Publications by authors named "Esperanza B Papadopoulos"

74 Publications

The Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) - a new tool for prediction of non-relapse mortality in allogeneic HCT.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States.

Individual comorbidities have distinct contributions to non-relapse mortality (NRM) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We studied the impact of comorbidities both individually and in combination in a single-center cohort of 573 adult patients who underwent CD34-selected allo-HCT following myeloablative conditioning. Pulmonary disease, moderate to severe hepatic comorbidity, cardiac disease of any type, and renal dysfunction were associated with increased NRM in multivariable Cox regression models. A Simplified Comorbidity Index (SCI) composed of the four comorbidities predictive of NRM, as well as age > 60 years, stratified patients into five groups with a stepwise increase in NRM. NRM rates ranged from 11.4% to 49.9% by stratum, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.84, 2.59, 3.57, and 5.38. The SCI was also applicable in an external cohort of 230 patients who underwent allo-HCT with unmanipulated grafts following intermediate-intensity conditioning. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of the SCI for 1-year NRM was 70.3 and 72.0 over the development and external-validation cohorts, respectively; corresponding AUCs of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) were 61.7 and 65.7. In summary, a small set of comorbidities, aggregated into the Simplified Comorbidity Index, are highly predictive of NRM. The new index stratifies patients into distinct risk groups, was validated in an external cohort, and provides higher discrimination than the HCT-CI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004319DOI Listing
September 2021

Reduced-intensity conditioning hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter's transformation.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2879-2889

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may potentially cure patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and Richter's transformation (CLL-RT) or CLL without RT, but the impact of novel agents on HSCT is unclear. CLL-RT patients have a grave prognosis, and their outcomes after HSCT are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all 58 CLL patients, including 23 CLL-RT patients, who underwent reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (New York, NY) between September 2006 and April 2017. With a median follow-up of 68 months (range, 24-147 months), 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-56%), and overall survival (OS) was 58% (95% CI, 48%-74%). The 1-year graft-versus-host disease/relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 38% (95% CI, 25%-50%). Patients with CLL-RT and CLL patients without RT had comparable outcomes. In both cohorts, treatment-sensitive response and ≤3 previous lines of therapy produced superior PFS and OS. Outcomes were agnostic to adverse cytogenetic and molecular features. Novel agents did not have a negative impact on HSCT outcomes. Total body irradiation (TBI)-containing RIC yielded inferior PFS, OS, and GRFS. CLL-RT patients older than age 55 years who had an HSCT Comorbidity Index score of ≥2 demonstrated inferior OS. This study, which is the largest series of RIC-HSCT for patients with CLL-RT, provides evidence supporting RIC-HSCT in early remission courses for patients with CLL-RT and poor-risk CLL patients. TBI-containing RIC should be considered with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341347PMC
July 2021

Fractionated Infusion of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Does Not Improve Neutrophil Recovery or Survival in Allograft Recipients.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 10 30;27(10):852.e1-852.e9. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Adult Blood and Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) offers a potentially curative therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies; however, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) remains a concern. Strategies to improve neutrophil recovery and immune reconstitution are needed to decrease NRM. Murine models of allogeneic HCT suggest that fractionated hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) infusion may improve engraftment through improved access of HPCs to a viable hematopoietic niche. The primary objective of the present study was to determine the impact of fractionated infusion versus unfractionated (bulk) infusion of HPCs on the time to achieve neutrophil engraftment. Secondary objectives included the effect of fractionated versus bulk infusion of HPCs on platelet engraftment, immune reconstitution, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II-IV, NRM, and overall survival (OS). In this randomized phase 2 study, patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic HCT were randomized to receive HPC infusion as a bulk (bulk arm) or in fractions (fractionated arm): 4 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight infused on day 0, with the remaining HPCs CD34 cell-selected then infused in equally distributed aliquots on days 2, 4, and 6 post-HCT. Randomization was stratified by type of transplant, unmodified (i.e. T cell-replete graft) versus CD34 cell-selected (T cell-depleted graft). Patients whose donor failed to collect at least 7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg of recipient weight received bulk HPC infusions regardless of randomization, for safety. These patients continued the HCT process on study but were replaced until each arm reached the prespecified accrual target. Per protocol, these patients were not included in this modified intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 116 patients were enrolled. Donors of 42 patients failed to mobilize the minimum CD34 cell dose (7 × 10 cells/kg recipient weight) and were excluded from the analysis. The 74 evaluable patients included 38 randomized to the bulk arm and 36 randomized to the fractionated arm. All patients engrafted. The median time to an absolute neutrophil count of ≥0.5 × 10/L was 11 days on both arms. The day +180 median CD4 cell count was 179 cells/µL in the bulk arm and 111 cells/µL in the fractionated arm (P = .779). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD on post-transplant day +100 was 32% in the bulk arm and 17% in the fractionated arm (P = .131). Two patients in the bulk arm, but none in the fractionated arm, experienced grade III-IV GVHD. The 4-year OS was 60% in the bulk arm and 62% in the fractionated arm (P = .414), whereas the 4-year cumulative incidences of NRM and relapse were similar in the 2 arms. Fractionated infusion of HPCs in allogeneic HCT recipients did not impact neutrophil or CD4 cell recovery, NRM, relapse, or OS when compared with bulk HPC infusion. We also observed that with current mobilization techniques, it was unlikely that more than 60% of healthy donors would be able to collect >7 × 10 CD34 cells/kg recipient weight for adult recipients. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.06.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8478895PMC
October 2021

Association of Convalescent Plasma Therapy With Survival in Patients With Hematologic Cancers and COVID-19.

