Publications by authors named "Ettore Zuccato"

78 Publications

Changes in drug use in European cities during early COVID-19 lockdowns - A snapshot from wastewater analysis.

Environ Int 2021 Mar 26;153:106540. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Environmental and Public Health Analytical Chemistry, Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Castellón, Spain; Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 outbreak has forced countries to introduce severe restrictive measures to contain its spread. In particular, physical distancing and restriction of movement have had important consequences on human behaviour and potentially also on illicit drug use and supply. These changes can be associated with additional risks for users, in particular due to reduced access to prevention and harm reduction activities. Furthermore, there have been limitations in the amount of data about drug use which can be collected due to restrictions. To goal of this study was to obtain information about potential changes in illicit drug use impacted by COVID-19 restrictions. Wastewater samples were collected in seven cities in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and Italy at the beginning of lockdowns (March-May 2020). Using previously established and validated methods, levels of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (METH), MDMA, benzoylecgonine (BE, the main metabolite of cocaine) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH, main metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) were measured and compared with findings from previous years. Important differences in levels of consumed drugs were observed across the considered countries. Whilst for some substances and locations, marked decreases in consumption could be observed (e.g., 50% decrease in MDMA levels compared to previous years). In some cases, similar or even higher levels compared to previous years could be found. Changes in weekly patterns were also observed, however these were not clearly defined for all locations and/or substances. Findings confirm that the current situation is highly heterogeneous and that it remains very difficult to explain and/or predict the effect that the present pandemic has on illicit drug use and availability. However, given the current difficulty in obtaining data due to restrictions, wastewater analysis can provide relevant information about the situation at the local level, which would be hard to obtain otherwise.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997602PMC
March 2021

New psychoactive substances in several European populations assessed by wastewater-based epidemiology.

Water Res 2021 May 27;195:116983. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Sciences, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156, Milan, Italy.

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can be a useful tool to face some of the existing challenges in monitoring the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), as it can provide objective and updated information. This Europe-wide study aimed to verify the suitability of WBE for investigating the use of NPS. Selected NPS were monitored in urban wastewater by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The main classical illicit drugs were monitored in the same samples to compare their levels with those of NPS. Raw composite wastewater samples were collected in 2016 and 2017 in 14 European countries (22 cities) following best practice sampling protocols. Methcathinone was most frequent (>65% of the cities), followed by mephedrone (>25% of the cities), and only mephedrone, methcathinone and methylone were found in both years. This study depicts the use of NPS in Europe, confirming that it is much lower than the use of classical drugs. WBE proved able to assess the qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal profiles of NPS use. The results show the changeable nature of the NPS market and the importance of large WBE monitoring campaigns for selected priority NPS. WBE is valuable for complementing epidemiological studies to follow rapidly changing profiles of use of drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116983DOI Listing
May 2021

International snapshot of new psychoactive substance use: Case study of eight countries over the 2019/2020 new year period.

Water Res 2021 Apr 3;193:116891. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Health and Biomedical Innovation, UniSA: Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

There is considerable concern around the use of new psychoactive substances (NPS), but still little is known about how much they are really consumed. Analysis by forensics laboratories of seized drugs and post-mortem samples as well as hospital emergency rooms are the first line of identifying both 'new' NPS and those that are most dangerous to the community. However, NPS are not necessarily all seized by law enforcement agencies and only substances that contribute to fatalities or serious afflictions are recorded in post-mortem and emergency room samples. To gain a better insight into which NPS are most prevalent within a community, complementary data sources are required. In this work, influent wastewater was analysed from 14 sites in eight countries for a variety of NPS. All samples were collected over the 2019/2020 New Year period, a time which is characterized by celebrations and parties and therefore a time when more NPS may be consumed. Samples were extracted in the country of origin following a validated protocol and shipped to Australia for final analysis using two different mass spectrometric strategies. In total, more than 200 were monitored of which 16 substances were found, with geographical differences seen. This case study is the most comprehensive wastewater analysis study ever carried out for the identification of NPS and provides a starting point for future, ongoing monitoring of these substances.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116891DOI Listing
April 2021

A multi-residue analytical method for extraction and analysis of pharmaceuticals and other selected emerging contaminants in sewage sludge.

Anal Methods 2021 01 15;13(4):526-535. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy.

