Conclusions: Both the lateral and posterior approaches for RLA were performed safely with similar operative outcomes and are therefore comparable options for the treatment of adrenal tumors. In addition, large tumor size and preoperative diagnosis of malignancy are associated with longer operative times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.2020.61.2.180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052412PMC
March 2020

The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index as a predictor of overall survival of surgically treated non-metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2020 Jan 12;146(1):187-196. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, 1st Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28644, South Korea.

Purpose: No study has evaluated the prognostic impact of the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (AACI) in those with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This study aimed to evaluate the utility of the AACI for predicting long-term survival in patients with surgically treated non-metastatic clear cell RCC (ccRCC).

Methods: Data from 698 patients with non-metastatic ccRCC who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy as primary therapy from a multi-institutional Korean collaboration between 1988 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinicopathological variables and survival outcomes of those with AACI scores ≤ 3 (n = 324), 4-5 (n = 292), and ≥ 6 (n = 82) were compared.

Results: Patients with a high AACI score were older and more likely to be female. They were also more likely to have diabetes or hypertension, a worse Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and lower preoperative hemoglobin, albumin, serum calcium, and serum total cholesterol levels. Regarding pathologic features, a high AACI score was associated with advanced stage. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that AACI ≥ 6 was associated with shorter cancer-specific (log-rank test, P < 0.001) and overall survival (log-rank test, P < 0.001), but not with recurrence-free survival (log-rank test, P = 0.134). Multivariate Cox regression analyses identified an AACI score as an independent predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 6.870; 95% confidence interval, 2.049-23.031; P = 0.002). The AACI score was a better discriminator of overall survival than the Charlson comorbidity index score.

Conclusions: AACI scores may enable more tailored, individualized management strategies for patients with surgically treated non-metastatic ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-03042-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Retrospective Multicenter Long-Term Follow-up Analysis of Prognostic Risk Factors for Recurrence-Free, Metastasis-Free, Cancer-Specific, and Overall Survival After Curative Nephrectomy in Non-metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2019 4;9:859. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Urology, Urologic Cancer Center, Research Institute and Hospital of National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, South Korea.

We evaluated prognostic risk factors of recurrence-free survival (RFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes in patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (nmRCC) after curative nephrectomy during long-term follow-up. The medical records of 4,260 patients with nmRCC who underwent curative nephrectomy between 2000 and 2012 from five Korean institutions and follow-up after postoperative 1 month until December 2017 were retrospectively analyzed for RFS, MFS, OS, and CSS. During the median 43.86 months of follow-up, 342 recurrences, 127 metastases, and 361 deaths, including 222 cancer-specific deaths, were reported. In addition to the unreached median survival of RFS and MFS, the median OS and CSS times were 176.75 and 227.47 months, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that nephrectomy type (laparoscopy vs. open), pathological T stages, and nuclear grade were common significant risk factors for survival, and the baseline ASA, hemoglobin, and pathological N stage were common factors only for RFS, OS, and CSS ( < 0.05). Further, tumor necrosis for MFS; platelet count, extent (partial vs. radical) of surgery, and lymphovascular invasion for RFS; baseline diabetes, hypertension, age, body mass index, extent of surgery, and pathological sarcomatoid differentiation for OS; and baseline diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, and pathological sarcomatoid differentiation for CSS were additionally significant risk factors ( < 0.05). RFS, MFS, OS, and CSS were significantly different depending on the pathological T stages ( < 0.05). In conclusion, this large-numbered, long-term follow-up study revealed significant factors affecting the survival of patients with nephrectomized nmRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738012PMC
September 2019

Current best evidence for prostatic arterial embolization.

Curr Opin Urol 2019 11;29(6):656-658

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0000000000000665DOI Listing
November 2019

Reprint - Ureteral stent vs. no ureteral stent for ureteroscopy in the management of renal and ureteral calculi: A Cochrane review.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Feb 23;14(2):61-68. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Urology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Introduction: We aimed to assess the effects of postoperative ureteral stent placement after uncomplicated ureteroscopy.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive search with no restrictions on publication language or status up to February 1, 2019. We only included randomized trials. Two review authors independently examined full-text reports, identified relevant studies, assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and assessed the certainty of the evidence according to GRADE.

