Publications by authors named "Ethan S Krell"

8 Publications

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The Effect of Sex on Orthopaedic Surgeon Income.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Sep;101(17):e87

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.

Background: Several studies have identified discrepancies in salary between male and female surgeons. Our aim was to investigate the impact of sex on an orthopaedic surgeon's yearly earnings by evaluating stratified income and specialty data from a large sample survey of orthopaedic surgeons.

Methods: Self-reported data were obtained from the 2014 and 2008 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) biennial censuses. Responses were received from 6,805 (24.26%) of those who were surveyed. The census form is a 19-question survey that includes information regarding work status (full time versus part time), sex, years in practice, practice type (private versus academic), specialty, hours worked, case volume, and income. The main outcome evaluated was self-reported income, and a multivariate regression model was used to control for confounding variables.

Results: Male surgeons reported higher incomes than female colleagues working equivalent hours ($802,474 versus $560,618; p = 0.016); however, male surgeons reported a greater case volume for the same number of hours. Among surgeons who performed ≥26 procedures per month, male and female surgeons reported comparable incomes ($949,508 versus $872,903; p = 0.649). Incomes of those in practice for >20 years also were comparable. Regression analysis controlling for subspecialty choice, hours worked, work status, case volume, years in practice, and practice setting revealed that income was $62,032.51 less for women than men (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Income disparity between male and female orthopaedic surgeons remains significant, and the gap increased from 2008 to 2014. Although subspecialty choice, practice setting, years in practice, and amount and distribution of procedures performed can partially explain salary differences, our regression analysis suggests persistence of an income gap based on sex in orthopaedic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.01247DOI Listing
September 2019

How Well Represented Are Women Orthopaedic Surgeons and Residents on Major Orthopaedic Editorial Boards and Publications?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2020 07;478(7):1563-1568

N. D. Rynecki, E. S. Krell, J. S. Potter, A. Ranpura, K. S. Beebe, Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA.

Background: Recent studies indicate that women are substantially underrepresented as orthopaedic surgeons and residents compared with other specialties in medicine and medical school. The reasons for this are multifactorial and not completely understood, but previous studies suggest that women may be attracted to fields in which they have female role models. Given that women interested in academia and research may use female editorship and authorship as a proxy for female representation in orthopaedic surgery, we wanted to examine the proportion of women represented in orthopaedic journals and determine if it reflects the distribution of women in orthopaedic surgery as a field. We further wanted to understand if this representation has changed over time in the setting of a slowly shifting gender landscape within orthopaedic surgery.

Questions/purposes: (1) How are women orthopaedic surgeons and residents represented in orthopaedic journals compared with men? (2) Have these proportions changed in the past two decades in light of relatively new efforts to recruit women to the field of orthopaedic surgery?

Methods: The gender composition of editorial boards and first and last authors were obtained from the 1997, 2007, and 2017 volumes of the following journals: The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (JBJS), the Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (JAAOS), and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® (CORR®). Gender neutral names were searched to obtain a picture to ensure proper tallies.

Results: The total combined amount of women first and last authors increased from 88 of 1450 (6%) in 1997 to 152 of 1912 (8%) in 2007 to 723 of 5391 (13%) in 2017. Similarly, three of 113 (3%) editorial board members were women in 1997, three of 105 (3%) were women in 2007 and 10 of 107 (9%) editors were women in 2017. Of note, 0 out of 9 editors-in-chief were women.

Conclusions: Based on the current percentage of women orthopaedic surgeons and residents, women are represented equally or in greater numbers as editors and authors in JAAOS, JBJS, and CORR. This may be in part due to women orthopaedic surgeons entering academic medicine at a greater rate than males.

Clinical Relevance: Orthopaedic surgeons serving as mentors to prospective female applicants can cite female representation on editorial boards and as authors as an example of gender parity in the field. Additionally, active orthopaedic surgeons who are women interested in these leadership positions should be encouraged that these opportunities exist, regardless of gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310285PMC
July 2020

Effects of local vanadium delivery on diabetic fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2017 10 8;35(10):2174-2180. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey 07101.

This study evaluated the effect of local vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC), an insulin mimetic agent, upon the early and late parameters of fracture healing in rats using a standard femur fracture model. Mechanical testing, and radiographic scoring were performed, as well as histomorphometry, including percent bone, percent cartilage, and osteoclast numbers. Fractures treated with local 1.5 mg/kg VAC possessed significantly increased mechanical properties compared to controls at 6 weeks post-fracture, including increased torque to failure (15%; p = 0.046), shear modulus (89%; p = 0.043), and shear stress (81%; p = 0.009). The radiographic scoring analysis showed increased cortical bridging at 4 weeks and 6 weeks (119%; p = 0.036 and 209%; p = 0.002) in 1.5 mg/kg VAC treated groups. Histomorphometry of the fracture callus at days 10 and 14 showed increased percent cartilage (121%; p = 0.009 and 45%; p = 0.035) and percent mineralized tissue (66%; p = 0.035 and 58%; p = 0.006) with local VAC treated groups compared to control. Additionally, fewer osteoclasts were observed in the local VAC treated animals as compared to controls at day 14 (0.45% ± 0.29% vs. 0.83% ± 0.36% of callus area; p = 0.032). The results suggest local administration of VAC acts to modulate osteoclast activity and increase percentage of early callus cartilage, ultimately enhancing mechanical properties comparably to non-diabetic animals treated with local VAC. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2174-2180, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.23521DOI Listing
October 2017

Local Zinc Chloride Release From a Calcium Sulfate Carrier Enhances Fracture Healing.