JAMA Oncol 2021 06 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Departments of Medicine and Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Importance: COVID-19 is a life-threatening illness for many patients. Prior studies have established hematologic cancers as a risk factor associated with particularly poor outcomes from COVID-19. To our knowledge, no studies have established a beneficial role for anti-COVID-19 interventions in this at-risk population. Convalescent plasma therapy may benefit immunocompromised individuals with COVID-19, including those with hematologic cancers.

Objective: To evaluate the association of convalescent plasma treatment with 30-day mortality in hospitalized adults with hematologic cancers and COVID-19 from a multi-institutional cohort.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study using data from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry with propensity score matching evaluated patients with hematologic cancers who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Data were collected between March 17, 2020, and January 21, 2021.

Exposures: Convalescent plasma treatment at any time during hospitalization.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders was performed. Hazard ratios (HRs) are reported with 95% CIs. Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted on patients with severe COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilatory support and/or intensive care unit admission.

Results: A total of 966 individuals (mean [SD] age, 65 [15] years; 539 [55.8%] male) were evaluated in this study; 143 convalescent plasma recipients were compared with 823 untreated control patients. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, convalescent plasma treatment was associated with improved 30-day mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.97). This association remained significant after propensity score matching (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.92). Among the 338 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, mortality was significantly lower in convalescent plasma recipients compared with nonrecipients (HR for propensity score-matched comparison, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20-0.80). Among the 227 patients who required mechanical ventilatory support, mortality was significantly lower in convalescent plasma recipients compared with nonrecipients (HR for propensity score-matched comparison, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.14-0.72).

Conclusions And Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest a potential survival benefit in the administration of convalescent plasma to patients with hematologic cancers and COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377563PMC
June 2021

Relapse after Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome and the Importance of Second Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 09 24;27(9):771.e1-771.e10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; Cellular Therapeutics Center, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) generally have poor overall survival (OS). Interventions that result in improved OS after relapse are not well established. The efficacy of second cellular therapy and specific indications are matters of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate factors associated with postrelapse survival and the efficacy of a second course of cellular therapy. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive patients with AML and MDS who underwent a first allo-HCT between 2010 and 2017 at our center but subsequently relapsed. One hundred and four patients with AML and 44 patients with MDS were included (total n = 148). Bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood stem cell grafts were either unmodified or T cell-depleted (TCD) by CD34 selection ex vivo. Forty-five patients (30.4%) received a second cellular therapy after relapse, either a second allo-HCT (n = 28; 18.9%) or donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 17; 11.5%). The median age at transplantation was 60 years (range, 24 to 78 years). The median time to relapse (TTR) after transplantation was 6.5 months (range, 1 to 60.9 months), and the ensuing median OS was 6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.8 to 8.9 months). In univariable analysis, longer TTR, relapse type (measurable residual disease versus morphologic), relapse occurring in the most recent years, and receipt of cellular therapy after relapse were associated with better outcomes, whereas adverse cytogenetics and/or abnormality of TP53, as well as NPM1 mutation in patients with AML, were associated with adverse outcomes. Relapse type, year of relapse, and a variable resulting from the combination of TTR and receipt of second cellular therapy remained significantly associated with postrelapse survival in multivariable analysis. In a separate multivariable model, adjusted only for TTR, relapse type, and receipt of second cellular therapy, an adverse effect of NPM1 mutation on survival was confirmed. We could not show an effect of post-transplantation maintenance on survival after relapse. In both univariable and multivariable analysis, we found a positive association for second cellular therapy with survival after relapse in patients who relapsed early (<6 months) after allo-HCT and a similar trend in patients who relapsed late (>12 months) after transplantation. Two-year OS after a second cellular therapy was 44.9% (95% CI, 28.5% to 61.4%), and it was significantly better in patients with <5% BM blasts before cell infusion. We could not show different effects on survival after second cellular therapy for DLI versus second allo-HCT in univariable analysis. Survival after relapse is improving over time, but this remains a challenging event, especially for patients who relapse early after transplantation. We found that a second cellular therapy could offer a benefit even in these cases. Nonetheless, more research is needed to clarify the most appropriate treatment choices after relapse. These are probably driven by underlying genetic and immunologic conditions, which should be the focus of future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.011DOI Listing
September 2021

Cellular Therapy During COVID-19: Lessons Learned and Preparing for Subsequent Waves.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 05 14;27(5):438.e1-438.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

An evidence-based triage plan for cellular therapy distribution is critical in the face of emerging constraints on healthcare resources. We evaluated the impact of treatment delays related to COVID-19 on patients scheduled to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy at our center. Data were collected in real time between March 19 and May 11, 2020, for patients who were delayed to cellular therapy. We evaluated the proportion of delayed patients who ultimately received cellular therapy, reasons for not proceeding to cellular therapy, and changes in disease and health status during delay. A total of 85 patients were delayed, including 42 patients planned for autologous HCT, 36 patients planned for allogeneic HCT, and 7 patients planned for CAR-T therapy. Fifty-six of these patients (66%) since received planned therapy. Five patients died during the delay. The most common reason for not proceeding to autologous HCT was good disease control in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (75%). The most common reason for not proceeding to allogeneic HCT was progression of disease (42%). All patients with acute leukemia who progressed had measurable residual disease (MRD) at the time of delay, whereas no patient without MRD at the time of delay progressed. Six patients (86%) ultimately received CAR-T therapy, including 3 patients who progressed during the delay. For patients with high-risk disease such as acute leukemia, and particularly those with MRD at the time of planned HCT, treatment delay can result in devastating outcomes and should be avoided if at all possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7952254PMC
May 2021

Development and validation of a disease risk stratification system for patients with haematological malignancies: a retrospective cohort study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Mar;8(3):e205-e215

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Diagnosis and remission status at the time of allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) are the principal determinants of overall survival following transplantation. We sought to develop a contemporary disease-risk stratification system (DRSS) that accounts for heterogeneous transplantation indications.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study we included 55 histology and remission status combinations across haematological malignancies, including acute leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorders. A total of 47 265 adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who received an allogeneic HSCT between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2016, and were reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry were included. We divided EBMT patients into derivation (n=25 534), tuning (n=18 365), and geographical validation (n=3366) cohorts. Disease combinations were ranked in a multivariable Cox regression for overall survival in the derivation cohort, cutoff for risk groups were evaluated for the tuning cohort, and the selected system was tested on the geographical validation cohort. An independent single-centre US cohort of 660 patients transplanted between Jan 1, 2010, and Dec 31, 2015 was used to externally validate the results.

