Publications by authors named "Espen Molden"

128 Publications

Genetic Association Between Schizophrenia and Cortical Brain Surface Area and Thickness.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

NORMENT, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Schizophrenia is a complex heritable disorder associated with many genetic variants, each with a small effect. While cortical differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls are consistently reported, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive.

Objective: To investigate the extent of shared genetic architecture between schizophrenia and brain cortical surface area (SA) and thickness (TH) and to identify shared genomic loci.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Independent genome-wide association study data on schizophrenia (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium and CLOZUK: n = 105 318) and SA and TH (UK Biobank: n = 33 735) were obtained. The extent of polygenic overlap was investigated using MiXeR. The specific shared genomic loci were identified by conditional/conjunctional false discovery rate analysis and were further examined in 3 independent cohorts. Data were collected from December 2019 to February 2021, and data analysis was performed from May 2020 to February 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcomes were estimated fractions of polygenic overlap between schizophrenia, total SA, and average TH and a list of functionally characterized shared genomic loci.

Results: Based on genome-wide association study data from 139 053 participants, MiXeR estimated schizophrenia to be more polygenic (9703 single-nucleotide variants [SNVs]) than total SA (2101 SNVs) and average TH (1363 SNVs). Most SNVs associated with total SA (1966 of 2101 [93.6%]) and average TH (1322 of 1363 [97.0%]) may be associated with the development of schizophrenia. Subsequent conjunctional false discovery rate analysis identified 44 and 23 schizophrenia risk loci shared with total SA and average TH, respectively. The SNV associations of shared loci between schizophrenia and total SA revealed en masse concordant association between the discovery and independent cohorts. After removing high linkage disequilibrium regions, such as the major histocompatibility complex region, the shared loci were enriched in immunologic signature gene sets. Polygenic overlap and shared loci between schizophrenia and schizophrenia-associated regions of interest for SA (superior frontal and middle temporal gyri) and for TH (superior temporal, inferior temporal, and superior frontal gyri) were also identified.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study demonstrated shared genetic loci between cortical morphometry and schizophrenia, among which a subset are associated with immunity. These findings provide an insight into the complex genetic architecture and associated with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.1435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223140PMC
June 2021

Validation of a Population Pharmacokinetic Model of Vortioxetine Using Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Data.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Vortioxetine is an antidepressant primarily metabolized by the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. A population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model of vortioxetine and its CYP2D6-dependent metabolite was recently published.

Objective: The aim of the current study was to assess the predictive performance of the popPK model using vortioxetine concentration measurements from a clinical setting. Furthermore, the study aimed to evaluate the ability of different CYP2D6 phenotype classification systems to provide accurate concentration predictions.

Methods: Overall, 1388 patients receiving vortioxetine treatment were identified from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database in Oslo, Norway; 334 CYP2D6-genotyped patients with 502 serum concentrations of vortioxetine, analysed by a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method, were retrospectively included. The performance of the vortioxetine popPK model was tested on the clinical data from the TDM database.

Results: Overall, the model had a good ability to predict vortioxetine concentrations measured in clinical practice, with a slight tendency to overpredict concentrations. Using simulation-based diagnostics, 76% of the prediction-corrected TDM concentrations were within the 90% prediction interval based on 1000 simulated data sets. Prediction-based diagnostics showed the best performance for CYP2D6 poor and ultrarapid metabolizers, with a median prediction error (MDPE) of 12% and 23%, respectively, while the poorest performance was observed for normal metabolizers, with an MDPE of 66%. In the comparison of different CYP2D6 phenotype classification systems, the use of differentiated activity scores for decreased function alleles did not improve the concentration predictions. Grouping the CYP2D6 genotypes into the four conventional phenotype groups provided predictions closest to the TDM measured concentrations.

