Publications by authors named "Essa A Mohamed"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The importance of computed tomography (CT) scans in the early diagnosis of Gorham-Stout Disease - A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Mar 11;17(3):492-495. Epub 2021 Dec 11.

Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Gorham Stout disease (GSD) or vanishing bone disease is an infrequent entity in clinical practice characterized by gross and progressive bone loss along with excessive growth of vascular and lymphatic tissue. Very little is known about the pathogenesis of GSD, which makes the diagnosis challenging. Due to the rarity of the disease, no treatment guidelines have been created yet. We report a case of GSD in a 53-year-old male patient. He presented with bone pain and initial imaging showed widespread osteolytic lesions in the cervical and mid thoracic spine, ribs, sternum, clavicles, scapula and humerus. Two percutaneous bone biopsies were performed, followed by an open spine biopsy of the L2 spinous processes for histological examination. Unfortunately, no diagnosis was established. Although, he was treated symptomatically, he kept enduring pain and presented again after seven months. His laboratory values were out of the normal range which prompted thorough investigations. New imaging and bone biopsy revealed multiple osteolytic lesions and vascular lesions with cavernous morphology. GSD was diagnosed after ruling out a neoplastic process and confirming the cavernous morphology with immunohistochemical stain. He was treated symptomatically with immunomodulators, bisphosphonates and supplements. Regular follow-up with a specialist was recommended. We hope this case will raise awareness of GSD in common clinical practice and shed some insight on its clinical presentation and the role CT and other imaging modalities play in the diagnosis of GSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2021.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8671801PMC
March 2022

Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Cardiovascular Mortality in US Adults: A NHANES 2005-2008 Follow-Up Study.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 6;13:1049-1059. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 55902, USA.

Purpose: Excessive daytime sleepiness is highly prevalent and has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, but evidence for its association with cardiovascular mortality is limited and inconsistent. We aimed to determine whether excessive daytime sleepiness is independently associated with cardiovascular mortality in general adult population.

Patients And Methods: A prospective study of 10,330 adult participants (aged ≥20 years) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 was followed up until December 31st, 2015. Excessive daytime sleepiness was defined as the self-reported feeling of being overly sleepy often or always during the day. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated to assess risk for cardiovascular mortality.

Results: A total of 10,330 participants with mean age of 47.3 years (95% CI, 46.0 to 48.1) were included in this analysis. Approximately, 18.5% of US adults reported excessive daytime sleepiness. Over a mean follow-up of 8.3 years, 262 cardiovascular deaths occurred. Participants with excessive daytime sleepiness had 2.85-times greater risk (95% CI, 1.33-6.09) of cardiovascular death than those without daytime sleepiness in multivariable analysis corrected for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors including depression. Further adjustment for self-reported sleep disorders and sleep duration only slightly attenuated this association (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.23-5.27). No interactions between excessive daytime sleepiness and age, sex or cardiovascular disease at study entry were observed (all >0.05).

Conclusion: Excessive daytime sleepiness is highly prevalent among US adults and is independently associated with an approximately two-and-a-half-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in a large national sample. Screening for excessive daytime sleepiness may be a simple and cost-effective tool for identifying individuals at high risk of cardiovascular death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S319675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273750PMC
July 2021

Evaluation of Optimal Diastolic Blood Pressure Range Among Adults With Treated Systolic Blood Pressure Less Than 130 mm Hg.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e2037554. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Cardiology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Importance: Extremely low diastolic blood pressure has been reported to be associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events (ie, the diastolic J-shape phenomenon); however, current US guidelines recommend an intensive blood pressure target of less than 130/80 mm Hg without mentioning the lower limits of diastolic blood pressure.

Objectives: To evaluate whether there is a diastolic J-shape phenomenon for patients with an treated systolic blood pressure of less than 130 mm Hg and to explore the safe and optimal diastolic blood pressure ranges for this patient population.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study analyzed outcome data of patients at high cardiovascular risk who were randomized to intensive or standard blood pressure control and achieved treated systolic blood pressure of less than 130 mm Hg in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes-Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) trial. Data were collected from October 2010 to August 2015 (SPRINT) and from September 1999 to June 2009 (ACCORD-BP). Data were analyzed from January to May 2020.