Findings: The DRSS model stratified patients in the derivation cohort (median follow-up was 2·1 years [IQR 1·0-3·2]) into five risk groups with increasing mortality risk: low risk (reference group), intermediate-1 (hazard ratio for overall survival 1·26 [95% CI 1·17-1·36], p<0·0001), intermediate-2 (1·53 [1·42-1·66], p<0·0001), high (2·03 [1·86-2·22], p<0·0001), and very high (2·87 [2·63-3·13], p<0·0001). DRSS levels were also associated with a stepwise increase in risk across the tuning and geographical validation cohort. In the external validation cohort (median follow-up was 5·7 years [IQR 4·5-7·1]), the DRSS scheme separated patients into 4 risk groups associated with increasing risk of mortality: intermediate-2 risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·04-1·74], p=0·025), high risk (HR 2·03 [95% CI 1·39-2·95], p=0·00023) and very-high risk (HR 2·26 [95% CI 1·62-3·15], p<0·0001) patients compared with the low risk and intermediate-1 risk group (reference group). Across all cohorts, between 64% and 65% of patients were categorised as having intermediate-risk disease by a previous prognostic system (ie, the disease-risk index [DRI]). The DRSS reclassified these intermediate-risk DRI patients, with 855 (6%) low risk, 7111 (51%) intermediate-1 risk, 5700 (41%) intermediate-2 risk, and 375 (3%) high risk or very high risk of 14 041 patients in a subanalysis combining the tuning and internal geographic validation cohorts. The DRI projected 2-year overall survival was 62·1% (95% CI 61·2-62·9) for these 14 041 patients, while the DRSS reclassified them into finer prognostic groups with overall survival ranging from 45·7% (37·4-54·0; very high risk patients) to 73·1% (70·1-76·2; low risk patients).

Interpretation: The DRSS is a novel risk stratification tool including disease features related to histology, genetic profile, and treatment response. The model should serve as a benchmark for future studies. This system facilitates the interpretation and analysis of studies with heterogeneous cohorts, promoting trial-design with more inclusive populations.

Funding: The Varda and Boaz Dotan Research Center for Hemato-Oncology Research, Tel Aviv University.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30394-XDOI Listing
March 2021

High progression-free survival after intermediate intensity double unit cord blood transplantation in adults.

Blood Adv 2020 12;4(23):6064-6076

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Cord blood transplantation (CBT) after high intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning has limitations. We investigated cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil-based intermediate intensity (cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg, fludarabine 150 mg/m2, thiotepa 10 mg/kg, total body irradiation 400 cGy) unmanipulated double-unit CBT (dCBT) with prioritization of unit quality and CD34+ cell dose in graft selection. Ninety adults (median age, 47 years [range, 21-63]; median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index, 2 [range, 0-8]; 61 [68%] acute leukemia) received double-unit grafts (median CD34+ cell dose, 1.3 × 105/kg per unit [range, 0.2-8.3]; median donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match, 5/8 [range 3-7/8]). The cumulative incidences of sustained CB engraftment, day 180 grade III-IV acute, and 3-year chronic graft-versus-host disease were 99%, 24%, and 7%, respectively. Three-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) and relapse incidences were 15% and 9%, respectively. Three-year overall survival (OS) is 82%, and progression-free survival (PFS) is 76%. Younger age and higher engrafting unit CD34+ cell dose both improved TRM and OS, although neither impacted PFS. Engrafting unit-recipient HLA match was not associated with any outcome with a 3-year PFS of 79% in 39 patients engrafting with 3-4/8 HLA-matched units. In 52 remission acute leukemia patients, there was no association between minimal residual disease (MRD) and 3-year PFS: MRD negative of 88% vs MRD positive of 77% (P = .375). Intermediate intensity dCBT is associated with high PFS. Use of highly HLA mismatched and unmanipulated grafts permits wide application of this therapy, and the low relapse rates support robust graft-versus-leukemia effects even in patients with MRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724901PMC
December 2020

Letermovir for Prevention of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Haploidentical and Mismatched Adult Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 01 11;27(1):85.e1-85.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is serious viral infection in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients. November 2017, the novel CMV DNA terminase complex inhibitor letermovir was approved for prophylaxis of CMV infection in CMV-seropositive allo-HCT recipients. Here we sought to determine the effectiveness of letermovir in preventing CMV infection in CMV-seropositive patients undergoing haploidentical or mismatched adult unrelated donor allo-HCT using post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus host-disease prophylaxis. Sixty-four patients underwent transplantation between 2014 and 2019, of whom 32 received letermovir and 32 did not receive letermovir. The day 180 cumulative incidence of CMV infection requiring therapy was 45.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.7% to 57.1%) in the entire cohort, 68.8% (95% CI, 48.9% to 82.2%) in the patients who did not receive letermovir, and 21.9% (95% CI, 9.5% to 37.6%; P < .001) in patients who received letermovir. Adjusting for regimen intensity, disease histology, and age, the hazard ratio for CMV infection was .19 (95% CI, .08 to .47; P < .001) in patients who received primary prophylaxis with letermovir. The 1-year cumulative incidence of treatment- related mortality was similar between patients with and without letermovir treatment (16.9% versus 18.9%), as was overall survival (64.0% versus 49.0%). Persistent CMV infection requiring >28 days of therapy was more common in patients who did not receive letermovir (31.2% versus 6.2%; P = .02). In summary, letermovir was effective in preventing CMV infection in this high-risk population of HLA-mismatched allo-HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441845PMC
January 2021

Engraftment kinetics after transplantation of double unit cord blood grafts combined with haplo-identical CD34+ cells without antithymocyte globulin.