Conclusion: TDM data provide a unique insight into real-world clinical practice with vortioxetine. The tendency of the popPK model to overpredict vortioxetine concentrations measured in TDM may be attributed to several factors, including poor treatment compliance for some patients and, to a lesser extent, lack of information on patient characteristics and misspecified CYP2D6 alleles. To optimize personalized therapy with vortioxetine, real-world clinical data sets originating from different ethnicities need to be studied in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-021-01029-7DOI Listing
June 2021

Sex-Dependent Shared and Nonshared Genetic Architecture Across Mood and Psychotic Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, North Shore University Health System, Evanston, Illinois.

Background: Sex differences in incidence and/or presentation of schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder (MDD), and bipolar disorder (BIP) are pervasive. Previous evidence for shared genetic risk and sex differences in brain abnormalities across disorders suggest possible shared sex-dependent genetic risk.

Methods: We conducted the largest to date genome-wide genotype-by-sex (G×S) interaction of risk for these disorders using 85,735 cases (33,403 SCZ, 19,924 BIP, and 32,408 MDD) and 109,946 controls from the PGC (Psychiatric Genomics Consortium) and iPSYCH.

Results: Across disorders, genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphism-by-sex interaction was detected for a locus encompassing NKAIN2 (rs117780815, p = 3.2 × 10), which interacts with sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase) enzymes, implicating neuronal excitability. Three additional loci showed evidence (p < 1 × 10) for cross-disorder G×S interaction (rs7302529, p = 1.6 × 10; rs73033497, p = 8.8 × 10; rs7914279, p = 6.4 × 10), implicating various functions. Gene-based analyses identified G×S interaction across disorders (p = 8.97 × 10) with transcriptional inhibitor SLTM. Most significant in SCZ was a MOCOS gene locus (rs11665282, p = 1.5 × 10), implicating vascular endothelial cells. Secondary analysis of the PGC-SCZ dataset detected an interaction (rs13265509, p = 1.1 × 10) in a locus containing IDO2, a kynurenine pathway enzyme with immunoregulatory functions implicated in SCZ, BIP, and MDD. Pathway enrichment analysis detected significant G×S interaction of genes regulating vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling in MDD (false discovery rate-corrected p < .05).

Conclusions: In the largest genome-wide G×S analysis of mood and psychotic disorders to date, there was substantial genetic overlap between the sexes. However, significant sex-dependent effects were enriched for genes related to neuronal development and immune and vascular functions across and within SCZ, BIP, and MDD at the variant, gene, and pathway levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2021.02.972DOI Listing
March 2021

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Drug Metab Dispos 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden

Characterizing the pharmacokinetic properties of drug candidates represents an essential task during drug development. In the past, liver microsomes and primary suspended hepatocytes have been extensively used for this purpose, but their relatively short stability limits the applicability of such systems for drug compounds with low metabolic turnover. In the present study, we used 3D primary human hepatocyte spheroids to predict the hepatic clearance of seven drugs with low to intermediate clearance in humans. Our results indicate that hepatocyte spheroids maintain their like phenotype during prolonged incubations allowing to monitor the depletion of parent drug for seven days. In contrast, attempts to increase the relative metabolic capacity by pooling hepatocyte spheroids resulted in an immediate fusion of the spheroids followed by hepatocellular de-differentiation processes, demonstrating limited applicability of the pooling approach for quantitative pharmacokinetic studies. The hepatic clearance values obtained from incubations with individual spheroids were in close correlation with the clinical reference data with six out of seven drug compounds being predicted within a three-fold deviation and average fold and absolute average fold errors of 0.57 and 1.74, respectively. In conclusion, the hepatocyte spheroid model enables accurate hepatic clearance predictions for slowly metabolized drug compounds and represents a valuable tool for determining the pharmacokinetic properties of new drug candidates as well as for mechanistic pharmacokinetic studies. Traditional in vitro systems often fail to predict the hepatic clearance of slowly metabolized drug compounds. The current study demonstrates the ability of primary human hepatocyte spheroids to provide accurate projections on the hepatic clearance of drug compounds with low and intermediate clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.120.000340DOI Listing
June 2021

Reduced Function Variants and Genotype/Phenotype Translations of CYP2D6 Intermediate Metabolizers: Implications for Personalized Drug Dosing in Psychiatry.