Sewage sludge is a by-product of wastewater treatment processes, and may be employed in agriculture as a fertilizer or in forestry for land reclamation. It is an important source of nutrients but its reuse can arouse concern on account of the wide range of contaminants that are retained and may persist during treatments. Information on the emerging contaminants (ECs) in sewage sludge in Italy is limited. The present study developed and applied a reliable analytical method for the analysis of 44 ECs in sewage sludge. ECs were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction followed by a clean-up step on solid-phase cartridges. High performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for analysis. The ECs, selected on the basis of their use and documented presence in the environment, were 42 pharmaceuticals belonging to 12 therapeutic categories and 2 perfluorinated substances. The method performance was good, with recoveries higher than 70%, good repeatability (<20%) and sensitivity in the low ng g range, allowing measurement of the analytes selected. The method was applied for analysis of sludge from 12 wastewater treatment plants in Italy. The most abundant compounds were antibiotics, anti-inflammatories and antihypertensives and ranged up to 5 μg g (ciprofloxacin). Seasonal differences were found for some antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs as well as some differences - in terms of concentration - with other European countries. This is the first Italian study to investigate the presence of a large number of ECs in sewage sludge and the results may be useful to drive future regulatory actions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ay02027cDOI Listing
January 2021

Monitoring caffeine and nicotine use in a nationwide study in Italy using wastewater-based epidemiology.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 28;747:141331. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Smoking cigarettes and drinking coffee are common habits in today's society. However, it is not easy to get up-to-date information on smoking prevalence and caffeine consumption as it is usually obtained from population surveys. To overcome this limitation and complement epidemiological information, we employed wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to gain a picture of the consumption of cigarettes and caffeine per day per person in Italy. A nationwide study was conducted by measuring two urinary metabolites of nicotine (cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) and a caffeine metabolite (1,7-dimethyluric acid) in untreated wastewater from 16 cities. The spatial profiles of use depended mostly on the specific population habits in each city, not on the geographical area or the population size. The patterns of consumption were stable over the week, except in Milan where the use of both substances decreased on Sundays, probably because there were no commuters. In Milan, the use of nicotine decreased from 2013 to 2015. There was a significant relationship between smoking and consumption of products containing caffeine (mainly coffee), thus in cities where more cigarettes were smoked, more caffeine was drunk. These results are generally in accordance with findings from epidemiological studies, but provide some additional local profiles of use and closely follow changes over the years. This information could be useful for healthcare professionals and policy-makers to monitor progress towards the reduction of prevalence in tobacco use, and set up new health campaigns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141331DOI Listing
December 2020

Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants in waters and sediments from Augusta Bay (southern Italy).

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 31;739:139827. Epub 2020 May 31.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri" IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy.

The contamination by pharmaceuticals products (PPs) in the marine environment is particularly relevant where wastewater treatment of urban areas on land is lacking. However, the number of studies focused on description of sources and fate of PP molecules in the marine environment remains still limited. In this study, the occurrence of 46 PPs was investigated in the marine and coastal-marine system (waters and sediments) of Augusta Bay (central Mediterranean Sea). This area is highly affected by industrial pollution and urban discharges (without wastewater treatment) and thus represents a 'natural laboratory' for exploring dynamics of multi-mixture contaminants in the marine environment. The study area is also part of the sub-region 'Central Mediterranean Sea' of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and therefore offers an important reference site for exploring the distribution modes of PPs in the central Mediterranean Sea. In this work, samples of seawater, sediment, untreated wastewater, and marine receiving water were analysed using mass spectrometry with a target analysis for PPs and a suspect screening analysis for the presence of other contaminants. PPs concentration ranges were: 2426-67,155 ng/L for untreated wastewaters, 550-27,889 ng/L for marine receiving waters and 12-281 ng/L for seawaters. The highest concentrations were measured for the antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, cardiovascular and antihypertensive therapeutic classes. Likewise, sediments collected from untreated wastewater sewers resulted more contaminated. Ionic, non-ionic surfactants and personal care products were the most abundant compounds found in waters and sediments by suspect screening analysis. The risk associated with PPs contamination for aquatic organisms was relatively high in samples of marine receiving waters of the bay (with a risk quotient value up to 33,599). The levels of PPs in seawater and sediment compartments were generally not hazardous (RQ < 0.01), except for estrone with a calculated RQ = 2775.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139827DOI Listing
October 2020

Testing urban wastewater to assess compliance with prescription data through wastewater-based epidemiology: First case study in Italy.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Oct 29;739:139741. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Sub-optimal adherence to pharmacological therapy is one of the main reasons for poor effectiveness, reducing the patient's quality of life and affecting health-care economics. This study investigated the possibility for a wastewater-based epidemiology approach to assess the overall adherence of a population to some pharmacological therapies in a defined area. We selected specific active ingredients and their main urinary metabolites (biomarkers) according to the best practice protocol available and we measured them for the first time in urban wastewater. We conducted this first case study in Italy, considering the whole country and two Italian regions by sampling for five days six cities from north to south. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the biomarkers in raw wastewater, developing and validating specific analytical methods. We used concentrations measured in influent wastewater, together with a careful review of the excretion profile of the active ingredients selected, to back-calculate consumption (measured consumptions - MC) which were then compared with consumptions calculated from medical prescriptions (expected consumptions - EC) reported annually by the Italian Medicine Agency. In general there was a rough correlation between MC and EC, with ratios sometimes close to unity and always within a 0.3-3.0 range. Interpretation of the results suffers some biases, which are case-by-case discussed in detail, but inclusion of measurements of the urinary metabolites together with the active ingredients gave a fuller understanding of the results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139741DOI Listing
October 2020

Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess the occurrence of new psychoactive substances and alcohol consumption in Slovakia.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Sep 23;200:110762. Epub 2020 May 23.

Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia. Electronic address:

Consumption of alcohol and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in a population or during special events (music festivals) is usually monitored through individual questionnaires, forensic and toxicological data, and drug seizures. However, consumption estimates have some biases due mostly to the unknown composition of drug pills for NPS and stockpiling for alcohol. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the real use of alcohol and the occurrence of NPS in Slovakia by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE). Urban wastewater samples were collected from nine Slovak cities over two years (2017-2018) and during three music festivals. The study included about 20% of the Slovak population and 50 000 festival attendees. The urinary alcohol biomarker ethyl sulfate (EtS) and thirty NPS were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS/MS). EtS concentrations were used for estimating the per capita alcohol consumption in each city. The average alcohol consumption in the selected cities and festivals in 2017-2018 ranged between 7 and 126 L/day/1000 inhabitants and increased during the weekends and music festivals. Five NPS belonging to the classes of synthetic cathinones (mephedrone, methcathinone, buphedrone and pentedrone) and phenethylamines (25-iP-NBoMe) were found in the low ng/L range. Methcathinone was the most frequently detected NPS, while the highest normalized mass load corresponded to mephedrone (3.1 mg/day/1000 inhabitants). Wastewater-based epidemiology can provide timely information on alcohol consumption and NPS occurrence at the community level that is complementary to epidemiology-based monitoring techniques (e.g. population surveys, police seizures, sales statistics).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110762DOI Listing
September 2020

Assessment of human exposure to selected pesticides in Norway by wastewater analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 21;723:138132. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Pesticides offer many benefits for humanity and agriculture, but at the same time pose a potential risk to human health because of their widespread use and high biological activity. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies are the main tool to investigate human exposure to pesticides and other chemicals, but face limitations such as sampling biases, long time to complete and high costs. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an alternative approach that is centered on the chemical analysis of biomarkers of (pesticide) exposure in urban wastewater. The present study used WBE to assess human exposure to selected classes of pesticides, triazines, pyrethroids and organophosphates, in Norway. Untreated wastewater samples were collected from four cities, covering approximately 20% of the Norwegian population. The highest population weighted mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were for alkyl phosphates and the lowest for triazines. Some differences were observed for the two metabolites, 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMPY) and 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid (DCCA), which were higher in the rural city of Hamar. WBE figures were comparable with HBM findings for the specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol; TCPY) but were different for the alkyl phosphates. Pyrethroid intake was calculated and was lower than the acceptable daily intake in all the cities, indicating low risk for human health. This is the most extensive WBE study performed to date to assess national human exposure to pesticides. This study demonstrated that WBE has the potential to be a useful complementary biomonitoring tool for assessing population-wide exposure to pesticides, overcoming some of the limitations of HBM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138132DOI Listing
June 2020

Enantiomeric profiling of quinolones and quinolones resistance gene qnrS in European wastewaters.

Water Res 2020 May 10;175:115653. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) was applied for the first time in seven cities across Europe with the aim of estimating quinolones consumption via the analysis of human urinary metabolites in wastewater. This report is also the first pan-European study focussed on the enantiomeric profiling of chiral quinolones in wastewater. By considering loads of (fluoro)quinolones in wastewater within the context of human stereoselective metabolism, we identified cities in Southern Europe characterised by both high usage and direct disposal of unused ofloxacin. In Northern European cities, S-(-)-ofloxacin loads were predominant with respect to R-(+)-ofloxacin. Much more potent, enantiomerically pure S-(-)-ofloxacin was detected in wastewaters from Southern European cities, reflecting consumption of the enantiomerically pure antibiotic. Nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and lomefloxacin were detected in wastewater even though they were not prescribed according to official prescription data. S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin and S,S-(-)-moxifloxacin-N-sulphate were detected in wastewater due to metabolism of moxifloxacin. For the first time, average population-normalised ulifloxacin loads of 22.3 and 1.5 mg day 1000 people were reported for Milan and Castellón as a result of prulifloxacin metabolism. Enrichment of flumequine with first-eluting enantiomer in all the samples indicated animal metabolism rather than its direct disposal. Fluoroquinolone loads were compared with qnrS gene encoding quinolone resistance to correlate usage of fluoroquinolone and prevalence of resistance. The highest daily loads of the qnrS gene in Milan corresponded with the highest total quinolone load in Milan proving the hypothesis that higher usage of quinolones is linked with higher prevalence of quinolone resistance genes. Utrecht, with the lowest quinolones usage (low daily loads) had also one of the lowest daily loads of the qnrS gene. However, a similar trend was not observed in Oslo nor Bristol where higher qnrS gene loads were observed despite low quinolone usage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115653DOI Listing
May 2020

Spatio-temporal assessment of illicit drug use at large scale: evidence from 7 years of international wastewater monitoring.

