Publications by authors named "Esther Blanco-Perez"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association between ribs shape and pulmonary function in patients with Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

J Adv Res 2020 Jan 22;21:177-185. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Giaval Research Group, Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ribs shape changes in patients with OI are more relevant for respiratory function than thoracic spine shape. We used 3D geometric morphometrics to quantify rib cage morphology in OI patients and controls, and to investigate its relationship with forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), expressed as absolute value and as percentage of predicted value (% pred). Regression analyses on the full sample showed a significant relation between rib shape and FEV1, FVC and FVC % pred whereas thoracic spine shape was not related to any parameter. Subsequent regression analyses on OI patients confirmed significant relations between dynamic lung volumes and rib shape changes. Lower FVC and FEV1 values are identified in OI patients that present more horizontally aligned ribs, a greater antero-posterior depth due to extreme transverse curve at rib angles and a strong spine invagination, greater asymmetry, and a vertically short, thoraco-lumbar spine, which is relatively straight in at levels 1-8 and shows a marked kyphosis in the thoraco-lumbar transition. Our research seems to support that ribs shape is more relevant for ventilator mechanics in OI patients than the spine shape.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2019.10.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015465PMC
January 2020

3D geometric morphometric analysis of variation in the human lumbar spine.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 11 15;170(3):361-372. Epub 2019 Aug 15.

Paleoanthropology Group, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: The shape of the human lumbar spine is considered to be a consequence of erect posture. In addition, several other factors such as sexual dimorphism and variation in genetic backgrounds also influence lumbar vertebral morphology. Here we use 3D geometric morphometrics (GM) to analyze the 3D morphology of the lumbar spine in different human populations, exploring those potential causes of variation.

Material And Methods: We collected 390 (semi) landmarks from 3D models of the CT scans of lumbar spines of seven males and nine females from a Mediterranean population (Spain, Israel) and seven males and either females from a South African population for geometric morphometric (GM) analysis. We carried out Generalized Procrustes Analysis, Principal Components, and Regression analyses to evaluate shape variation; and complemented these analyses with the Cobb Method.

Results: The Mediterranean sample was considerably more lordotic than the South African sample. In both populations, female lumbar spines showed proportionally narrower and more craniocaudally elongated lumbar segments than in males. In addition, the point of maximum curvature in females tended to be located more inferiorly than in males.

Discussion: Our results show that sexual dimorphism is an important factor of lumbar spine variation that mainly affects features of lumbar spine robustness (height proportions) and the structure-but not the degree-of its curvature. Differences in lordosis, however, are clearer at the inter-population level. This reflects previous conflicting studies casting doubts on pregnancy as an adaptive factor influencing lordosis. Other factors, for example, shape of the individual lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs and their relative proportions within the lumbar spine should be considered when exploring variation in vertebral column morphology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23918DOI Listing
November 2019

The torso integration hypothesis revisited in Homo sapiens: Contributions to the understanding of hominin body shape evolution.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 12 27;167(4):777-790. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Paleoanthropology Group, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: Lower thoracic widths and curvatures track upper pelvic widths and iliac blades curvatures in hominins and other primates (torso integration hypothesis). However, recent studies suggest that sexual dimorphism could challenge this assumption in Homo sapiens. We test the torso integration hypothesis in two modern human populations, both considering and excluding the effect of sexual dimorphism. We further assess covariation patterns between different thoracic and pelvic levels, and we explore the allometric effects on torso shape variation.

Material And Methods: A sex-balanced sample of 50 anatomically connected torsos (25 Mediterraneans, 25 Sub-Saharan Africans) was segmented from computed tomography scans. We compared the maximum medio-lateral width at seventh-ninth rib levels with pelvic bi-iliac breadth in males and females within both populations. We measured 1,030 (semi)landmarks on 3D torso models, and torso shape variation, mean size and shape comparisons, thoraco-pelvic covariation and allometric effects were quantified through 3D geometric morphometrics.

Results: Females show narrow thoraces and wide pelves and males show wide thoraces and narrow pelves, although this trend is more evident in Mediterraneans than in Sub-Saharans. Equal thoracic and pelvic widths, depths and curvatures were found in absence of sexual dimorphism. The highest strength of covariation was found between the lowest rib levels and the ilia, and allometric analyses showed that smaller torsos were wider than larger torsos.

Conclusions: This is the first study testing statistically the torso integration hypothesis in anatomically connected torsos. We propose a new and more complex torso integration model in H. sapiens with sexual dimorphism leading to different thoracic and pelvic widths and curvatures. These findings have important implications in hominin body shape reconstructions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23705DOI Listing
December 2018

Atlases with Arcuate Foramen Present Cortical Bone Thickening That May Contribute to Lower Fracture Risk.

World Neurosurg 2018 Sep 5;117:e162-e166. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Orthopedic Surgery Service, USC University Hospital Complex, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Background: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen has been reported. As a result, we aimed to test in an experimental model if there is a cortical bone thickening in an atlas vertebra which has an arcuate foramen that may play a protective role against bone fracture.