Front Pharmacol 2021 22;12:650750. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum 5B, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Genetic differences in cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism have been known for several decades. The clinically most important polymorphic CYP enzyme is CYP2D6, which plays a key role in the metabolism of many antidepressants and antipsychotics, along with a range of non-psychiatric medications. Dose individualization based on genotype to improve the effect and safety of drug treatment has been an ambition for a long time. Clinical use of genotyping is steadily increasing; however, for pre-emptive genotyping to be successful in predicting individual dose requirements, high precision of genotype-to-phenotype translations are required. Recently, guidelines for assigning CYP2D6 enzyme activity scores of variant alleles, and subsequent diplotype-to-phenotype translations, were published by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) and the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group. Consensus on assigning activity scores of variant alleles and translating diplotype scores into CYP2D6 poor, intermediate, normal, or ultrarapid metabolizer groups were obtained by consulting 37 international experts. While assigning enzyme activities of non-functional (score 0) and fully functional (score 1) alleles are straightforward, reduced function variant alleles are more complex. In this article, we present data showing that the assigned activity scores of reduced function variant alleles in current guidelines are not of sufficient precision; especially not for , where the guideline activity score is 0.5 compared to 0.05-0.15 in pharmacogenetic studies. Due to these discrepancies, genotypes with similar guidelinediplotype scores exhibit substantial differences in CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotypes. Thus, it is important that the guidelines are updated to be valid in predicting individual dose requirements of psychiatric drugs and others metabolized by CYP2D6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.650750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100508PMC
April 2021

Dose-Dependent Inhibition of CYP2D6 by Bupropion in Patients With Depression.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May-Jun 01;41(3):281-285

Department of Forensic Sciences, Oslo University Hospital.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential dose-dependent CYP2D6 inhibition by bupropion (BUP) in patients with depression.

Methods: Patients combining BUP with venlafaxine were included from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database at the Diakonhjemmet Hospital (Oslo, Norway). The O/N-desmethylvenlafaxine metabolic ratio measured in TDM samples was used as a biomarker for CYP2D6 phenotype and was compared between patients treated with BUP 150 mg/d and 300 mg/d or greater. In addition, reference groups of venlafaxine-treated patients genotyped as CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs, no CYP2D6 activity) and normal metabolizers (NMs, fully functional CYP2D6 activity) were included.

Findings: A total of 221 patients were included in the study. The median O/N-desmethylvenlafaxine metabolic ratio was significantly higher in patients treated with BUP 150 mg/d (n = 59) versus 300 mg/d or greater (n = 34, 1.77 vs 0.96, P < 0.001). In CYP2D6 NMs (n = 62) and PMs (n = 66), the median metabolic ratios were 40.55 and 0.48, respectively. For patients treated with BUP 150 mg/d, 11 (19%) of the 59 patients were phenoconverted to PMs, whereas this was the case for 17 (50%) of the 34 patients treated with BUP 300 mg/d or greater.