Leukemia 2021 03 18;35(3):850-862. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Double unit cord blood (dCB) transplantation (dCBT) is associated with high engraftment rates but delayed myeloid recovery. We investigated adding haplo-identical CD34+ cells to dCB grafts to facilitate early haplo-identical donor-derived neutrophil recovery (optimal bridging) prior to CB engraftment. Seventy-eight adults underwent myeloablation with cyclosporine-A/mycophenolate mofetil immunoprophylaxis (no antithymocyte globulin, ATG). CB units (median CD34+ dose 1.1 × 10/kg/unit) had a median 5/8 unit-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-match. Haplo-identical grafts had a median CD34+ dose of 5.2 × 10/kg. Of 77 evaluable patients, 75 had sustained CB engraftment that was mediated by a dominant unit and heralded by dominant unit-derived T cells. Optimal haplo-identical donor-derived myeloid bridging was observed in 34/77 (44%) patients (median recovery 12 days). Other engrafting patients had transient bridging with second nadir preceding CB engraftment (20/77 (26%), median first recovery 12 and second 26.5 days) or no bridge (21/77 (27%), median recovery 25 days). The 2 (3%) remaining patients had graft failure. Higher haplo-CD34+ dose and better dominant unit-haplo-CD34+ HLA-match significantly improved the likelihood of optimal bridging. Optimally bridged patients were discharged earlier (median 28 versus 36 days). ATG-free haplo-dCBT can speed neutrophil recovery but successful bridging is not guaranteed due to rapid haplo-identical graft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-0922-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746597PMC
March 2021

Adenovirus Viral Kinetics and Mortality in Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients With Adenovirus Infection From a Single Center.

J Infect Dis 2020 09;222(7):1180-1187

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Background: We report on predictors of adenovirus (ADV) viremia and correlation of ADV viral kinetics with mortality in ex vivo T-cell depleted (TCD) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT).

Methods: T cell-depleted HCT recipients from January 1, 2012 through September 30, 2018 were prospectively monitored for ADV in the plasma through Day (D) +100 posttransplant or for 16 weeks after the onset of ADV viremia. Adenovirus viremia was defined as ≥2 consecutive viral loads (VLs) ≥1000 copies/mL through D +100. Time-averaged area under the curve (AAUC) or peak ADV VL through 16 weeks after onset of ADV viremia were explored as predictors of mortality in Cox models.

Results: Of 586 patients (adult 81.7%), 51 (8.7%) developed ADV viremia by D +100. Age <18 years, recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity, absolute lymphocyte count <300 cells/µL at D +30, and acute graft-versus-host disease were predictors of ADV viremia in multivariate models. Fifteen (29%) patients with ADV viremia died by D +180; 8 of 15 (53%) died from ADV. Peak ADV VL (hazard ratio [HR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-3.33) and increasing AAUC (HR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.83-4.75) correlated with mortality at D +180.

Conclusions: In TCD HCT, peak ADV VL and ADV AAUC correlated with mortality at D +180. Our data support the potential utility of ADV viral kinetics as endpoints in clinical trials of ADV therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459134PMC
September 2020

Characteristics and Impact of Post-Transplant Interdisciplinary Palliative Care Consultation in Older Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

J Palliat Med 2020 12 27;23(12):1653-1657. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Supportive Care Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

The myriad of benefits of early palliative care (PC) integration in oncology are well established, and emerging evidence suggests that PC improves symptom burden, mood, and quality of life for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Specific impact of PC consultation on outcomes of older allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) recipients, a historically high-risk population vulnerable to transplant-related complications and mortality, has not been explored. In this single institution, retrospective analysis of 527 first allo-HCT recipients aged ≥60 years, we characterized 75 patients who had received post-HCT PC consultation and its association with geriatric vulnerabilities identified by pre-HCT geriatric assessment. We also examined end-of-life care outcomes among patients who died within one-year of allo-hematopoietic cell transplantation. In multivariate analysis, higher disease risk, female gender, and, importantly, pre-HCT functional limitation (hazard ratio 2.35, 95% confidence interval, 1.35-4.09,  = 0.003) were associated with post-HCT PC utilization. Within one-year of hematopoietic cell transplantation, 127 patients died; among those, recipients of early PC consultation had significantly higher rates of hospice enrollment (25% vs. 9%,  = 0.019) and lower rates of hospital death (71% vs. 90%,  = 0.013), intensive care unit admission (44% vs. 75%,  = 0.001), and high-intensity medical care in last 30 days of life (46% vs. 77%,  = 0.001). Our results highlight important pre-HCT risk factors associated with increased PC needs posthematopoietic cell transplantation and benefits of PC involvement for older allo-HCT recipients at the end of life. Prospective studies should examine the optimal timing of PC consultation and its multidimensional benefits for older allo-HCT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2019.0611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698973PMC
December 2020