Exposure: Treated diastolic blood pressure, divided in intervals of less than 60, 60 to less than 70, 70 to less than 80, and 80 mm Hg and greater.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. A composite cardiovascular outcome, including cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke, was among the key secondary outcomes.

Results: A total of 7515 patients (mean [SD] age, 65.6 [8.7] years; 4553 [60.6%] men) were included in this analysis. The nominally lowest risk was observed at a diastolic blood pressure between 70 and 80 mm Hg for the primary outcome, the composite cardiovascular outcome, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. A mean diastolic blood pressure of less than 60 mm Hg was associated with significantly increased risk of the primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90; P = .004), the composite cardiovascular outcome (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.26-2.41; P = .001), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.15-2.59; P = .008), and nonfatal stroke (HR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.26-5.63; P = .01).

Conclusions And Relevance: This cohort study found that lowering diastolic blood pressure to less than 60 mm Hg was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in patients with high cardiovascular risk and an treated systolic blood pressure less than 130 mm Hg. The finding that a diastolic blood pressure value between 70 and 80 mm Hg was an optimum target for this patient population merits further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.37554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890449PMC
February 2021

Yoga for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Complement Ther Med 2021 Mar 15;57:102643. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Cardiology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100700, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Yoga has been widely practiced and has recently shown benefits in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), however, evidence is inconsistent.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis by searching PubMed/Medline, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EMBASE and Web of Science from inception to May 31, 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing yoga with usual care or non-pharmacological interventions in patients with CHD. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and health related quality of life (HR-QoL). Secondary outcomes were a composite cardiovascular outcome, exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, lipid profiles and body mass index).

Results: Seven RCTs with a total of 4671 participants were included. Six RCTs compared yoga with usual care and one compared yoga with designed exercise. The mean age of the participants ranged from 51.0-60.7 years and the majority of them were men (85.4 %). Pooled results showed that compared with usual care, yoga had no effect on all-cause mortality (RR, 1.02; 95 % CI, 0.75-1.39), but it significantly improved HR-QoL (SMD, 0.07; 95 % CI, 0.01 - 0.14). A non-significant reduction of the composite cardiovascular outcome was observed (133 vs. 154; RR, 0.63; 95 % CI, 0.15-2.59). Serum level of triglyceride and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and body mass index were also significantly improved. The study comparing yoga with control exercise also reported significantly better effects of yoga on HR-QoL (85.75 vs. 75.24, P < 0.001). No severe adverse events related to yoga were reported.

Conclusions: Yoga might be a promising alternative for patients with CHD as it is associated with improved quality of life, less number of composite cardiovascular events, and improved cardiovascular risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102643DOI Listing
March 2021

Characteristics of Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection With Genotype E Predominance in Burkina Faso.

Hepatol Commun 2020 Dec 15;4(12):1781-1792. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Mayo Clinic Rochester MN.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype E (HBV-E) accounts for the majority of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infections in West Africa. We aimed to determine factors associated with HBV-E-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in West Africa. Data on patients from Burkina Faso who were hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg+) and had CHB were analyzed. HBV viral load and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status were measured in 3,885 individuals with CHB without HCC (CHB HCC-) and 59 individuals with CHB with HCC (CHB HCC+). HBV genotyping was performed for 364 subjects with CHB HCC- and 41 subjects with CHB HCC+. Overall, 2.5% of the CHB HCC- group was HBeAg+ compared with 0% of the CHB HCC+ group. Of the 364 patients who were CHB HCC- with available genotyping, the frequencies of HBV genotypes E and C/E were 70.3% and 12.9%, respectively. Age (odds ratio [OR] for older age, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.10 per 1-year increase in age), male sex (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.69), and HBV viremia (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67 per 1 log10 IU/mL) were each associated with HCC diagnosis. Patients with genotype E had a lower HBeAg prevalence (6.3% vs. 14.9%), lower HBV viral load, and higher prevalence of cirrhosis (14.5% vs. 4.8%) than patients with genotype C/E. HBV-E is the most common circulating strain (70.3%) in West African patients. HCC was associated with older age, male sex, and high HBV viral load. It is expected that these results will further inform guidance on clinical management of HBV infection in West Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706297PMC
December 2020

Feasibility of Use of a Smart Speaker to Administer Snellen Visual Acuity Examinations in a Clinical Setting.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 08 3;3(8):e2013908. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.13908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439105PMC
August 2020

Frequency of sleep-disordered breathing in a referral population of Somali-Americans.