Conclusions: Bupropion exhibits a clear dose-dependent CYP2D6 inhibitory effect during treatment of patients with depression. This finding is of clinical relevance when adjusting dosing of CYP2D6 substrates during comedication with BUP. Half of the patients treated with high-dose BUP are converted to CYP2D6 PM phenotype. Because of the variability in CYP2D6 inhibition, TDM of CYP2D6 substrates should be considered to provide individualized dose adjustments during comedication with BUP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001387DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of the CYP2D6 Haplotype Activity Scores Based on Metabolic Ratios of 4,700 Patients Treated With Three Different CYP2D6 Substrates.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum 5B, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The metabolic activity of the polymorphic CYP2D6 enzyme is dependent on the CYP2D6 genotype; however, the guidelines for translating the genotype into phenotype, which are of relevance for adequate drug dose personalization, are ambiguous. In the present study, retrospective therapeutic drug monitoring data from 4,700 CYP2D6 genotyped patients treated with risperidone, venlafaxine, and/or aripiprazole were analyzed to quantify the effect of CYP2D6 genotype on the CYP2D6 metabolic activities, as measured by metabolic ratios of these substrates. The patients were categorized into diplotypes based on the presence of normal function (CYP2D6Norm), nonfunctional (CYP2D6Nonf), and decreased function (CYP2D6Decr; i.e., CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10, and CYP2D6*41) CYP2D6 haplotypes. Significant correlations between the metabolic ratios were observed in patients (n = 77-103) cotreated with risperidone and venlafaxine, risperidone and aripiprazole, or venlafaxine and aripiprazole (ρ = 0.874, 0.785, and 0.644, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). Relative metabolic CYP2D6 diplotype activity was calculated based on that the metabolic ratios, where median values for CYP2D6Nonf/Nonf and CYP2D6Norm/Norm subgroups were set to 0% and 100%, respectively. The relative CYP2D6 activities were: 7.0% for CYP2D6Nonf/*41, 16.7% for CYP2D6Nonf/*9-10, 13.2% for CYP2D6*41/*41, 24.9% for CYP2D6*41/*9-10, 33.1% for CYP2D6*9-10/*9-10, 41.3% for CYP2D6Nonf/Norm, 55.0% for CYP2D6*41/Norm, 58.9% for CYP2D6*9-10/Norm, and 149.2% for CYP2D6Norm/Normx2. Compared with the CYP2D6Norm alleles, the activity scores of CYP2D6*41 and CYP2D6*9-10 alleles were estimated to be one sixth and one third, respectively. The results of this highly powered study provide a solid basis for the translation of the CYP2D6 genotype into a drug metabolic phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2246DOI Listing
March 2021

A Novel CYP2C-Haplotype Associated With Ultrarapid Metabolism of Escitalopram.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Escitalopram is one of the most commonly used antidepressant drugs but exhibits a substantial interindividual variation in clinical response. A key factor underlying response differences is the polymorphic nature of the CYP2C19 gene encoding the major enzyme responsible for escitalopram metabolism. Although pre-emptive CYP2C19 genotyping may improve escitalopram treatment outcome by dose individualization, much of the interindividual variability cannot be assigned to the currently known CYP2C19 gene variants. The aim of the present study was to search for novel CYP2C-haplotypes for better genetic prediction of escitalopram metabolism. First, the CYP2C18/CYP2C19 locus was sequenced from gDNA obtained from 24 patients previously genotyped as CYP2C19*1/*1 showing consistently low serum concentrations of escitalopram (< 25 nM/10 mg). Three new haplotypes of the CYP2C locus (CYP2C:TG, CYP2C:TA, and CYP2C:CG) were here identified, and their functional roles were evaluated using gDNA from 875 previously genotyped escitalopram-treated patients. The CYP2C:CG and CYP2C:TA haplotypes had no significant impact on escitalopram concentration. Based on the estimated effects of the novel CYP2C-haplotypes on escitalopram exposure, the predicted serum concentrations of escitalopram in homozygous CYP2C:TG and CYP2C19*17 carriers were 24.8% and 17.3% lower compared with the baseline (CYP2C:CG and CYP2C:TA), respectively. In conclusion, a novel CYP2C-haplotype defined by rs2860840T and rs11188059G associated with ultrarapid metabolism of escitalopram was identified. Further studies should clarify the genetic basis for the enhanced escitalopram metabolism and the impact of the CYP2C:TG haplotype on the metabolism of other CYP2C19 substrates like omeprazole, voriconazole, and clopidogrel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2233DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of age and gender on paliperidone exposure in patients after administration of long-acting injectable formulations-an observational study using blood samples from 1223 patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug 22;77(8):1201-1208. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, PO Box 85, 0319, Vinderen, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Paliperidone palmitate is an antipsychotic medication available as long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gender on paliperidone exposure after administration of LAI formulations.