Results: We included 23 studies with 2656 randomized patients. Primary outcomes: It is uncertain whether stenting reduces the number of unplanned return visits (very low certainty of evidence [CoE]). Pain on the day of surgery is probably similar (mean difference [MD] 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.13-0.78; moderate CoE). Pain on postoperative days 1-3 may show little to no difference (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.25; 95% CI -0.32-0.82; low CoE). It is uncertain whether stented patients experience more pain on postoperative days 4-30 (very low CoE). Stenting may result in little to no difference in the need for secondary interventions (risk ratio [RR] 1.15; 95% CI 0.39-3.33; low CoE).

Secondary Outcomes: We are uncertain whether stenting reduces the need for narcotics and reduces ureteral stricture rates up to 90 days (very low CoE). Rates of hospital admission may be slightly reduced (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.32-1.55; low CoE). This review was limited to patients in whom ureteroscopy was deemed 'uncomplicated.' In addition, time intervals for the grouping for the reported degree of pain were established post-hoc. The CoE for most outcomes was rated as low or very low for methodological reasons.

Conclusions: Findings of this review illustrate the tradeoffs of risks and benefits faced by urologists and their patients when it comes to decision-making about stent placement after uncomplicated ureteroscopy for stone disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.5957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012284PMC
February 2020

Lymph-node ratio is an important clinical determinant for selecting the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for curative D2-resected gastric cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Aug 4;145(8):2157-2166. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Hematology-Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, 322, Seoyang-ro, Hwasun-eup, Hwasun-gun, Jeonnam, 58128, South Korea.

Purpose: Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer, particularly stage III, improves survival after curative D2 gastrectomy. We investigated the clinical value of the lymph-node ratio (LNR; number of metastatic lymph nodes/number of lymph nodes examined) for selecting the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen in patients with D2-resected stage II/III gastric cancer.

Methods: We reviewed the data of 819 patients who underwent curative D2 gastrectomy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. Of them, 353 patients received platinum-based chemotherapy and 466 received TS-1. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their LNR (LNR 1, 0-0.1; LNR 2, > 0.1-0.25; and LNR 3, > 0.25), and their disease-free survival (DFS) was evaluated.

Results: The DFS curves of the patients were well separated according to stage and LNR. In multivariate analyses, an LNR > 0.1 was strongly associated with the 3-year DFS (hazard ratio 2.402, 95% confidence interval 1.607-3.590, P < 0.001). Platinum-based chemotherapy improved the 3-year DFS compared to TS-1 in patients with LNR 3 group in stage III gastric cancer (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 26.87 vs. 16.27 months, P = 0.028). An LNR > 0.1 was associated with benefiting from platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III gastric cancer patients with lymphovascular invasion (platinum vs. TS-1, median DFS 47.57 vs. 21.77 months, P = 0.011).

Conclusions: The LNR can be used to select the appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for patients with D2-resected gastric cancer, particularly in stage III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-02963-7DOI Listing
August 2019

A Low Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index is Associated with Aggressive Pathologic Characteristics and Poor Survival after Nephrectomy in Clear Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Nutr Cancer 2020 1;72(1):88-97. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.

To investigated the prognostic significance of the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) in patients with surgically treated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We retrospectively selected 4,591 consecutive patients with surgically treated ccRCC from a multi-institutional Korean collaboration between 1988 and 2015. The clinical significance of the GNRI as a continuous and categorical variable was determined. Preoperative low GNRI was significantly associated with older age, low body mass index, presence of diabetes, poor performance status, and presence of symptoms at diagnosis, as well as pathologic features such as aggressive tumor characteristics including large tumor size, advanced stage, high nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, sarcomatous differentiation, and tumor necrosis. A low GNRI was significantly associated with a short recurrence-free survival (RFS) in localized (pT1-2N0M0) ccRCC and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in the entire cohort, and with short RFS and CSS in the subgroup analysis according to age categories (≤65 and >65 years). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that preoperative GNRI, as a continuous or categorical variable, was an independent predictor of RFS and CSS. Malnutrition as assessed by the preoperative GNRI is associated with aggressive tumor characteristics and poor survival in patients with surgically treated ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1621357DOI Listing
September 2020

Extended versus standard lymph node dissection for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 05 14;5:CD013336. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun, Korea, South.