J Clin Sleep Med 2020 08;16(8):1343-1347

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Study Objectives: To study the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in individuals of Somali ancestry referred to a clinical sleep laboratory.

Methods: This was a retrospective study using a large registry of patients who underwent diagnostic polysomnography between 17 November 2009 and 15 April 2017. Adult patients self-reporting as being of Somali origin were confirmed using the electronic medical record.

Results: Somali-American patients comprised approximately 0.2% of all patients undergoing polysomnography at the Mayo Clinic Center for Sleep Medicine. The median (interquartile range) age was 52.6 (35, 64) years with 66% males and a median (interquartile range) body mass index of 31.2 (27, 34) kg/m². OSA was diagnosed in 77% of patients, with approximately 50% having moderate to severe OSA. OSA was more frequent in older patients and similar between men and women, and only age predicted an OSA diagnosis while sex and body mass index did not. All patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (n = 7) and all but one of the hypertensive patients (n = 11) had significant OSA.

Conclusions: Less than 0.2% of all patients undergoing polysomnography at Mayo Clinic were of Somali origin. Moderate-to-severe OSA was frequent in this select sample of individuals who underwent polysomnography. Hypertension and diabetes were present in most Somali-Americans with OSA. Given the rising prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in Somali-Americans, and the likely high prevalence of undiagnosed OSA, screening Somali-Americans for sleep disorders may contribute importantly to prevention, early detection, and reduction of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.8544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446069PMC
August 2020

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Viral Hepatitis Among Recent African Immigrants in the United States: A Community Based Participatory Research Qualitative Study.

Front Public Health 2020 6;8:25. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

In the United States, hepatocellular carcinoma is the ninth leading cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma disproportionately affects individuals of African ancestry with the rates being higher amongst individuals of foreign-born African ancestry. This study explored knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward viral hepatitis transmission, screening, and vaccination among recent African immigrants in Minnesota and identify ways to improve early detection and screening methods. A community based participatory research (CBPR) team with minority researchers and community members sought to gain insight on persons of African Ancestry knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to viral hepatitis by conducting a qualitative research study. The CBPR team developed a focus group moderator's guide with semi-structured questions related to transmission, screening, and vaccination of viral hepatitis. We conducted seven focus groups using bilingual, bicultural moderators with participants from local Ethiopian, Liberian and Kenyan communities from August 10th, 2014 to October 11th, 2014. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. The CBPR team categorized the data into themes and subthemes with consensus using traditional content analysis. Community partners recruited 63 participants with a majority identifying as male (51%). Participants lacked knowledge of viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment. Participants were aware of some behaviors that increased risk of acquisition of hepatitis. Participants endorsed a strategy of developing and delivering educational materials for African immigrants. Moreover, access to care and cultural awareness were mentioned as pivotal for prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis. Findings from this pilot study provide insight on areas of research focus. Having a research team consisting of members from the community helped to increase trust and foster an understanding of shared community values. Information from this study provides evidence to support the development culturally appropriate strategies to address disparities in viral hepatitis in these communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067746PMC
May 2021

Barriers in Hepatitis C Treatment in Somali Patients in the Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy Era.

J Natl Med Assoc 2018 Dec 10;110(6):556-559. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background And Aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment has changed dramatically in the last few years. Our observations suggest that a minority of HCV infected Somalis are treated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate for treatment and health outcome disparities between Somali and non-Somali patients during the direct acting antiviral (DAA) era.

Methods: Patients with HCV seen in the gastroenterology clinic in 2015 were included in the study. Patients were identified using ICD9 and 10 codes. Electronic medical records were analyzed to evaluate for treatment candidacy, acceptance and reasons for refusal of treatment.

Results: Genotype 4 followed by 3 were the most common genotypes in the Somalis while genotype 1 was the most common in the non-Somalis. Majority of patients were offered treatment, active alcohol and substance abuse was a common reason for not offering treatment in non-Somalis while the presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was the most common reason in Somalis. Somalis had higher rates of declining treatment given the asymptomatic nature of their disease and the feeling that treatment is not needed. Sustained virologic response rates were comparable in both groups.