Methods: Data on serum concentrations of paliperidone from patients using LAI during were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service. Information about dose was obtained from the requisition forms. As a measure of exposure, daily dose-adjusted serum concentration (C/D ratio) was used. Based on initial analysis of C/D ratios versus age, a breaking point close to 50 years was observed, thus deciding the grouping of patients as older (≥50 years) or younger (15-49 years). Linear mixed model analyses, allowing multiple measurements per patients, were used.

Results: In total, 1223 patients were included, whereof 1158 patients used paliperidone LAI in once-monthly intervals. In these patients (27.9% older), older patients had significantly higher paliperidone C/D ratio than younger patients (+20%, p<0.001). Compared to males, females had higher C/D ratio (+14%; p<0.001). Subsequently, older female users of once-monthly LAI intervals had 41% higher paliperidone C/D ratios compared to younger males (15.0 vs. 21.2 nM/mg; p<0.001). Compared to females aged 21-30 years, females with high age (≥70 years) had at least 105% higher paliperidone C/D ratio (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The present study shows that older age and female gender are associated with higher paliperidone exposure than younger age and males, respectively. Particularly, older female patients (>50 years) are likely exposed to high concentration and cautious dosing in this subgroup is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-021-03114-zDOI Listing
August 2021

European Whites May Need Lower Minimum Therapeutic Clozapine Doses Than Those Customarily Proposed.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 Mar-Apr 01;41(2):140-147

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Purpose/background: A nomogram from a British naturalistic study proposed that the clozapine dosing needed to reach a serum concentration of 350 ng/mL ranged from 265 mg/d (female nonsmokers) to 525 mg/d (male smokers). Some European reviews have used these dosing recommendations, which seem greater than what we found in an Italian White sample ranging from 245 mg/d (female nonsmokers) to 299 mg/d (male smokers). Five other published samples of European Whites were added to the Italian sample to estimate clozapine doses recommended for reaching 350 ng/mL.

Methods/procedures: Average clozapine metabolizers were obtained by eliminating outliers with confounding variables: (1) psychiatric inducers and inhibitors; (2) doses less than 100 mg/d; and (3) when possible, patients with inflammation, obesity, or using oral contraceptives. The study included 1363 average metabolizer European Whites: the Italian sample and 5 new samples. Mean averages that reached serum concentration levels of 350 ng/mL were calculated after stratification by sex and smoking status in each sample. Then, weighted mean averages were obtained by combining the 6 samples.

Findings/results: The estimated weighted mean clozapine dosages ranged from 236 to 368 mg/d (236 mg/d in 218 female nonsmokers, 256 mg/d in 340 male nonsmokers, 357 mg/d in 269 female smokers, and 368 mg/d in 546 male smokers).

Implications/conclusions: Our recommended dosages are less than those recommended in Europe. Future studies in European Whites need to replicate these recommended doses for average metabolizer patients after sex and smoking stratification and further explore clozapine dosing for those with relevant clinical confounders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001341DOI Listing
February 2021

Effect of medicines management versus standard care on readmissions in multimorbid patients: a randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 12 29;10(12):e041558. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Section for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To investigate the effect of pharmacist-led medicines management in multimorbid, hospitalised patients on long-term hospital readmissions and survival.

Design: Parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

Setting: Recruitment from an internal medicine hospital ward in Oslo, Norway. Patients were enrolled consecutively from August 2014 to the predetermined target number of 400 patients. The last participant was enrolled March 2016. Follow-up until 31 December 2017, that is, 21-40 months.

Participants: Acutely admitted multimorbid patients ≥18 years, using minimum four regular drugs from minimum two therapeutic classes. 399 patients were randomly assigned, 1:1, to the intervention or control group. After excluding 11 patients dying in-hospital and 2 erroneously included, the primary analysis comprised 386 patients (193 in each group) with median age 79 years (range 23-96) and number of diseases 7 (range 2-17).

Intervention: Intervention patients received pharmacist-led medicines management comprising medicines reconciliation at admission, repeated medicines reviews throughout the stay and medicines reconciliation and tailored information at discharge, according to the integrated medicines management model. Control patients received standard care.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was difference in time to readmission or death within 12 months. Overall survival was a priori the clinically most important secondary endpoint.