Background: In the treatment of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, we are currently uncertain of the benefits and harms of standard pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) compared to extended PLND.

Objectives: To assess the effects of extended versus standard PLND in patients undergoing cystectomy to treat muscle-invasive (cT2 and cT3) and treatment-refractory, non-muscle-invasive (cT1 with or without carcinoma in situ) urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using multiple databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and LILACS), trial registries, and conference proceedings published up to April 29, 2019, with no restrictions on the language or status of publication.

Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials in which participants underwent radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive or therapy-refractory non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder with either an extended PLND with a superior extent reaching as far cranially as the inferior mesenteric vein, or a standard PLND with a superior extent of the bifurcation of the internal and external iliac artery, with otherwise the same anatomical boundaries.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently assessed the included studies and extracted data from them for the primary outcomes: time to death from any cause, time to death from bladder cancer and Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications grade III-V, and the secondary outcomes: time to recurrence, Clavien-Dindo I-II complications and disease-specific quality of life.We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model and rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach.

Main Results: The search identified one multicenter trial based in Germany that enrolled 401 participants with histologically confirmed T1 grade 3 or muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. The median age was 67 years (range: 59 to 74) and the majority of participants were male (78.3%). No participant received neoadjuvant chemotherapy; a small subset received adjuvant chemotherapy (14.5%).Primary outcomesOur results indicate that extended PLND may reduce the risk of death from any cause over time as compared to standard PLND, but the confidence interval includes the possibility of no effect (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 1.07, 401 participants, low-certainty evidence). After five years of follow-up, this may result in 83 fewer deaths (95% CI: 174 fewer to 24 more overall deaths) per 1000 participants: 420 deaths for extended PLND compared to 503 deaths per 1000 for standard PLND. We downgraded the certainty of evidence by two levels due to study limitations and imprecision.Our results indicate that extended PLND may reduce the risk of death from bladder cancer over time as compared to standard PLND but, again, the confidence interval includes the possibility of no effect (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.07, participants = 401, low-certainty evidence). After five years of follow-up, this corresponds to 91 fewer deaths per 1000 participants (95% CI: 176 fewer to 19 more bladder cancer deaths): 264 deaths for extended PLND compared to 355 deaths per 1000 for standard PLND. We downgraded the certainty of evidence by two levels due to study limitations and imprecision.Based on follow-up of up to 30 days, we are uncertain whether extended PLND leads to more grade III-V complications as compared to standard PLND, because of study limitations and imprecision (risk ratio [RR]: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.52, participants = 401, very low-certainty evidence).Secondary outcomesWe are uncertain whether extended PLND reduces the risk of recurrence over time as compared to standard PLND, because of study limitations and imprecision (HR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.58 to 1.22, participants = 401, very low-certainty evidence).Based on follow-up of up to 30 days, we are uncertain whether extended PLND leads to similar grade I-II complications as compared to standard PLND because of study limitations and imprecision (RR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.19, participants = 401, very low-certainty evidence).We found no trials that reported on disease-specific quality of life.

Authors' Conclusions: Results from a single trial indicate that extended PLND in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder may reduce death from any cause and death from bladder cancer over time; however, the results include the possibility of no effect. We are uncertain whether the risk of serious complications up to 30 days may be increased. We are also uncertain as to whether the risk of recurrence over time or the risk of minor complications up to 30 days changes. We were unable to conduct any of the preplanned subgroup analyses, in particular, analyses based on extended lymph node dissection templates, clinical tumor stage, and use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy that may be important effect modifiers. Important additional data is expected from a larger, ongoing trial that will also consider the role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Inclusion of this trial in the meta-analysis may help address the issue of imprecision which was a common reason for downgrading the certainty of the evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6528183PMC
May 2019

Single-dose intravesical chemotherapy after nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 05 18;5:CD013160. Epub 2019 May 18.

Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun, Korea, South.

Background: Single-dose, postoperative intravesical chemotherapy reduces the risk of bladder cancer recurrence after transurethral resection of bladder tumours. However, there is limited evidence whether single-dose intravesical chemotherapy is similarly effective at preventing bladder cancer recurrence after nephroureterectomy.

Objectives: To assess the effects of single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation after nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

Search Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search using multiple databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and LILACS), trials registries, other sources of grey literature, and conference proceedings published up to April 15 2019, with no restrictions on language or status of publication.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials in which participants either received or did not receive single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation after nephroureterectomy.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors screened and independently assessed studies and extracted data from included studies. We performed statistical analyses using a random-effects model. We rated the certainty of evidence according to the GRADE approach.

Main Results: The search identified two studies (a multicenter study from Japan and the United Kingdom) with 361 participants.Primary outcomesOur results indicate that single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation may reduce the risk of bladder cancer recurrence over time compared to no instillation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.82, low-certainty evidence). After 12 months follow-up, this would result in 127 fewer bladder cancer recurrences (95% CI: 182 to 44 fewer bladder cancer recurrences) per 1000 participants. We downgraded the certainty of evidence by two levels due to study limitations and imprecision.We found no trials that reported on the outcomes of time to death from upper tract urothelial carcinoma. The effect of single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation on serious adverse events is uncertain (risk ratio [RR]: not estimable, 95% CI: not estimable, there were no events, very low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of evidence by one level due to study limitations and by two levels due to imprecision.Secondary outcomesWe found no trials that reported on the outcomes of time to death from any cause and participants' disease-specific quality of life. The effect of single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation on minor adverse events is uncertain (risk ratio [RR]: not estimable, 95% CI: not estimable, there were no events, very low-certainty evidence). We downgraded the certainty of evidence by one level due to study limitations and by two levels due to imprecision.

Authors' Conclusions: For patients who have undergone nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma, single-dose intravesical chemotherapy instillation may reduce bladder cancer recurrence after nephroureterectomy. However, we are uncertain as to the risk of serious (and minor) adverse events. We found no evidence for the outcome of time to death from upper tract urothelial carcinoma. We were unable to conduct any of the preplanned subgroup analyses, particularly those based on operative approach, pathologic stage, and method of bladder cuff excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013160.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525634PMC
May 2019

Trends in clinical, operative, and pathologic characteristics of surgically treated renal mass in a Korean center: A surgical series from 1988 through 2015.

Investig Clin Urol 2019 05 22;60(3):184-194. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Urology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju, Korea.

Purpose: To analyze trends over a period of 28 years in the clinical, operative, and pathologic characteristics of patients with a renal mass who underwent surgical resection in Korea.

Materials And Methods: Consecutive patients (n=6,231) with a renal mass who underwent surgical resection at eight Korean institutions between 1988 and 2015 were reviewed. Patients were assigned to one of three groups according to the date of surgery: group 1, 1988-1999; group 2, 2000-2009; and group 3, 2010-2015.

Results: Age at the time of surgery, body mass index, smoking status, incidence of diabetes and hypertension, and the number of incidentally identified renal masses increased significantly over time. The proportion of patients undergoing partial nephrectomy (PN) or minimally invasive surgery (MIS) increased sharply during the last two time periods. From 2010, the rate of robot-assisted nephrectomy rose sharply, occurring in 37.8% of MIS cases. Benign pathology was identified in 1.8% and 5.2% of cases in the middle and last periods, respectively; angiomyolipoma was the most common pathology. In later years, tumors were more often localized, although tumor grade increased. Sub-group analysis of small renal masses ≤4 cm revealed similar trends in operative and pathologic characteristics over time.