Addiction 2020 01 23;115(1):109-120. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Zatisi, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Wastewater-based epidemiology is an additional indicator of drug use that is gaining reliability to complement the current established panel of indicators. The aims of this study were to: (i) assess spatial and temporal trends of population-normalized mass loads of benzoylecgonine, amphetamine, methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in raw wastewater over 7 years (2011-17); (ii) address overall drug use by estimating the average number of combined doses consumed per day in each city; and (iii) compare these with existing prevalence and seizure data.

Design: Analysis of daily raw wastewater composite samples collected over 1 week per year from 2011 to 2017.

Setting And Participants: Catchment areas of 143 wastewater treatment plants in 120 cities in 37 countries.

Measurements: Parent substances (amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA) and the metabolites of cocaine (benzoylecgonine) and of Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol (11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ -tetrahydrocannabinol) were measured in wastewater using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Daily mass loads (mg/day) were normalized to catchment population (mg/1000 people/day) and converted to the number of combined doses consumed per day. Spatial differences were assessed world-wide, and temporal trends were discerned at European level by comparing 2011-13 drug loads versus 2014-17 loads.

Findings: Benzoylecgonine was the stimulant metabolite detected at higher loads in southern and western Europe, and amphetamine, MDMA and methamphetamine in East and North-Central Europe. In other continents, methamphetamine showed the highest levels in the United States and Australia and benzoylecgonine in South America. During the reporting period, benzoylecgonine loads increased in general across Europe, amphetamine and methamphetamine levels fluctuated and MDMA underwent an intermittent upsurge.

Conclusions: The analysis of wastewater to quantify drug loads provides near real-time drug use estimates that globally correspond to prevalence and seizure data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.14767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973045PMC
January 2020

Micropollutants in Lake Como water in the context of circular economy: A snapshot of water cycle contamination in a changing pollution scenario.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 13;384:121441. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Department of Science and High Technology, University of Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy.

In this work we evaluated the contamination of the water cycle in Como Bay by measuring 38 selected pharmaceuticals in two main wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland and in Italy, two influents (River Breggia and Cosia), lake water (epilimnion and hypolimnion), as well as potable water. The collection of comparative information on the presence and environmental fate of these substances contributes to set specific environmental quality standard (EQS). The results presented show that the contamination of the lake reflects national health policies, which deeply influence the usage of chemicals. The outcomes of this study give an overall picture of contamination in the area, showing that concentrations of the measured compounds are generally low and under the commonly adopted ecotoxicological and toxicological thresholds. Only in a few cases did the contamination appear to be noteworthy, for some of the most persistent compounds (antibiotic macrolides, diclofenac, irbesartan, carbamazepine and dihydrocarbamazepine, bezafibrate, furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Some concern can be also be raised for the presence of antibiotics (clarithromycin) in drinking water, although at very low levels, due to the problem of antibiotic resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121441DOI Listing
February 2020

Use of legal and illegal substances in Malé (Republic of Maldives) assessed by wastewater analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 30;698:134207. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milan, Italy.

This study used wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to investigate the lifestyle of the inhabitants of Malé, the capital of the Republic of Maldives. Raw wastewater 12-h composite samples were collected from nine pumping stations serving the city area - thus representative of the whole Malé population. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for estimating the profile of use of a large number of substances including illicit drugs, alcohol, caffeine, tobacco and pharmaceuticals. The illicit drugs most used were cannabis (THC) and heroin (700 and 18 g/day), with lower consumption of cocaine and amphetamines (0.1-1.2 g/day). It is important to note that the consumption of cannabis in Malé was comparable to that measured in other countries, while the consumption of heroin was higher. Among cathinones, mephedrone was detected at the highest levels similar to other countries. Consumption of alcohol, which is not allowed in Maldives, was found (1.3 L/day/1000 inhabitants), but at a low level compared with other countries (6-44 L/day/1000 inhabitants), while the consumption of caffeine and tobacco was generally in line with reports from other countries. Unique information on pharmaceuticals use was also provided, since no official data were available. Human lifestyle was evaluated by applying for the first time the full set of WBE methodologies available in our laboratory. Results provided valuable epidemiological information, which may be useful for national and international agencies to understand population lifestyles better, including illicit drug issues, and for planning and evaluation of drug prevention programs in Malé.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134207DOI Listing
January 2020

Wastewater-based epidemiology for tracking human exposure to mycotoxins.