Results: Pharmacist-led medicines management had no significant effect on the primary endpoint time to readmission or death within 12 months (median 116 vs 184 days, HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.04, p=0.106). A statistically significantly increased overall survival was observed during 21-40 months follow-up (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.90, p=0.008).

Conclusions: Pharmacist-led medicines management had no statistically significant effect on time until readmission or death. A statistically significant increased overall survival was seen. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the effect of such an intervention on a larger scale.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02336113.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778779PMC
December 2020

Association of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 Poor and Intermediate Metabolizer Status With Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Exposure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Mar;78(3):270-280

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Importance: Precise estimation of the drug metabolism capacity for individual patients is crucial for adequate dose personalization.

Objective: To quantify the difference in the antipsychotic and antidepressant exposure among patients with genetically associated CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 poor (PM), intermediate (IM), and normal (NM) metabolizers.

Data Sources: PubMed, Clinicaltrialsregister.eu, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and CENTRAL databases were screened for studies from January 1, 1990, to June 30, 2020, with no language restrictions.

Study Selection: Two independent reviewers performed study screening and assessed the following inclusion criteria: (1) appropriate CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 genotyping was performed, (2) genotype-based classification into CYP2C19 or CYP2D6 NM, IM, and PM categories was possible, and (3) 3 patients per metabolizer category were available.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were followed for extracting data and quality, validity, and risk of bias assessments. A fixed-effects model was used for pooling the effect sizes of the included studies.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Drug exposure was measured as (1) dose-normalized area under the plasma level (time) curve, (2) dose-normalized steady-state plasma level, or (3) reciprocal apparent total drug clearance. The ratio of means (RoM) was calculated by dividing the mean drug exposure for PM, IM, or pooled PM plus IM categories by the mean drug exposure for the NM category.

Results: Based on the data derived from 94 unique studies and 8379 unique individuals, the most profound differences were observed in the patients treated with aripiprazole (CYP2D6 PM plus IM vs NM RoM, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.41-1.57; 12 studies; 1038 patients), haloperidol lactate (CYP2D6 PM vs NM RoM, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.40-2.02; 9 studies; 423 patients), risperidone (CYP2D6 PM plus IM vs NM RoM, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.28-1.44; 23 studies; 1492 patients), escitalopram oxalate (CYP2C19 PM vs NM, RoM, 2.63; 95% CI, 2.40-2.89; 4 studies; 1262 patients), and sertraline hydrochloride (CYP2C19 IM vs NM RoM, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.27-1.51; 3 studies; 917 patients). Exposure differences were also observed for clozapine, quetiapine fumarate, amitriptyline hydrochloride, mirtazapine, nortriptyline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, fluvoxamine maleate, paroxetine hydrochloride, and venlafaxine hydrochloride; however, these differences were marginal, ambiguous, or based on less than 3 independent studies.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, the association between CYP2C19/CYP2D6 genotype and drug levels of several psychiatric drugs was quantified with sufficient precision as to be useful as a scientific foundation for CYP2D6/CYP2C19 genotype-based dosing recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.3643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7702196PMC
March 2021

Rates of complete nonadherence among atypical antipsychotic drugs: A study using blood samples from 13,217 outpatients with psychotic disorders.

Schizophr Res 2021 02 19;228:590-596. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background: Nonadherence to antipsychotics may cause relapse and hospitalizations in patients with psychotic disorders. The purpose was to quantify and compare the outpatient's nonadherence rates of atypical antipsychotics by objective detection in blood samples.

Methods: Totally, 13,217 outpatients with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data of atypical antipsychotics were included. An event of complete nonadherence was defined as an occurrence of undetectable level of a prescribed antipsychotic in the blood sample submitted for TDM. Patients with such an event(s) were defined as nonadherent of the respective drug treatment (outcome). The rates of nonadherence patients were compared between the drugs by logistic regression.