Ex Vivo T Cell-Depleted Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Adult Patients with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in First and Second Remission: Long-Term Disease-Free Survival with a Significantly Reduced Risk of Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 02 13;26(2):323-332. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Large series of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after ex vivo T cell-depleted (TCD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) have not been reported previously. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 266 patients (median age, 54 years) with AML who received CD34-selected TCD allo-HSCTs while in first (75%) or second (25%) complete remission (CR1/CR2) at a single institution. The conditioning regimens were all myeloablative, and no additional graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was given. The cumulative incidences of grade II-IV and grade III-IV acute GVHD at 180 days were 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10% to 18%) and 3% (95% CI, 1% to 5%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 3 years was 3% (95% CI, 1% to 6%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 21% (95% CI, 16% to 26%) and that of relapse was 21% (95% CI, 17% to 27%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 75%, 61%, and 56% and 68%, 57%, and 53%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, and relapse rates for patients who underwent transplantation in CR1 and those who did so in CR2. However, patients with high-risk cytogenetics at diagnosis had significantly poorer outcomes. The OS and DFS rates compare favorably with those for unmodified allo-HSCT, but with considerably lower rates of GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.10.003DOI Listing
February 2020

Letermovir for primary and secondary cytomegalovirus prevention in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients: Real-world experience.

Transpl Infect Dis 2019 Dec 21;21(6):e13187. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. We evaluated the efficacy of letermovir as primary and secondary prophylaxis in 53 CMV-seropositive hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. 70% of patients were at high risk for CMV reactivation and disease (primarily ex vivo T-cell-depleted HCT [n = 18; 34%] or haploidentical T-replete HCT [n = 12; 23%]). This was a retrospective, single-center study which identified patients transplanted between January 2018 and June 2018. Patients were followed through September 2018. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinically significant CMV infection (CMV viremia requiring preemptive treatment or CMV disease). Primary letermovir prophylaxis started at a median of 7 days (range, 7-40) after allo-HCT. The median duration of primary letermovir prophylaxis was 116 days (range, 12-221). With primary prophylaxis in 39 patients, the observed CMV reactivation rate was 5.1%. Twenty-nine patients continued primary prophylaxis beyond 14 weeks with a reactivation rate of 3.4%. No recurrent reactivation was seen with secondary prophylaxis of an additional 14 patients. Our experience demonstrates the efficacy of letermovir in a real-world setting for CMV prevention for the first 14 weeks and continued efficacy when given longer than 14 weeks after allogeneic stem cell transplantation or as secondary prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13187DOI Listing
December 2019

Impact of geriatric vulnerabilities on allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes in older patients with hematologic malignancies.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 01 30;55(1):157-164. Epub 2019 Aug 30.

Adult BMT Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Older patients are at increased risk for complications and death following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Traditional transplant-specific prognostic indices such as hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index (HCT-CI) may not capture all underlying geriatric vulnerabilities, and in-depth evaluation by a geriatrician prior to transplant may not always be available. We hypothesize that routine pretransplant interdisciplinary clinical assessment may uncover prognostically important geriatric deficits. Using an institutional database of 457 adults aged 60 years and older who underwent first allo-HCT for hematological malignancies from 2010 to 2017, we examined the prognostic impact of pretransplant deficits in geriatric domains of function, mobility, mood, medication, nutrition, and relevant biochemical markers. We found that impairment in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was associated with reduced survival through increased nonrelapse mortality (NRM, HR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.19). The combination of IADL impairment with either HCT-CI/age index or disease risk index readily stratified NRM and overall survival, respectively. In addition, we found that even mild renal dysfunction adversely impacted survival in older transplant patients. Our findings establish important geriatric vulnerabilities in older patients prior to allo-HCT and may provide an entry point for prospective, interventional trials to improve their outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0654-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940509PMC
January 2020

Racial disparities in access to HLA-matched unrelated donor transplants: a prospective 1312-patient analysis.

Blood Adv 2019 04;3(7):939-944

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Availability of 8/8 HLA-allele matched unrelated donors (URDs) is a barrier for ethnic and racial minorities. We prospectively evaluated receipt of 8/8 HLA-allele matched URD or either 7/8 URD or cord blood (CB) transplants by patient ancestry from 2005 to 2017. Matched URDs were given priority if they were available. Of 1312 patients, 723 (55%) received 8/8 URD, 219 (17%) 7/8 URD, 319 (24%) CB, and 51 (4%) had no 7/8 or 8/8 URD or CB graft. Europeans were more likely to receive an 8/8 URD transplant than non-Europeans (67% vs 33%) and less likely to have no URD or CB graft (1% vs 9%). Southern Europeans received 8/8 URD transplants (41%) at rates similar to those of Asians (34%) and white Hispanics (35%); Africans were the least likely (18%) to undergo 8/8 URD transplantation. CB and 7/8 URDs extended transplant access to all groups. In 742 recent patients, marked racial disparity in 8/8 URD access between groups observed in earlier years persisted with only a modest increase in the percentage of 8/8 URD transplants. Of 78 recent African patients, 46% received a CB transplant and 14% had no 7/8 or 8/8 URD or CB graft. Increasing registry size has not resolved the racial disparity in URD access, which emphasizes the importance of alternative graft sources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018028662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457223PMC
April 2019