Methods: We analyzed by means of micro-computed tomography the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry atlas vertebrae with arcuate foramen and without arcuate foramen. We also reviewed a case series of 31 posterior atlas arch fractures to correlate the possible presence in the same atlas of both fracture and arcuate foramen.

Results: The micro-computed tomography study revealed significant differences in cortical bone thickness (P < 0.001), cortical volume (P < 0.004), and medullary volume (P = 0.013) values between the arcuate foramen vertebrae and the nonarcuate foramen vertebrae. The clinical series found no coexistence in the same vertebra of a posterior atlas arch fractures and the arcuate foramen.

Conclusions: An atlas with arcuate foramen presents cortical bone thickening. This advantage in bone microarchitecture seems to contribute to a lower fracture risk compared to subjects without arcuate foramen as no coexistence in the same vertebra of a posterior atlas arch fractures and arcuate foramen was found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.05.220DOI Listing
September 2018

Can the transverse foramen/vertebral artery ratio of double transverse foramen subjects be a risk for vertebrobasilar transient ischemic attacks?

J Anat 2018 Jun 7. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Radiology, ERESA CT and MRI Unit, Valencia, Spain.

The C6 is the cervical vertebra into which the vertebral artery enters the passage of the transverse foramen and it is the vertebra most affected by double transverse foramina. There is currently little information about the relation between the vertebral artery and the double transverse foramen in C6. We aimed to test whether subjects with a double transverse foramen in C6 have a reduced transverse foramen/vertebral artery ratio when compared with normal anatomy subjects who possess a single transverse foramen which may be a risk for transient vertebral artery stenosis. We measured the area of the transverse foramen and the vertebral artery in 27 double transverse and 56 normal anatomy subjects using computed tomography angiography. We found significant differences in the area of the transverse foramen between double transverse and normal subjects (P < 0.001) but not between the vertebral artery area of double transverse and normal subjects (P = 0.829). The subjects with double transverse foramina have a reduced transverse foramen/vertebral artery ratio, which may be a possible risk for transient vertebral artery stenosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081508PMC
June 2018

Unexpected Persistent Dentocentral Synchondrosis of C2.

World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 15;111:26-27. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: The persistence of synchondrosis in adulthood can confound diagnostic decisions made during patient management.

Case Description: A 59-year-old woman who presented neck pain, acute headache, and acute cervical myelopathy symptoms after suffering whiplash grade 3 in a car rear-end impact underwent a conventional radiologic study that revealed no fracture and no anatomic spine variations. The magnetic resonance imaging study revealed no spinal cord intensity signal changes, but it showed a persistent (remnant) dentocentral synchondrosis that was undetected in a previous conventional radiographic evaluation.

Conclusions: The localization and level of the remnant of the dentocentral synchondrosis are extremely important from the clinical viewpoint because of odontoid and C2 fractures. Neurosurgeons should thus be aware of the possible presence of a persistent (remnant) C2 dentocentral synchondrosis in adult subjects in order to avoid misdiagnosis with C2 fracture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.12.017DOI Listing
March 2018

Retrotransverse foramen of the atlas: prevalence and bony variations.

Eur Spine J 2018 06 7;27(6):1272-1277. Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of the retrotransverse foramen (RTF) and its bony variations.

Methods: One hundred ten atlases of living adult subjects, 161 twentieth century dry adult cervical atlases and four dry adult cervical atlases from medieval skeletons were studied to detect the RTF and its abnormal bony variations. The 110 living adult subjects underwent a computed tomography study to detect the RTF.

Results: In the in vivo sample (n = 110; 100%), the RTF was found in four (3.6%) atlases. It was bilateral in all cases, but three (2.7%) patients showed complete RTF and the other patient presented a complete RTF in the left transverse process and an unclosed RTF in the right transverse process. In addition, the RTF was observed in combination with an unclosed transverse foramen in two cases (1.8%). In the twentieth century skeletal sample (n = 206; 100%) the RTF was found in 15 (7.3%) C1 vertebrae. It was bilateral in three (1.5%) vertebrae and unilateral in another 12 (5.8%) vertebrae. In the medieval skeletal sample (n = 4; 100%) one cadaveric atlas (25%) presented a bilateral RTF with special bony characteristics which presented an unexpected spicula in the left RTF.

Conclusions: The RTF is a nonmetric variant of the atlas vertebra that can present non-degenerative and non-traumatic spiculae or it can be unclosed. In addition, it can be associated with the presence of unclosed transverse foramina.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5372-4DOI Listing
June 2018

Analysis of the relationship between the double transverse foramen and the possibility of developing clinical symptoms after whiplash.