Results: In the study population, 70.2% of the patients were prescribed doses compliant with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The mean olanzapine equivalent dose in the population was 13.4 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3, 13.6). The frequency of nonadherence patients, regardless of drug, was 3.7% (CI: 3.4-4.0). The nonadherence patient rate was lowest in clozapine-treated patients (2.2%; CI: 1.5-2.8), followed by aripiprazole (2.3%; 1.7-2.8), risperidone (2.4%; 1.6-3.0), quetiapine (2.8%; 2.3-3.2) and olanzapine (4.9%; 4.1-5.3). Users of olanzapine had significantly higher risk of complete nonadherence (Odds ratio: 1.9; CI: 1.6-2.3, p < 0.001) compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics as a group.

Conclusions: In this study, complete nonadherence of atypical antipsychotics, measured as undetectable blood level, was disclosed for ~5% of outpatients with psychotic disorders. The rate of complete nonadherence was significantly higher during olanzapine treatment compared to other atypical antipsychotics. Further studies should investigate if this reflects drug differences in tolerability or other causal relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2020.11.025DOI Listing
February 2021

Correction: Identification of a novel polymorphism associated with reduced clozapine concentration in schizophrenia patients-a genome-wide association study adjusting for smoking habits.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 Nov 2;10(1):366. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01061-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608619PMC
November 2020

Impact of age and CYP2D6 genotype on exposure of zuclopenthixol in patients using long-acting injectable versus oral formulation-an observational study including 2044 patients.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Feb 30;77(2):215-221. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, PO Box 85, Vinderen, 0319, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Zuclopenthixol is an antipsychotic available as oral and long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age on zuclopenthixol exposure during oral and LAI administrations without and with adjustment for CYP2D6 genotype.

Methods: Data on serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol and CYP2D6 genotype (available for 28.2% of the population) from patients using oral or LAI zuclopenthixol were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring service during the period 2005-2019. As a measure of exposure, dose-adjusted serum concentration (C/D ratio) was used. Based on age, patients were grouped to older (≥ 65 years) or younger (18-64 years). Linear mixed model analyses without and with adjustment for CYP2D6 genotype were used.

Results: Serum concentrations of zuclopenthixol from 1145 (14.1% older) and 899 patients (24.6% older) in the LAI and oral groups were included, respectively. Compared with younger patients, older patients had a higher C/D ratio of zuclopenthixol for LAI (+ 25-33%, p < 0.001) and oral formulation (+ 25-29%, p ≤ 0.003) without and with adjustment for CYP2D6 genotype. The doses were lower in older versus younger patients (oral: - 30%; LAI: - 20%; p < 0.001). Compared with the younger LAI users without reduced CYP2D6 function, a higher C/D ratio was observed in the older LAI users with reduced CYP2D6 function (+ 104%, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The present study showed that zuclopenthixol exposure increases in older patients and that the older LAI users with reduced CYP2D6 function are exposed to high serum concentrations. Also, the present study showed that similar dose reductions are required for oral and LAI users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-03002-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Impairment of endoxifen formation in tamoxifen-treated premenopausal breast cancer patients carrying reduced-function CYP2D6 alleles.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 03 9;87(3):1243-1252. Epub 2020 Aug 9.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: Tamoxifen is bioactivated to endoxifen by polymorphic CYP2D6-dependent metabolism. Here, endoxifen levels were compared to CYP2D6 diplotypes, tentative target concentrations and side effects.

Methods: In total, 118 Swedish premenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed 2006-2014, with on-going postoperative tamoxifen treatment January 2017, were included. Biobanked DNA from peripheral blood was used for CYP2D6 genotyping by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (CYP2D6*1, *3, *4, *5, *6, *9, *10, *41, *1xN). Plasma levels of tamoxifen and 3 major metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Clinical information on treatment and side effects was retrospectively obtained from medical records.