Conclusions: Disparities in acceptance of HCV treatment persist in the DAA era. The asymptomatic nature of the infection and potential cultural mistrust makes patients hesitant to undergo treatment. Healthcare providers must find interventions aimed at reducing barriers to treatment and increasing acceptance of HCV treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnma.2018.02.002DOI Listing
December 2018

Model combining pre-transplant tumor biomarkers and tumor size shows more utility in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence and survival than the BALAD models.

World J Gastroenterol 2018 Mar;24(12):1321-1331

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.

Aim: To assess the performance of BALAD, BALAD-2 and their component biomarkers in predicting outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after liver transplant.

Methods: BALAD score and BALAD-2 class are derived from bilirubin, albumin, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP). Pre-transplant AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP were measured in 113 patients transplanted for HCC from 2000 to 2008. Hazard ratios (HR) for recurrence and death were calculated. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were conducted. C-statistics were used to compare biomarker-based to predictive models.

Results: During a median follow-up of 12.2 years, 38 patients recurred and 87 died. The HRs for recurrence in patients with elevated AFP, AFP-L3, and DCP defined by BALAD cut-off values were 2.42 (1.18-5.00), 1.86 (0.98-3.52), and 2.83 (1.42-5.61), respectively. For BALAD, the HRs for recurrence and death per unit increased score were 1.48 (1.15-1.91) and 1.59 (1.28-1.97). For BALAD-2, the HRs for recurrence and death per unit increased class were 1.45 (1.06-1.98) and 1.38 (1.09-1.76). For recurrence prediction, the combination of three biomarkers had the highest c-statistic of 0.66 vs. 0.64, 0.61, 0.53, and 0.53 for BALAD, BALAD-2, Milan, and UCSF, respectively. Similarly, for death prediction, the combination of three biomarkers had the highest c-statistic of 0.66 0.65, 0.61, 0.52, and 0.50 for BALAD, BALAD-2, Milan, and UCSF. A new model combining biomarkers with tumor size at the time of transplant (S-LAD) demonstrated the highest predictive capability with c-statistics of 0.71 and 0.69 for recurrence and death.

Conclusion: BALAD and BALAD-2 are valid in transplant HCC patients, but less predictive than the three biomarkers in combination or the three biomarkers in combination with maximal tumor diameter (S-LAD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v24.i12.1321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871827PMC
March 2018

Characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Africa: a multicountry observational study from the Africa Liver Cancer Consortium.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 02 3;2(2):103-111. Epub 2016 Dec 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer-related death in Africa, but there is still no comprehensive description of the current status of its epidemiology in Africa. We therefore initiated an African hepatocellular carcinoma consortium aiming to describe the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Africa.

Methods: We did a multicentre, multicountry, retrospective observational cohort study, inviting investigators from the African Network for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases to participate in the consortium to develop hepatocellular carcinoma research databases and biospecimen repositories. Participating institutions were from Cameroon, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. Clinical information-demographic characteristics, cause of disease, liver-related blood tests, tumour characteristics, treatments, last follow-up date, and survival status-for patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between Aug 1, 2006, and April 1, 2016, were extracted from medical records by participating investigators. Because patients from Egypt showed differences in characteristics compared with patients from the other countries, we divided patients into two groups for analysis; Egypt versus other African countries. We undertook a multifactorial analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model to identify factors affecting survival (assessed from the time of diagnosis to last known follow-up or death).

Findings: We obtained information for 2566 patients at 21 tertiary referral centres (two in Egypt, nine in Nigeria, four in Ghana, and one each in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Uganda). 1251 patients were from Egypt and 1315 were from the other African countries (491 from Ghana, 363 from Nigeria, 277 from Ivory Coast, 59 from Cameroon, 51 from Sudan, 33 from Ethiopia, 21 from Tanzania, and 20 from Uganda). The median age at which hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed significantly later in Egypt than the other African countries (58 years [IQR 53-63] vs 46 years [36-58]; p<0·0001). Hepatitis C virus was the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt (1054 [84%] of 1251 patients), and hepatitis B virus was the leading cause in the other African countries (597 [55%] of 1082 patients). Substantially fewer patients received treatment specifically for hepatocellular carcinoma in the other African countries than in Egypt (43 [3%] of 1315 vs 956 [76%] of 1251; p<0·0001). Among patients with survival information (605 [48%] of 1251 in Egypt and 583 [44%] of 1315 in other African countries), median survival was shorter in the other African countries than in Egypt (2·5 months [95% CI 2·0-3·1] vs 10·9 months [9·6-12·0]; p<0·0001). Factors independently associated with poor survival were: being from an African countries other than Egypt (hazard ratio [HR] 1·59 [95% CI 1·13-2·20]; p=0·01), hepatic encephalopathy (2·81 [1·72-4·42]; p=0·0004), diameter of the largest tumour (1·07 per cm increase [1·04-1·11]; p<0·0001), log α-fetoprotein (1·10 per unit increase [1·02-1·20]; p=0·0188), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3-4 (2·92 [2·13-3·93]; p<0·0001) and no treatment (1·79 [1·44-2·22]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma differ between Egypt and other African countries. The proportion of patients receiving specific treatment in other African countries was low and their outcomes were extremely poor. Urgent efforts are needed to develop health policy strategies to decrease the burden of hepatocellular carcinoma in Africa.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30161-3DOI Listing
February 2017