J Hazard Mater 2020 01 27;382:121108. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Mycotoxins are among the compounds of most concern for human health because of their common presence in food and their proven toxicity for human health. Human biomonitoring (HBM) studies, foodstuff analysis and dietary surveys are usually used to assess human exposure, but they are costly and time-consuming. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can complement the established exposure monitoring tools. The aim of this study was to develop a new WBE application for assessing human exposure to mycotoxins by measuring specific biomarkers in raw wastewater. Eleven substances were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in wastewater from four cities in Italy and Spain. Only deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisines were found, DON being the most abundant, in accordance with HBM studies. DON intake, back-calculated by WBE, was lower than the established Health-Based Guidance values, indicating moderate exposure in the population, with no risks for human health. WBE intake estimates were very close to those reported in HBM studies, validating WBE for estimating DON intake in the population. This study describes a promising WBE approach to complement HBM studies and assess the human intake of specific classes of mycotoxins, thus helping to identify risks for human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121108DOI Listing
January 2020

Drug Use by Music Festival Attendees: A Novel Triangulation Approach Using Self-Reported Data and Test Results of Oral Fluid and Pooled Urine Samples.

Subst Use Misuse 2019 9;54(14):2317-2327. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Self-reported data are commonly used when investigating illicit substance use. However, self-reports have well-known limitations such as limited recall and socially desirable responding. Mislabeling or adulteration of drugs on the illicit market may also cause incorrect reporting. We aimed to examine what could be gained in terms of illicit drug use findings among music festival attendees when including biological sample test results in the assessment. We included 651 attendees at three music festivals in Norway from June to August 2016. Self-reported drug use was recorded using questionnaires, and samples of oral fluid were analyzed to detect use of illicit drugs. In addition, we analyzed samples of pooled urine from portable toilets at each festival. All methods identified cannabis, MDMA, and cocaine as the most commonly used drugs. Overall, 6.6% of respondents reported use of illicit substances during the previous 48 hours. Oral fluid testing identified a larger number of drug users as 12.6% tested positive for illicit drugs. In oral fluid testing, we identified ketamine and three new psychoactive substances (NPS) that had not been reported on the questionnaire. In pooled urine testing, we identified amphetamine and three additional NPS that were neither reported used nor found in oral fluid samples. Drug testing of biological samples proved to be an important supplement to self-reports as a larger number of illicit substances could be detected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2019.1646285DOI Listing
May 2020

Flexible high resolution-mass spectrometry approach for screening new psychoactive substances in urban wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Nov 26;689:679-690. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri - IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy.

The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the recreational drug market has increased rapidly in the last years, creating serious challenges for public health agencies and law enforcement authorities. Epidemiological surveys and forensic analyses to monitor the consumption of these substances face some limitations for investigating their use on a large scale in a shifting market. The aim of this work was to develop a comprehensive and flexible screening approach for assessing the presence of NPS in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Almost 200 substances were selected as "priority NPS" among those most frequently and recently reported by the Early Warning Systems (EWS) of different agencies and were included in the screening. Wastewater samples were collected from several cities all over Europe in 2016 and 2017, extracted using different solid-phase cartridges and analysed by LC-HRMS. The screening workflow comprised three successive analytical steps and compounds were identified and confirmed following specific criteria from the current guidelines. Thirteen NPS were identified at different confidence levels by using analytical standards or information from libraries and literature, and about half of them were phenethylamines. As far as we know, this is the first time that four of them (i.e. 3,4-dimethoxy-α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, para-methoxyamphetamine, 2-phenethylamine and α-methyltryptamine) have been found in urban wastewater. The proposed screening approach was successfully applied in the largest NPS European wastewater monitoring, providing an innovative and easily adapted procedure for investigating NPS. In the light of current challenges and specific future research issues, this approach may complement epidemiological information and help in establishing measures for public health protection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.336DOI Listing
November 2019

Simultaneous determination of new psychoactive substances and illicit drugs in sewage: Potential of micro-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in wastewater-based epidemiology.

J Chromatogr A 2019 Sep 30;1602:300-309. Epub 2019 May 30.

Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat S/N, E-12071 Castelló, Spain. Electronic address:

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) can give valuable light on the extent and actual use of new psychoactive substances (NPS). In this work, a fully validated methodology for the simultaneous determination of illicit drugs and NPS in wastewater by solid-phase extraction followed by UHPLC-MS/MS has been developed. The small sample volume (5 mL) required for analysis is of high interest, especially when performing large sampling campaigns involving many locations of different geographical origin, as it has been performed in the past. The method was applied to wastewater samples from different European locations and permitted the simultaneous monitoring of conventional drugs and NPS. Cocaine, amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine and ketamine were found in all wastewater samples, and several NPS (dipentylone, butylone, mephedrone, methedrone and methylone) were observed in some of the samples monitored. It is noteworthy that dipentylone was detected in wastewater for the very first time. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of micro liquid chromatography (μLC) and UHPLC, both coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, in terms of sensitivity and reproducibility has been made for the first time in the application field of WBE. An average increase factor of 14 (mass normalized data) was observed in sensitivity for μLC-MS/MS. The overall method performance was also compared (un-normalized data), and an average increase sensitivity factor of 4.5 was observed for μLC-MS/MS. However, large deviations in retention time (up to 0.4 min) affected the reproducibility and robustness of the μLC-MS/MS method when it was applied to wastewater analysis. Although in this work μLC-MS/MS was strongly influenced by the amount of matrix loaded in the separation device, its enhanced sensitivity and promotion of green chemistry (faster analysis time and less solvent consumption) allow to expect improved future applications, especially when analytes are present at very low concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.05.051DOI Listing
September 2019

Risk assessment of a mixture of emerging contaminants in surface water in a highly urbanized area in Italy.