J Orthop Trauma 2017 Mar;31(3):168-174

*Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ; †Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ; and ‡Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.

Background: This study examined the efficacy of calcium sulfate (CaSO4) as a carrier for intramedullary delivery of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) to treat fracture healing in a BB Wistar rat model. A non-carrier-mediated injection of 3.0 mg/kg of ZnCl2 has previously been shown to enhance fracture healing.

Methods: A heterogeneous mixture of ZnCl2 and CaSO4 was administered into the intramedullary femoral canal and a mid-diaphyseal femur fracture was created unilaterally. Early and late parameters of fracture healing were assessed using biomechanical testing, radiographic scoring, quantitative histomorphometry (for percentage of new cartilage and bone within the fracture callus), and long-term histologic evaluation.

Results: Fractures treated with 1.0 mg/kg of ZnCl2/CaSO4 demonstrated a significantly higher maximum torque to failure compared with both CaSO4 (P = 0.048) and saline (P = 0.005) controls at 4 weeks postfracture (396.4 versus 251.3 versus 178.7 N mm, respectively). Statistically significant increases in torsional rigidity, effective shear modulus, and effective shear stress were also found, as well as a 3.5 times increase in radiographic score (based on bone union). Histologic examination of the fracture callus indicated enhanced chondrogenesis at day 14 postfracture, with increased percent cartilage for the ZnCl2/CaSO4 group compared with saline (P = 0.0004) and CaSO4 (P = 0.0453) controls. Long-term radiographic and histologic evaluation revealed no abnormal bone formation or infection up to 12 weeks postoperatively.

Conclusions: The effective dose of ZnCl2 augmentation for the enhancement of fracture healing in rats was reduced 3-fold in this study compared with previous findings. Furthermore, CaSO4 acted synergistically with ZnCl2 to increase the mechanical strength and stability at the fracture site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0000000000000748DOI Listing
March 2017

Role of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 on Hindfoot Arthrodesis.

Foot Ankle Clin 2016 Dec;21(4):793-802

Department of Orthopaedics, The Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopaedics at Sinai Hospital, 2401 West Belvedere Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA. Electronic address:

Despite advances in understanding bone healing physiology and surgical techniques, delayed union and nonunion still occur after the treatment of hindfoot arthrodesis. There is increasing appeal of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) owing to the innate osteoinductive abilities of BMPs. Effective treatment with BMPs has been shown in animal studies. Human clinical studies have also shown success. The only study investigating the use of recombinant human BMP (rhBMP)-2 in hindfoot arthrodesis found a significant increase in fusion rate. Treatment cost effective. Complications from their use remain low. rhBMP-2 is a safe and effective bone-healing adjunct in hindfoot arthrodesis surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2016.07.001DOI Listing
December 2016

The Efficacy of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor as a Bone-Stimulating Agent.

Foot Ankle Clin 2016 Dec;21(4):763-770

Division of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Nonunion remains the most impactful complication following ankle and hindfoot arthrodesis. Historically, surgeons have relied on autologous bone graft (ABG) to combat nonunion risk. Although effective, ABG remains limited in quantity, varies in quality, and can be associated with harvest site pain and morbidity. Use of alternative bone-stimulating agents, however, avoids harvesting an autograft, and provides a more predictable dose-response efficacy. This article highlights findings from basic science, animal, and human clinical research that led to the approval of Augment Bone Graft. We present an adaptation of the surgical techniques described for investigators participating in the pivotal trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2016.07.002DOI Listing
December 2016

Orthobiologics in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2016 Feb;24(2):113-22

From Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Department of Orthopedics, Newark, NJ.

Exploration into the molecular aspects of the healing process has led to the development of autologous and recombinant biologic agents. These products, collectively known as orthobiologics, have the potential to optimize favorable outcomes with respect to bone and soft-tissue restoration and to maximize the natural healing response. These orthobiologics include platelet-derived growth factor, bone morphogenetic proteins, and platelet-rich plasma. Although the usefulness of these growth factors is well described in various fields of surgery, few data exist to support or oppose the specific application of growth factors in foot and ankle surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-14-00155DOI Listing
February 2016

Local manganese chloride treatment accelerates fracture healing in a rat model.

J Orthop Res 2015 Jan 17;33(1):122-30. Epub 2014 Sep 17.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers-New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey, 07103.

This study investigated the effects of local delivery of manganese chloride (MnCl2), an insulin-mimetic compound, upon fracture healing using a rat femoral fracture model. Mechanical testing, histomorphometry, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess early and late parameters of fracture healing. At 4 weeks post-fracture, maximum torque to failure was 70% higher (P<0.05) and maximum torsional rigidity increased 133% (P<0.05) in animals treated with 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 compared to saline controls. Histological analysis of the fracture callus revealed percent new mineralized tissue was 17% higher (P<0.05) at day 10. Immunohistochemical analysis of the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group, compared to saline controls, showed a 379% increase in the density of VEGF-C+ cells. In addition, compared to saline controls, the 0.125 mg/kg MnCl2 treated group showed a 233% and 150% increase in blood vessel density in the subperiosteal region at day 10 post-fracture as assessed by detection of PECAM and smooth muscle α actin, respectively. The results suggest that local MnCl2 treatment accelerates fracture healing by increasing mechanical parameters via a potential mechanism of amplified early angiogenesis leading to increased osteogenesis. Therefore, local administration of MnCl2 is a potential therapeutic adjunct for fracture healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22733DOI Listing
January 2015