Non-pharmacological treatment of depression: a systematic review and evidence map.

Evid Based Med 2016 Dec 11;21(6):214-221. Epub 2016 Nov 11.

Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: The comparative effectiveness of non-pharmacological treatments of depression remains unclear.

Methods: We conducted an overview of systematic reviews to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy and adverse effects of non-pharmacological treatments of depression. We searched multiple electronic databases through February 2016 without language restrictions. Pairs of reviewers determined eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Meta-analyses were conducted when appropriate.

Result: We included 367 RCTs enrolling ∼20 000 patients treated with 11 treatments leading to 17 unique head-to-head comparisons. Cognitive behavioural therapy, naturopathic therapy, biological interventions and physical activity interventions reduced depression severity as measured using standardised scales. However, the relative efficacy among these non-pharmacological interventions was lacking. The effect of these interventions on clinical response and remission was unclear. Adverse events were lower than antidepressants.

Limitation: The quality of evidence was low to moderate due to inconsistency and unclear or high risk of bias, limiting our confidence in findings.

Conclusions: Non-pharmacological therapies of depression reduce depression symptoms and should be considered along with antidepressant therapy for the treatment of mild-to-severe depression. A shared decision-making approach is needed to choose between non-pharmacological therapies based on values, preferences, clinical and social context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmed-2016-110522DOI Listing
December 2016

Biliary tract cancers: epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis and genetic risk associations.

Chin Clin Oncol 2016 Oct;5(5):61

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are malignancies that arise from the epithelium of the biliary system and comprise the second most common type of hepatobiliary cancer worldwide. BTC are sub-classified as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA), perhilar/hilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA), distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA), and gallbladder carcinoma. Due to the differences in their etiologic risk factors, pathogenesis, and molecular and genetic characteristics, each of these subtypes is considered a separate biological entity. The geographic diversity of risk factors for the subtypes of biliary cancers results in profound differences in the worldwide incidence of each. In this article we provide a review of the current epidemiology of BTC and their associated risk factors. Further, we discuss the available evidence for genetic predisposition to BTC and anticipate the results of planned large-scale, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) exploring the inherited sequence variants conferring risk of BTC. These studies may also potentially of reveal important pathogenic mechanisms of the biliary tract cancer subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cco.2016.10.09DOI Listing
October 2016

Antitumor effect of FGFR inhibitors on a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft mouse model endogenously expressing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein.

Cancer Lett 2016 09 20;380(1):163-73. Epub 2016 May 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal cancer with limited therapeutic options. Recent genomic analysis of cholangiocarcinoma has revealed the presence of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusion proteins in up to 13% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). FGFR fusions have been identified as a novel oncogenic and druggable target in a number of cancers. In this study, we established a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model bearing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein from a metastatic lung nodule of an iCCA patient. Using this PDX model, we confirmed the ability of the FGFR inhibitors, ponatinib, dovitinib and BGJ398, to modulate FGFR signaling, inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma tumors harboring FGFR2 fusions. In addition, BGJ398 appeared to be superior in potency to ponatinib and dovitinib in this model. Our findings provide a strong rationale for the investigation of FGFR inhibitors, particularly BGJ398, as a therapeutic option for cholangiocarcinoma patients harboring FGFR2 fusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2016.05.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5119950PMC
September 2016

Sex hormone therapy and progression of cardiovascular disease in menopausal women.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2016 07;130(13):1065-74

Department of Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, U.S.A. Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, U.S.A.