Clin Anat 2017 Sep 6;30(6):761-766. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

University San Vicente Martir, C/Espartero 7. Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Currently, there is no information about the possibility of developing clinical symptoms after whiplash in double transverse foramen subjects. Our aim was to test whether subjects with double transverse foramen have an increased risk of presenting with an acute headache, dizziness, vertebral artery dissection, and vomiting after whiplash.We recorded the absence/presence of double transverse foramen, and the absence/presence of neck pain, acute headache, dizziness, vertebral artery dissection, and vomiting in 85 patients who had suffered whiplash injuries in car rear-end impacts in road traffic accidents. We used the odds ratio test to determine whether double transverse foramen subjects are at a higher risk of developing an acute headache, dizziness, and vomiting than non-double transverse foramen subjects.Although double transverse foramen subjects presented with more clinical symptoms after whiplash, the odds ratio test revealed that their risks of developing acute headache (P = 0.30), dizziness (P = 0.09), or vomiting (P = 0.18) were not significantly greater than in the control group.Double transverse foramen subjects are not at a higher risk of presenting acute headache, dizziness, vertebral artery dissection, and vomiting after whiplash. Clin. Anat. 30:761-766, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.22897DOI Listing
September 2017

Acute headache attributed to whiplash in arcuate foramen and non-arcuate foramen subjects.

Eur Spine J 2017 04 7;26(4):1262-1265. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: To test the association between arcuate foramen (AF) in the first cervical vertebra with acute headache attributed to whiplash.

Methods: Retrospective study of 128 patients that suffered a whiplash. The presence or absence of AF was recorded after a radiographic study, as well as the presence or absence of acute headache after the whiplash.

Results: The frequency of AF was 17.2%. Patients with bilateral AF presented a significant (p = 0.000, Fisher's test) increase in the frequency of acute headache (90.9%) in comparison with the non-AF group (5.7%). The ratio between the presence and absence of acute headache was 166.6 times higher (IC 95% 18.2-1526.22) in subjects with bilateral AF in comparison with non-AF subjects.

Conclusions: The presence of bilateral AF is associated to an increased frequency of acute headache after suffering a whiplash, information of interest for the attention to these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-016-4856-yDOI Listing
April 2017

Cortical bone thickening in Type A posterior atlas arch defects: experimental report.

Spine J 2017 03 18;17(3):431-434. Epub 2016 Oct 18.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital de La Ribera, Carretera Corbera km 1, Alzira, Valencia E46600, Spain.

Background Context: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with posterior arch defects has been reported.

Purpose: To test if there is an increased cortical bone thickening in atlases with Type A posterior atlas arch defects in an experimental model.

Study Design: Micro-computed tomography (CT) study on cadaveric atlas vertebrae.

Methods: We analyzed the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry vertebrae with a Type A atlas arch defect and normal control vertebrae.

Results: The micro-CT study revealed significant differences in cortical bone thickness (p=.005), cortical volume (p=.003), and medullary volume (p=.009) values between the normal and the Type A vertebrae.

Conclusions: Type A congenital atlas arch defects present a cortical bone thickening that may play a protective role against atlas fractures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2016.10.012DOI Listing
March 2017

Anatomic variation of the vertebral artery.

Spine J 2016 Nov 4;16(11):e737. Epub 2016 Apr 4.

CT and MRI Unit, ERESA, Department of Radiology, General University Hospital, Avda. Tres Cruces 2, E46014, Valencia, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2016.03.054DOI Listing
November 2016

Congenital cervical vertebrae clefts in Klippel-Feil syndrome.

Spine J 2015 Jun 25;15(6):1490-1. Epub 2015 Feb 25.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology. Faculty of Medicine. University of Valencia. Avda. Blasco Ibanez 15, E46010. Valencia, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2015.02.028DOI Listing
June 2015

Congenital absence of the posterior right hemiarch.

Spine J 2015 Jan 28;15(1):207. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, University of Valencia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 15, E-46010, Valencia, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2014.09.009DOI Listing
January 2015

Congenital failure of midline fusion of the posterior atlas arch with an associated unilateral cleft.

Spine J 2015 Jan 6;15(1):198-9. Epub 2014 Sep 6.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2014.08.450DOI Listing
January 2015

Atlantoaxial subluxation and congenital atlas arch defect.

Spine J 2014 Dec 30;14(12):3049. Epub 2014 Jul 30.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, University of Valencia, Faculty of Medicine, Av. Blasco Ibanez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2014.07.011DOI Listing
December 2014

Difficulties in distinguishing between an atlas fracture and a congenital posterior atlas arch defect in postmortem analysis.

Forensic Sci Int 2014 Sep 26;242:e1-e5. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

CT and MRI Unit, ERESA, Department of Radiology, General University Hospital, Valencia, Spain.

We found one atlas from a sample of 148 skeletons (0.67%) that presented different anatomical variations which made it difficult to determine whether the vertebra had an atlas fracture, an unusual Type B posterior atlas arch defect, or a combination of both. We carried out a stereomicroscopy, radiographic, and computerized tomography scan study that revealed that the dry atlas we found presented a very uncommon congenital Type B posterior atlas arch defect, simulating a fracture. In short, the present paper has revealed that differentiating Type B posterior atlas arch defects from fractures in post-mortem dry vertebrae is more difficult than expected. Thus we believe that it can be easier than expected to mistake Type B posterior arch defects for fractures and vice versa in postmortem studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.06.016DOI Listing
September 2014