Standard Antithymocyte Globulin Dosing Results in Poorer Outcomes in Overexposed Patients after Ex Vivo CD34 Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 08 1;25(8):1526-1535. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use mitigates the risk of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), but ATG overexposure in the setting of lymphopenia negatively affects immune recovery. We hypothesized that standard empiric weight-based dosing of ATG, used to prevent graft rejection in ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT, may lead to serious adverse consequences on outcomes in certain patients. We evaluated 304 patients undergoing myeloablative-conditioned ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT with HLA-matched donors for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Patients received rabbit ATG at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day i.v. on days -3 and/or -2. An ATG dosing cutoff of 450 mg was used for statistical analyses to assess the relationship between ATG and overall survival (OS). Among all patients, median total ATG dose was 360 mg (range, 130 to 510 mg); 279 (92%) received a total dose of ATG ≤450 mg, and 25 (8%) received a total dose >450 mg. On the first day of ATG administration (day -3), the median absolute lymphocyte count was .0 K/µL. For patients who received a total dose of ATG >450 mg or ≤450 mg, the incidences of acute and late-acute GVHD grade II-IV were statistically similar. At 3 years post-HCT, for patients who received a total dose of ATG >450 mg or ≤450 mg, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates were 35% and 18%, respectively (P = .029), disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 37% and 61%, respectively (P = .003), and OS rates were 40% and 67%, respectively (P = .001). Among all patient and HCT characteristics in multivariable analyses, receipt of a total dose of ATG >450 mg was associated with an increased risk of NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9; P = .01), shorter DFS (HR, 2.0; P = .03), and inferior OS (HR, 2.1; P = .01). In summary, the use of weight-based ATG at a time of relative lymphopenia before ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT results in overdosing in heavier patients, leading to higher NRM and lower DFS and OS. Further pharmacokinetic investigation in this setting is critical to determining the optimal dosing strategy for ATG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.02.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302932PMC
August 2019

Immune Cytopenias after Ex Vivo CD34+-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 06 6;25(6):1136-1141. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Immune-mediated cytopenias (ICs), such as immune thrombocytopenia and immune hemolytic anemia, are among the adverse events after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Previous reports suggest that in vivo T cell depletion may increase the incidence of IC after allo-HCT. We evaluated whether a strategy that reduces functional donor T cells via ex vivo CD34-selection associates with the development of IC in a cohort of 408 patients who underwent allo-HCT for hematologic malignancy. The cumulative incidence of IC at 6, 12, and 36 months after the 30-day landmark post-HCT was 3.4%, 4.9%, and 5.8%, respectively. Among 23 patients who developed IC, 7 died of relapse-related mortality and 4 of nonrelapse mortality. A median 2 types of treatment (range, 1 to 5) was required to resolve IC, and there was considerable heterogeneity in the therapies used. In univariable analyses, a hematologic malignancy Disease Risk Index (DRI) score of 3 was significantly associated with an increased risk of IC compared with a DRI of 1 or 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.12; P = .003), and IC (HR, 2.4; P = .03) was associated with increased risk of relapse. In a multivariable analysis that included DRI, IC remained significantly associated with increased risk of relapse (HR, 2.4; P = .03). Our findings show that IC events occur with relatively similar frequency in patients after ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT compared with unmodified allo-HCT, suggesting that reduced donor T cell immunity is not causative of IC. Moreover, we noted a possible link between its development and/or treatment and increased risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6559823PMC
June 2019

Burden and impact of multifactorial geriatric syndromes in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for older adults.

Blood Adv 2019 01;3(1):12-20

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service and.

Multifactorial geriatric syndromes are highly prevalent in older patients with cancer. Because an increasing number of older patients undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), we examined the incidence and impact of transplant-related geriatric syndromes using our institutional database and electronic medical records. We identified 527 patients age 60 years or older who had undergone first allo-HCT from 2001 to 2016 for hematologic malignancies. From the initiation of conditioning to 100 days posttransplant, new geriatric syndromes were predominantly delirium with a cumulative incidence of 21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18%-25%) at day 100 followed by fall at 7% (95% CI, 5%-9%). In multivariable analyses of available pretransplant variables, fall within the last year, potentially inappropriate use of medication, thrombocytopenia, and reduced creatinine clearance were significantly associated with delirium; age older than 70 years and impaired activities of daily living were significantly associated with fall. In the 100-day landmark analysis, both delirium (hazard ratio [HR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.09-2.52; = .023) and fall (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.16-3.95; = .026) were significantly associated with increased nonrelapse mortality; moreover, fall (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.14; = .016), but not delirium, was significantly associated with reduced overall survival. Here, we establish baseline incidences and risk factors of common transplant-related geriatric syndromes. Importantly, we demonstrate significant associations of delirium and fall with inferior transplant outcomes. The burden and impact of transplant-related geriatric syndromes warrant the institution of patient-centered, preemptive, longitudinal, and multidisciplinary interventions to improve outcomes for older allo-HCT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2018028241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6325300PMC
January 2019

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation impacts on outcomes of mantle cell lymphoma with TP53 alterations.

Br J Haematol 2019 03 11;184(6):1006-1010. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Adult BMT Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

TP53 alterations portend extremely poor prognosis in patients with mantle cell lymphoma treated with standard treatment modalities. We reviewed outcomes of 42 patients with available TP53 status who had received a reduced-intensity or non-myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant at our institution. We demonstrated a 2-year overall survival and progression-free survival of 78% [95% confidence interval (CI) 60-88] and 61% (95% CI 43-75), respectively. The 2-year cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 19% and 20%, respectively. Importantly, there is no significant difference among patients with and without TP53 alterations, suggesting for the first time a beneficial treatment modality for these high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6399037PMC
March 2019

Ex vivo and in vivo T cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission resulted in similar overall survival: on behalf of the ALWP of the EBMT and the MSKCC.

J Hematol Oncol 2018 10 20;11(1):127. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT).

Methods: We evaluated the outcomes of two well-established strategies used for GVHD prevention: in vivo T cell depletion using antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and ex vivo T cell depletion using a CD34-selected (CD34+) graft. A total of 525 adult patients (363 ATG, 162 CD34+) with intermediate or high-risk cytogenetics acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) were included. Patients underwent myeloablative allo-HCT using matched related or unrelated donors.