J Hazard Mater 2019 01 2;361:103-110. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Department of Environmental Health Science, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

A complex mixture of emerging contaminants (ECs) occurs in the environment, with potential effects for aquatic organisms and human health. This study assessed the environmental risk of a mixture of ECs detected in the most urbanized and industrialized area of Italy. Water samples were collected in the Lambro river basin to the north and south of Milan, and were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) was performed calculating the Risk Quotients (RQs) for each EC as the ratio of Measured Concentrations (MECs) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations. The ERA was also conducted for the whole mixture of ECs by considering the RQs of the components. The results confirmed that ECs are ubiquitous in urbanized areas. The ERA for the single pollutants identified a panel of substances of environmental concern (estrogens, amoxicillin, clarythromycin, triclosan and nicotine). The ERA for the mixture indicated a potential cumulative risk for the substances that individually could be considered safe, highlighting the importance of taking the whole mixture of ECs into account for the ERA. This information may help establish EU regulations for ECs and environmental quality standards for regulatory purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.07.099DOI Listing
January 2019

Wastewater-Based Epidemiology as a Novel Biomonitoring Tool to Evaluate Human Exposure To Pollutants.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Sep 27;52(18):10224-10226. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS , Department of Environmental Health Sciences , Milan , Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01403DOI Listing
September 2018

Exposure of an urban population to pesticides assessed by wastewater-based epidemiology in a Caribbean island.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 4;644:129-136. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Environmental Biomarkers Unit, Laboratory of Food Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy.

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an innovative approach to estimate the consumption of chemicals and their exposure patterns in a population, on the basis of measurements of biomarkers in wastewater. This method can provide objective real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This approach was used to examine the exposure of the Martinique population to the three classes of pesticides: triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids. Martinique island (French West Indies) is a closed market and has been closely monitored since the early 2000's when contamination with chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide widely applied between 1972 and 1993 in banana plantations, became a critical political issue. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the patterns of human exposure and compare the results to those from other countries. Wastewater was collected as 24-h composite samples and analysed for selected urinary pesticide metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Organophosphate and pyrethroid metabolites were found in all the samples up to 330 ng/L, while triazines were found only at trace levels. Mass loads indicated higher exposure to pyrethroids than in some cities in Europe, but lower exposure to triazines and organophosphates. The estimated human intake for pyrethroids was close to the Acceptable Daily Intake, but importation of these pesticides to Martinique was low. This study illustrates the high human exposure with indoor pesticide use in comparison to its use in agriculture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.06.250DOI Listing
December 2018

Data on occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in a urbanised area.

Data Brief 2018 Apr 31;17:533-543. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy.

These data and analyses support the research article "Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of an highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy" by Castiglioni et al. (2018) [1]. The occurrence of 80 emerging contaminats in waste and surface water was investigated in an highly urbanised area of Italy, the River Lambro basin. The data presented here include: (1) concentrations in untreated and treated wastewater of different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); (2) concentrations in surface water collected along the river Lambro, in the north and south of the city of Milan (main urban center in the area). These concentrations indicate the distribution and fate of emerging contaminats in the environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.01.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988287PMC
April 2018

Personal care products in surface, ground and wastewater of a complex aquifer system, a potential planning tool for contemporary urban settings.

J Environ Manage 2018 May 5;214:76-85. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

The use and discharge of personal care products (PCPs) result in their presence in the aquatic environment. This study investigates the occurrence and fate of some PCPs in wastewater, surface and groundwater in an urbanized area in the North of Italy. We investigated four UV filters: phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (PBSA), benzophenone-3 (BP3), benzophenone-4 (BP4) and 4 methyl-benzilidine-camphor (4-MBC), and two antibacterial agents: triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC). BP3, BP4 and PBSA were detected in all WWTPs and concentrations ranged 27-822 ng/L (BP4 > PBSA > BP3). TCS was the only disinfectant detected in wastewater and ranged from <0.2 to 1690 ng/L. Removal efficiencies in WWTPs were good for BP3 and TCS (80-100%), but were quite low for PBSA and BP4 (0-40%). Consequently, PBSA and BP4 were the most abundant substances in surface water, detected up to 560.4 ng/L. TCS was also found in surface water (<0.2-161.0 ng/L). Only PBSA and TCS were found in untreated groundwater, and levels were higher in wells close to rivers, suggesting the contribution of surface water to this contamination, but not from the catchment and the sewer networks. These PCPs were confirmed to be ubiquitous in all the aquifers sampled, being reliable descriptors of human presence. The use of these data as direct indicators of pollutant's loads for the aquifers deriving from human presence could provide early warnings on chemicals that are continuously introduced into surface waters, identifying dynamic urban trends and suggesting paths for the planning in urban regions and for appropriate investment and rehabilitation strategies of infrastructure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.10.069DOI Listing
May 2018