One of the most controversial health decisions facing women is deciding upon the use of hormonal treatments for symptoms of menopause. This brief review focuses on the historical context of use of menopausal hormone treatments (MHT), summarizes results of major observational, primary and secondary prevention studies of MHT and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, provides evidence for how sex steroids modulate CV function and identifies challenges for future research. As medicine enters an era of personalization of treatment options, additional research into sex differences in the aetiology of CV diseases will lead to better risk identification for CV disease in women and identify whether a woman might receive CV benefit from specific formulations and doses of MHT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20160042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5316470PMC
July 2016

Black Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Diabetes: A Church-Affiliated Barbershop Focus Group Study.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2015 Dec 13;2(4):465-72. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

Arizona State University, Hugh Downs School of Communication, Southwest Interdisciplinary Research Center, Arizona State University, 411 North Central Avenue, Suite 720, 1151 S. Forest Ave., Mail Code: 43201205, Phoenix, Tempe Arizona, USA.

Background: Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities. These disparities persist despite educational efforts to reduce the prevalence of diabetes. Receptiveness of educational efforts for Black men needs to be studied.

Objective: This study assesses Black men's receptiveness to a barbershop-based program focused on diabetes prevention and awareness in a church-affiliated barbershop in Rochester, Minnesota.

Methods: The pastor and barber of a church-affiliated barbershop and academic medical researchers designed a community-engaged research study to determine Black men's perception of diabetes. Recruitment for the 90-minute focus group included flyers (n=60), email, and in-person. Units of analysis included focus-group audio recording, transcripts, and field notes. Using traditional content analysis, we categorized data into themes and sub-themes.

Results: Thirteen Black men participated (Group 1, n=6; Group 2, n=7) having a mean age of 40.3 years (range 19 to 65), and employed full-time (77%). Themes included diabetes prevention, treatment, prevalence, risks, and health education. Participants identified diet and exercise as essential components of diabetes prevention. Additionally, participants mentioned that family history contributes to diabetes. Participants agreed that barbershops are an appropriate setting for data collection and health education on diabetes for Black men.

Discussion/conclusion: Findings indicate that Black men are generally aware of diabetes. The community-engaged research process allowed for development of a culturally appropriate research study on diabetes. This study is the foundation for developing a culturally appropriate health education program on diabetes for Black men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-015-0094-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4651172PMC
December 2015

Antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B viral infection in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hepatology 2016 Jan 13;63(1):284-306. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Evidence-Based Practice Research Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Unlabelled: Chronic hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection remains a significant global health problem. Evidence-based guidelines are needed to help providers determine when treatment should be initiated, which medication is most appropriate, and when treatment can safely be stopped. The American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases HBV guideline methodology and writing committees developed a protocol a priori for this systematic review. We searched multiple databases for randomized controlled trials and controlled observational studies that enrolled adults ≥18 years old diagnosed with chronic HBV infection who received antiviral therapy. Data extraction was done by pairs of independent reviewers. We included 73 studies, of which 59 (15 randomized controlled trials and 44 observational studies) reported clinical outcomes. Moderate-quality evidence supported the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in patients with immune active chronic HBV infection in reducing the risk of cirrhosis, decompensated liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In immune tolerant patients, moderate-quality evidence supports improved intermediate outcomes with antiviral therapy. Only very low-quality evidence informed the questions about discontinuing versus continuing antiviral therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients who seroconverted from hepatitis B e antigen to hepatitis B e antibody and about the safety of entecavir versus tenofovir. Noncomparative and indirect evidence was available for questions about stopping versus continuing antiviral therapy in hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients, monotherapy versus adding a second agent in patients with persistent viremia during treatment, and the effectiveness of antivirals in compensated cirrhosis with low-level viremia.

Conclusion: Most of the current literature focuses on the immune active phases of chronic HBV infection; decision-making in other commonly encountered and challenging clinical settings depends on indirect evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.28280DOI Listing
January 2016

Combinations of biomarkers and Milan criteria for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence after liver transplantation.

Liver Transpl 2015 May;21(5):599-606

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Rochester, MN; Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand.