Results: Two-year overall survival estimate was 69.9% (95% CI, 58.5-69.4) in the ATG group and 67.6% (95% CI, 60.3-74.9) in the CD34+ group (p = 0.31). The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD and chronic GVHD was higher in the ATG cohort [HR 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.7), p = 0.02; HR 15.1 (95% CI 5.3-42.2), p < 0.0001]. Parameters associated with a lower GVHD-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) were ATG [HR 1.6 (95% CI 1.1-2.2), p = 0.006], adverse cytogenetic [HR 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2), p = 0.0004], and the use of an unrelated donor [HR 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9), p = 0.02]. There were no statistical differences between ATG and CD34+ in terms of relapse [HR 1.52 (95% CI 0.96-2.42), p = 0.07], non-relapse mortality [HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.54-1.74), p = 0.90], overall survival [HR 1.43 (95% CI 0.97-2.11), p = 0.07], and leukemia-free survival [HR 1.25 (95% CI 0.88-1.78), p = 0.21]. Significantly, more deaths related to infection occurred in the CD34+ group (16/52 vs. 19/112, p = 0.04).

Conclusions: These data suggest that both ex vivo CD34-selected and in vivo ATG T cell depletion are associated with a rather high OS and should be compared in a prospective randomized trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-018-0668-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195954PMC
October 2018

End-of-life care for older AML patients relapsing after allogeneic stem cell transplant at a dedicated cancer center.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 05 22;54(5):700-706. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Older patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are at increased risk for mortality and morbidity. While allogeneic stem cell transplantation may provide cure in some patients, many still relapse after transplant and are then left with limited therapeutic options and poor survival. Moreover, the quality of the end-of-life care for these patients has not been previously reported. We describe here the end-of-life experience of a cohort of 72 older patients with AML who relapsed after first allogeneic stem cell transplant at our dedicated cancer center. Despite a median overall survival of only 4 months, we find a high level of primary palliative care delivered by transplant/leukemia physicians through goals of care discussions and/or advanced care planning and provide evidence for high-quality end-of-life care outcomes, often with concurrent disease-directed therapy. Our results compare favorably with end-of-life care outcomes reported for older AML patients, including those who did not undergo transplant. Given the poor prognosis and unique underlying vulnerabilities in this high-risk patient population, incorporating timely advanced care planning and palliative care delivery while exploring available salvage options may further improve end-of-life care outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0311-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751554PMC
May 2019

Efficacy of brincidofovir as prophylaxis against HSV and VZV in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 3;20(6):e12977. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients are at risk for herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Routine prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended during periods of immunosuppression. Brincidofovir (BCV, CMX001), a lipid conjugate of cidofovir, has shown in vitro activity against HSV/VZV, but has not been formally studied for HSV/VZV prophylaxis. We report our clinical experience of BCV for HSV/VZV prophylaxis in HCT recipients. This was a retrospective review of 30 hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients between 8/2010 and 8/2015 who received BCV doses not exceeding 200 mg/week for adults/adolescents and 4 mg/kg/week for pediatric (<12 years) patients, for ≥14 days BCV without concomitant acyclovir under clinical trials or single patient use. HSV/VZV cases during BCV treatment were confirmed by viral culture or PCR and clinical symptoms. Of 30 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 27 (90%) patients were adults and 22 (73%) patients received T-cell depleted HCT. The most common indications for BCV were cytomegalovirus in 12 patients (40%) and adenovirus in 11 patients (37%). One patient was treated for acyclovir-resistant HSV and one for disseminated VZV. There were two breakthrough cases of HSV infection during 2170 patient-days. There were no cases of breakthrough VZV infection. The overall rate of breakthrough HSV infection was 1.0 per 1000 patient-days, without any breakthrough VZV infections. Our study provides the only available-albeit limited-evidence on the potential efficacy of BCV for HSV/VZV prophylaxis in HCT patients. Additional studies are needed to further assess the efficacy and safety of BCV in the setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.12977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310478PMC
December 2018

Early Fluid Overload Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Nonrelapse Mortality after Ex Vivo CD34-Selected Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 12 26;24(12):2517-2522. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

In a recently published and validated definition of fluid overload (FO), grade ≥ 2 FO was significantly associated with an increased risk of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after unmodified and haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) using calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We evaluated the effect of FO on outcomes in 169 patients undergoing myeloablative-conditioned ex vivo CD34 selected allo-HCT using the same grading scale. Thirty patients (17.8%) had grade ≥ 2 FO within the 30 days after ex vivo CD34 selected allo-HCT with a median onset at day 11 (range, -8 to 28). Age ≥ 55 years (odds ratio, 3.43; P = .005) and chemotherapy-based conditioning (odds ratio, 3.89; P = .007) were associated with an increased risk of grade ≥ 2 FO. Patients with early grade ≥ 2 FO had a significantly higher NRM when compared with patients with grade < 2 FO (24.1% versus 3.6% at day 100, P = .01). The HCT-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) ≥ 3, FEV < 80, adjusted DL < 80, and HLA mismatch were associated with an increased risk of NRM, whereas total body irradiation-based conditioning was associated with a reduced risk of NRM. In a multivariate analysis grade ≥ 2 FO was associated with increased NRM after adjusting for HCT-CI and HLA match (hazard ratio, 2.3; P = .014). There was a trend toward inferior relapse-free survival in patients with grade ≥ 2 FO compared with patients with grade < 2 FO, 62% versus 72% at 1 year (P = .07), and a trend toward inferior overall survival, 69% versus 79% at 1 year (P = 0.06), respectively. Our findings show that FO should be routinely assessed to identify patients at risk for NRM. Despite a CNI-free allo-HCT platform, regimen-related tissue and endothelial injury leads to FO in susceptible patients. FO is a highly relevant post-HCT toxicity that requires further inquiry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.07.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6286243PMC
December 2018