Monitoring emerging contaminants in the drinking water of Milan and assessment of the human risk.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018 04 16;221(3):451-457. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Science, Via La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy.

Emerging Contaminants (ECs) are ubiquitous in waters, arousing concern because of their potential risks for human health and the environment. This study investigated the presence of multiple classes of ECs in 21 wells over the drinking water network of Milan, in the most inhabited and industrialized area of Italy, and assessed the risks for consumers. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Human risk assessment (HRA) was conducted by comparing the measured concentrations with drinking water thresholds from guidelines or calculated in this study; first considering the exposure to each single EC and then the entire mixture. Thirteen ECs were measured in the low ng/L range, and were generally detected in less than half of the wells. Pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated substances, personal care products, and anthropogenic markers were the most frequently detected. The results of the HRA excluded any risks for consumers in each scenario considered. This is one of the most comprehensive studies assessing the presence of a large number of ECs in the whole drinking water network of a city, and the risks for human health. Results improve the limited information on ECs sources and occurrence in drinking water and help establishing guidelines for regulatory purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.008DOI Listing
April 2018

Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of a highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy.

Water Res 2018 03 22;131:287-298. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy.

The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM). Specific analytical methods were developed for quantitative analysis based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ECs were measured in rivers upstream and downstream of the main city (Milan), and in untreated and treated wastewater from Milan to assess the contribution to river contamination, and in superficial and deep groundwater in the city area to study the relationship between river and groundwater contamination. Samples were collected in a two-year monitoring campaign. Almost all ECs were ubiquitous in untreated wastewater, at concentrations up to the μg/L range, and the most abundant classes were PHARM and AM. Removals during different wastewater treatment processes were studied and the most stable substances were PHARM, PCPs and PERF. The mass loads increased for all the classes of ECs along the River Lambro basin. A mass balance was done in the river basin and allowed to identify the main sources of contamination, which were domestic, from treated or untreated wastewater, for PHARM, PCPs and IDs, mainly industrial for PERF, and both industrial and domestic for Alk-BPA. The study of AM helped to identify direct discharges of untreated wastewater. A substantial contribution of surface water to groundwater contamination was observed. This study improves the knowledge on occurrence, sources and fate of multiple classes of ECs in a highly urbanized area providing useful information to help the establishment of EU regulations for ECs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.12.047DOI Listing
March 2018

Enantiomeric profiling of chiral illicit drugs in a pan-European study.

Water Res 2018 03 1;130:151-160. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK. Electronic address:

The aim of this paper is to present the first study on spatial and temporal variation in the enantiomeric profile of chiral drugs in eight European cities. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) and enantioselective analysis were combined to evaluate trends in illicit drug use in the context of their consumption vs direct disposal as well as their synthetic production routes. Spatial variations in amphetamine loads were observed with higher use in Northern European cities. Enantioselective analysis showed a general enrichment of amphetamine with the R-(-)-enantiomer in wastewater indicating its abuse. High loads of racemic methamphetamine were detected in Oslo (EF = 0.49 ± 0.02). This is in contrast to other European cities where S-(+)-methamphetamine was the predominant enantiomer. This indicates different methods of methamphetamine synthesis and/or trafficking routes in Oslo, compared with the other cities tested. An enrichment of MDMA with the R-(-)-enantiomer was observed in European wastewaters indicating MDMA consumption rather than disposal of unused drug. MDA's chiral signature indicated its enrichment with the S-(+)-enantiomer, which confirms its origin from MDMA metabolism in humans. HMMA was also detected at quantifiable concentrations in wastewater and was found to be a suitable biomarker for MDMA consumption. Mephedrone was only detected in wastewater from the United Kingdom with population-normalised loads up to 47.7 mg 1000 people day. The enrichment of mephedrone in the R-(+)-enantiomer in wastewater suggests stereoselective metabolism in humans, hence consumption, rather than direct disposal of the drug. The investigation of drug precursors, such as ephedrine, showed that their presence was reasonably ascribed to their medical use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.11.051DOI Listing
March 2018