Conclusions: Between 1988 and 2015, there was a substantial change in the clinical, operative, and histological characteristics of patients who underwent resection of a renal mass in Korea. The most notable changes were stage migration towards localized disease and widespread use of PN and MIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4111/icu.2019.60.3.184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6495035PMC
May 2019

Survival and clinical prognostic factors in metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma treated with targeted therapy: A multi-institutional, retrospective study using the Korean metastatic renal cell carcinoma registry.

Cancer Med 2019 07 9;8(7):3401-3410. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Urology, Center for Prostate Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The optimal treatment strategy for metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mNCCRCC) is still elusive and mainly extrapolated from evidence available for metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the survival outcomes and prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with mNCCRCC treated with targeted therapy.

Materials And Methods: We analyzed a total of 156 patients (8.1%) with mNCCRCC among the total cohort of 1922 patients in the Korean metastatic RCC registry. We used Kaplan-Meier curve analysis to calculate the survival estimates for first-line progression-free survival (PFS), total PFS, and cancer-specific survival (CSS). We also used the log-rank test to compare the different groups and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analyses to evaluate the prognostic factors for survival.

Results: The mNCCRCC group had significantly inferior survival outcomes in terms of first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS (all P < 0.05). We found survival benefits in patients treated with first-line vascular endothelial growth factor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGF-TKIs, first-line PFS, and total PFS, all P < 0.05), cytoreductive nephrectomy (CSS, P < 0.0001), metastasectomy (CSS, P = 0.0017), and patients with metachronous metastasis (first-line PFS, total PFS, and CSS, all P < 0.05). Liver metastasis was the only significant prognostic factor for both first-line PFS and CSS (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: In the current targeted therapy era, survival of mNCCRCC is still inferior in comparison with that of mCCRCC patients. We found survival benefits in patients treated with first-line VEGF-TKIs/CN/metastasectomy, and metachronous metastasis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.2222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6601573PMC
July 2019

Conventional Chemoembolization Plus Radiofrequency Ablation versus Surgical Resection for Single, Medium-Sized Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Propensity-Score Matching Analysis.

J Vasc Interv Radiol 2019 03;30(3):284-292.e1

Department of Radiology, Chosun University Hospital and Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To retrospectively compare long-term outcomes of conventional chemoembolization plus radiofrequency (RF) ablation vs those of surgical resection in patients with a single 3-5-cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials And Methods: From January 2008 to December 2017, 139 of 623 patients who underwent surgical resection and 60 of 186 patients who underwent chemoembolization/RF ablation in a single center were compared with respect to local tumor progression (LTP), intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), major complications, and hospital stay before and after propensity-score matching.

Results: Mean follow-up periods were similar in the chemoembolization/RF ablation and surgical resection groups (41.9 mo vs 48.4 mo). Three (5%) and 17 (28.3%) patients in the chemoembolization/RF ablation group and 12 (8.6%) and 57 (41.0%) patients in the surgical resection group showed LTP and IDR (P = .366 and P =.114, respectively). At 1, 3, and 5 years, respective DFS rates were 88.1%, 65.3%, and 49.0% for chemoembolization/RF ablation and 84.2%, 58.2%, and 46.5% for surgical resection (P = .294). Moreover, respective OS rates were 95.0%, 73.5%, and 54.0% for chemoembolization/RF ablation and 97.1%, 87.4%, and 75.0% for surgical resection (P = .055). After matching (n = 52), therapeutic outcomes remained similar (P = .370, P = .110, P = .230, and P = .760, respectively). Surgical resection was associated with higher complication rates (P = .015) and longer hospital stays (8.4 d ± 3.7 vs 16.9 d ± 7.0; P < .001).

Conclusions: Conventional chemoembolization combined with RF ablation may be feasible for single 3-5-cm HCCs, with comparable therapeutic outcomes vs surgical resection and shorter hospital stays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2018.09.030DOI Listing
March 2019