CC-486 Maintenance after Stem Cell Transplantation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 10 20;24(10):2017-2024. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Centre for Clinical Haematology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Relapse is the main cause of treatment failure after allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Injectable azacitidine can improve post-transplant outcomes but presents challenges with exposure and compliance. Oral CC-486 allows extended dosing to prolong azacitidine activity. We investigated use of CC-486 maintenance therapy after alloSCT. Adults with MDS or AML in morphologic complete remission at CC-486 initiation (42 to 84 days after alloSCT) were included. Patients received 1 of 4 CC-486 dosing schedules per 28-day cycle for up to 12 cycles. Endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetics, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence, relapse/progression rate, and survival. Of 30 patients, 7 received CC-486 once daily for 7 days per cycle (200 mg, n = 3; 300 mg, n = 4) and 23 for 14 days per cycle (150 mg, n = 4; 200 mg, n = 19 [expansion cohort]). Grades 3 to 4 adverse events were infrequent and occurred with similar frequency across regimens. Standard concomitant medications did not alter CC-486 pharmacokinetic parameters. Three patients (10%) experienced grade III acute GVHD and 9 experienced chronic GVHD. Of 28 evaluable patients, 6 (21%) relapsed or had progressive disease: 3 of 7 patients (43%) who had received 7-day dosing and 3 of 23 (13%) who had received 14-day dosing. Transplant-related mortality was 3%. At 19 months of follow-up, median overall survival was not reached. Estimated 1-year survival rates were 86% and 81% in the 7-day and 14-day dosing cohorts, respectively. CC-486 maintenance was generally well tolerated, with low rates of relapse, disease progression, and GVHD. CC-486 maintenance may permit epigenetic manipulation of the alloreactive response postallograft. Findings require confirmation in randomized trials. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01835587.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.06.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059405PMC
October 2018

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Comparison of Outcomes between CD34 Selected and Unmodified Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 8;24(5):1079-1087. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Adult Bone Marrow Transplantation Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

In this study, we compared transplantation outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received a CD34 cell-selected and those who received an unmodified allograft. This analysis initially included 181 patients, 60 who received a CD34 cell-selected transplant and 121 who received an unmodified transplant. Owing to significant differences in disease characteristics, the analysis was limited to patients with <10% blasts before HSCT (n = 145). Two groups were defined: low risk, with low- and intermediate-risk cytogenetics (CD34, n = 39; unmodified, n = 46), and high risk: poor and very poor risk cytogenetics (CD34, n = 19; unmodified, n = 41). In the low-risk group, the incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) at 1 year post-transplantation was 18% in the CD34 subgroup versus 41.3% in the unmodified subgroup (P = .015). There were no differences between the subgroups in the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD. The incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) at 3 years in the 2 subgroups was 5.3% and 56%, respectively (P < .001). At 3 years post-transplantation, relapse, overall survival (OS), and relapse-free survival (RFS) were similar in the CD34 and unmodified subgroups: 8.1% versus 19.4% (P = .187), 58.5% versus 53.7% (P = .51), and 59.5% versus 52.4% (P = .448). However, the composite outcome combining extensive cGVHD-free status and relapse-free status (CRFS) at 3 years was 59.5% in the CD34 group versus 19.2% in the unmodified group (P < .001). In the high-risk group, grade II-IV aGVHD at 1 year was 31.6% in the CD34 subgroup versus 24.4% in the unmodified subgroup (P = .752). There were no differences between the subgroups in the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD. The incidence of cGVHD at 3 years in the 2 subgroups was 0% versus 27.6% (P = .013). At 3 years post-transplantation, relapse, OS, RFS, and CRFS in the 2 subgroups were 31.6% versus 69.3% (P = .007), 35.5% versus 14.5% (P = .068), 31.6% versus 10.7% (P = .045), and 31.6% versus 6.1% (P = .001), respectively. Cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis and transplant type had significant univariate associations with RFS in the high-risk cohort. Only cytogenetics (P = .03) remained associated with this outcome in a multivariate model. OS was similar in the 2 transplant groups; however, CRFS was superior in the CD34 cell-selected transplant group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529210PMC
May 2018

CD34 Cell Selection versus Reduced-Intensity Conditioning and Unmodified Grafts for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients Age >50 Years with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome .

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 2;24(5):964-972. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Department of Medicine, Adult Bone Marrow Transplant Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; New York, New York. Electronic address:

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and T cell depletion (TCD) through CD34 cell selection without the use of post-transplantation immunosuppression are 2 strategies used to reduce nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in older patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To compare the efficacy of the RIC and TCD approaches, we evaluated the outcomes of patients age >50 years with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who underwent allo-HCT from an HLA-matched donor with one of these strategies. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the patients receiving TCD (n = 204) and those receiving RIC (n = 151), except for a higher proportion of unrelated donors (68% versus 40%; P < .001) and a higher comorbidity burden (Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index [HCT-CI] ≥3: 51% versus 38%; P < .001) in the TCD cohort. Analysis of outcomes at 3 years showed a higher chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/relapse-free survival (CRFS) (51% versus 7%; P < .001), lower incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD (18% versus 46% at day +180) and chronic GVHD (6% versus 55% at 3 years; P < .001), and a lower incidence of relapse (19% versus 33% at 3 years; P = .001) in the TCD group compared with the RIC group. Relapse-free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and NRM were similar in the 2 groups. Combining transplantation approach (RIC versus TCD) and comorbidity burden (HCT-CI 0-2 versus ≥3), patients with an HCT-CI score of 0-2 seemed to benefit from the TCD approach. In conclusion, in this retrospective study, the use of a CD34 cell-selected graft and a myeloablative conditioning regimen was associated with higher CRFS and similar RFS and OS compared with unmodified allo-RIC in patients age >50 years with AML and MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800017PMC
May 2018
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