Estimation of caffeine intake from analysis of caffeine metabolites in wastewater.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Dec 8;609:1582-1588. Epub 2017 Aug 8.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Caffeine metabolites in wastewater were investigated as potential biomarkers for assessing caffeine intake in a population. The main human urinary metabolites of caffeine were measured in the urban wastewater of ten European cities and the metabolic profiles in wastewater were compared with the human urinary excretion profile. A good match was found for 1,7-dimethyluric acid, an exclusive caffeine metabolite, suggesting that might be a suitable biomarker in wastewater for assessing population-level caffeine consumption. A correction factor was developed considering the percentage of excretion of this metabolite in humans, according to published pharmacokinetic studies. Daily caffeine intake estimated from wastewater analysis was compared with the average daily intake calculated from the average amount of coffee consumed by country per capita. Good agreement was found in some cities but further information is needed to standardize this approach. Wastewater analysis proved useful to providing additional local information on caffeine use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.258DOI Listing
December 2017

Illicit drug consumption in school populations measured by wastewater analysis.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2017 09 24;178:285-290. Epub 2017 Jun 24.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy.

Background: Analysis of student consumption of illicit drugs (ID) by school population surveys (SPS) provides information useful for prevention, but the results may be influenced by subjective factors. We explored wastewater (WW) analysis to improve the information.

Methods: We used WW analysis to measure ID consumption in eight secondary schools in Italy in 2010-13 (students aged 15-19). Samples were collected from the sewage pipes of the schools during lessons for one week each year. Samples were analysed by mass spectrometry to measure ID and consumption by students was compared to that of the general population.

Results: We found THCCOOH (human metabolite of THC) concentrations in 2010 indicating significant consumption of cannabis in all the schools and benzoylecgonine (human metabolite of cocaine) suggesting a limited consumption of cocaine in all but one school. Morphine was only found in traces, and amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone were not detectable. Repeated analysis showed cannabis stable until 2012 with increases in 2013, low cocaine and morphine levels, and none of the other ID.

Discussion: WW analysis suggested that students used amounts of cannabis comparable to the general population, with low, sporadic use of cocaine and opioids, but excluded the use of significant amounts of amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy, ketamine and mephedrone. WW analysis was useful to confirm SPS figures and provides complementary findings for effective prevention strategies. This is the first time WW analysis has been used to investigate consumption of a large number of ID and new psychoactive substances (NPS) in schools.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.030DOI Listing
September 2017

Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure.

Water Res 2017 09 21;121:270-279. Epub 2017 May 21.

IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Human biomonitoring, i.e. the determination of chemicals and/or their metabolites in human specimens, is the most common and potent tool for assessing human exposure to pesticides, but it suffers from limitations such as high costs and biases in sampling. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an innovative approach based on the chemical analysis of specific human metabolic excretion products (biomarkers) in wastewater, and provides objective and real-time information on xenobiotics directly or indirectly ingested by a population. This study applied the WBE approach for the first time to evaluate human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were highest for organophosphates and lowest for triazines. Different patterns were observed among the cities and for the various classes of pesticides. Population weighted loads of specific biomarkers indicated higher exposure in Castellon, Milan, Copenhagen and Bristol for pyrethroids, and in Castellon, Bristol and Zurich for organophosphates. The lowest mass loads (mg/day/1000 inhabitants) were found in Utrecht and Oslo. These results were in agreement with several national statistics related to pesticides exposure such as pesticides sales. The daily intake of pyrethroids was estimated in each city and it was found to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) only in one city (Castellon, Spain). This was the first large-scale application of WBE to monitor population exposure to pesticides. The results indicated that WBE can give new information about the "average exposure" of the population to pesticides, and is a useful complementary biomonitoring tool to study population-wide exposure to pesticides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.044DOI Listing
September 2017

Monitoring a large number of pesticides and transformation products in water samples from Spain and Italy.

Environ Res 2017 07 14;156:31-38. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

RCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Environmental Biomarkers Unit, Food Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Assessing the presence of pesticides in environmental waters is particularly challenging because of the huge number of substances used which may end up in the environment. Furthermore, the occurrence of pesticide transformation products (TPs) and/or metabolites makes this task even harder. Most studies dealing with the determination of pesticides in water include only a small number of analytes and in many cases no TPs. The present study applied a screening method for the determination of a large number of pesticides and TPs in wastewater (WW) and surface water (SW) from Spain and Italy. Liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used to screen a database of 450 pesticides and TPs. Detection and identification were based on specific criteria, i.e. mass accuracy, fragmentation, and comparison of retention times when reference standards were available, or a retention time prediction model when standards were not available. Seventeen pesticides and TPs from different classes (fungicides, herbicides and insecticides) were found in WW in Italy and Spain, and twelve in SW. Generally, in both countries more compounds were detected in effluent WW than in influent WW, and in SW than WW. This might be due to the analytical sensitivity in the different matrices, but also to the presence of multiple sources of pollution. HRMS proved a good screening tool to determine a large number of substances in water and identify some priority compounds for further quantitative analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.013DOI Listing
July 2017