Growing evidence suggests that pretransplant alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) predicts outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with liver transplantation. We aimed to determine whether pretransplant AFP, Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3), and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) predicted HCC recurrence after transplantation. A retrospective cohort study of 313 HCC patients undergoing transplantation between 2000 and 2008 was conducted, and 48 (15.3%) developed recurrence during a median follow-up of 90.8 months. The 127 patients with available serum drawn before transplantation were included; they included 86 without recurrence and 41 with recurrence. Serum was tested for AFP, AFP-L3%, and DCP in a blinded fashion with the μTASWako i30 immunoanalyzer. All biomarkers were significantly associated with HCC recurrence. The hazard ratios (HRs) were 3.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.9-6.7; P < 0.0001] for DCP ≥ 7.5 ng/mL and 2.8 (95% CI, 1.4-5.4; P = 0.002) for AFP ≥ 250 ng/mL. The HR increased to 5.2 (95% CI, 2.3-12.0; P < 0.0001) when AFP ≥ 250 ng/mL and DCP ≥7.5 ng/mL were considered together. When they were combined with the Milan criteria, the HR increased from 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-4.7; P = 0.003) for outside the Milan criteria to 8.6 (95% CI, 3.0-24.6; P < 0.0001) for outside the Milan criteria and AFP ≥ 250 ng/mL and to 7.2 (95% CI, 2.8-18.1; P < 0.0001) for outside the Milan criteria and DCP ≥7.5 ng/mL. Our findings suggest that biomarkers are useful for predicting the risk of HCC recurrence after transplantation. Using both biomarkers and the Milan criteria may be better than using the Milan criteria alone in optimizing the decision of liver transplantation eligibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.24117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4490162PMC
May 2015

Role of nitric oxide and adenosine in the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2013 Feb 13;113(2):295-303. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine contribute to the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise. Twenty-two subjects performed rhythmic forearm exercise (20 % of maximum) during control and NO synthase (NOS) inhibition (N (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine; L-NMMA) trials. A subset of subjects performed a third trial of forearm exercise during combined inhibition of NOS and adenosine (aminophylline; n = 9). Additionally, a separate group of subjects (n = 7) performed rhythmic forearm exercise during control, inhibition of adenosine alone and combined inhibition of adenosine and NOS. Forearm vascular conductance (FVC; ml min(-1) · 100 mmHg(-1)) was calculated from blood flow and mean arterial pressure (mmHg). The onset of vasodilation was assessed by calculating the slope of the FVC response for every duty cycle between baseline and steady state, and the number of duty cycles (1-s contraction/2-s relaxation) to reach steady state. NOS inhibition blunted vasodilation at the onset of exercise (11.1 ± 0.8 vs. 8.5 ± 0.6 FVC units/duty cycle; P < 0.001 vs. control) and increased the time to reach steady state (25 ± 1 vs. 32 ± 1 duty cycles; P < 0.001 vs. control). Vasodilation was blunted further with combined inhibition of NOS and adenosine (7.5 ± 0.6 vs. 6.2 ± 0.8 FVC units/duty cycle; P < 0.05 vs. L-NMMA alone), but not with aminophylline alone (16.0 ± 2.2 vs. 14.7 ± 2.0 FVC units/duty cycle; P = 0.67 vs. control). Our data indicate that NO and adenosine (in the absence of NO) contribute to the onset of vasodilation during dynamic forearm exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2439-0DOI Listing
February 2013

Identifying gel-separated proteins using in-gel digestion, mass spectrometry, and database searching: Consider the chemistry.

Biochem Mol Biol Educ 2009 Jan;37(1):49-55

Department of Chemistry, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota 55057.

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is an important bioanalytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. This is an especially powerful tool when combined with gel separation of proteins and database mining using the mass spectral data. Currently, few hands-on laboratory opportunities exist for undergraduate students to master this technique despite the usefulness of this technique in biological research. One reason for this lack of incorporation into the teaching curriculum is the relatively low number of published laboratory experiments that demonstrate how mass spectrometry can be incorporated into undergraduate laboratories. We present a simple experiment designed to introduce students to the analysis of gel separated proteins using mass spectrometry. In this experiment, students analyze one or more proteins using gel electrophoresis, followed by in-gel digestion, MALDI-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and database mining. The experiment also demonstrates how erroneous results can be obtained if careful attention is not paid to all aspects of the experimental process. The data presented here can be used in a classroom or laboratory setting even if hands-on access to a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer is not possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmb.20259DOI Listing
January 2009
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