Results: In the final analysis of 114 patients, a clear relationship between CYP2D6 genotype and plasma endoxifen levels was evident. Low endoxifen (1.6-5.2 ng/mL), i.e. below the suggested threshold for clinical efficacy, was found in all patients with 2 reduced-function alleles, 2 null-alleles, or a null/reduced-function combination. CYP2D6*41 was the most common reduced-function allele (82%) and 17 of 21 CYP2D6*41-carriers exhibited a lower CYP2D6 activity than predicted from published guidelines. No difference in endoxifen levels was observed between carriers of 2 null-alleles vs patients homozygous for CYP2D6*41 or the corresponding heterozygous combination (P = .338). In patients with endoxifen levels <5.9 ng/mL (36/114), side effects were either mild or absent. At higher endoxifen levels moderate-to-severe side effects were reported in a concentration-dependent manner.

Conclusion: Significantly reduced endoxifen levels were observed not only in all homozygous carriers of CYP2D6 null-alleles, but also in carriers of 2 reduced-function alleles. This finding may be highly relevant for future, genotype-based dose considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14500DOI Listing
March 2021

Use of Antidepressants in Older People during a 10-Year Period: An Observational Study on Prescribed Doses and Serum Levels.

Drugs Aging 2020 09;37(9):691-701

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: According to previous studies, older patients frequently have serum concentrations of antidepressant medication above the recommended reference range.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether prescribed doses of antidepressants and the proportion of individuals with serum concentrations above the recommended reference range in older individuals (≥ 65 years) have changed over a 10-year period in Norway.

Methods: Serum concentration measurements and prescribed daily doses of antidepressants in 2007 and 2017 were extracted from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database at the Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway. The database contains routine follow-up serum concentration measurements of psychotropic drugs for patients from all parts of the country. For citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, mirtazapine and venlafaxine, the differences between 2007 and 2017 in mean prescribed doses and the proportion of patients with at least one serum concentration above the reference range, according to the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) guidelines, were compared. For the proportion of patients with serum concentrations above the recommended reference range, differences between individuals aged 65-79 and ≥ 80 years were also examined.

Results: The analyses of prescribed doses included 806 patients from 2007 and 1932 patients from 2017, with 972 and 2441 TDM samples, respectively. Between 2007 and 2017, modest reductions in prescribed daily doses were observed for citalopram (20 vs. 17 mg/day) and escitalopram (11 vs. 10 mg/day), but the proportion of patients with serum concentrations above the recommended reference range was unchanged for both drugs, i.e. 11.5% vs. 12.4% for citalopram and 3.6% vs. 2.9% for escitalopram. For mirtazapine and venlafaxine, prescribed doses were reduced from 28 to 25 mg/day and 150 to 125 mg/day, respectively. A significant reduction in the proportion of individuals with serum concentrations above the recommended reference range was observed for mirtazapine (27.1% vs. 11.5%) and for individuals aged ≥ 80 years using venlafaxine (60.0% vs. 30.0%). For sertraline, no differences in prescribed doses or serum concentrations above the recommended reference range were observed.

Conclusions: Over a 10-year period, prescribed doses of antidepressants have been slightly reduced in older Norwegian patients, but a considerable proportion is still exposed to high serum concentrations of antidepressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40266-020-00784-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473958PMC
September 2020

Undetectable or subtherapeutic serum levels of antipsychotic drugs preceding switch to clozapine.

NPJ Schizophr 2020 Jul 17;6(1):17. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Adequate antipsychotic treatment intensity is required for defining treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and justifying clozapine treatment. We investigated the occurrence of undetectable or subtherapeutic serum levels of oral antipsychotics preceding switch to clozapine as an endpoint of TRS. For patients starting clozapine, 12-month retrospective reviews of antipsychotic serum concentration measurements were performed in a Norwegian therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database from 2005 to 2017. Undetectable levels in high-sensitive analytical assays defined 'no drug use', while levels <50% of the lower reference range defined 'subtherapeutic use'. Similar data were collected for patients switching to long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, as a reference of 'no or subtherapeutic drug use'. Nineteen of 353 patients initiating clozapine (5.4%) had a recent history of undetectable antipsychotic drug levels compared to 91 of 1048 (8.7%) initiating LAI. Another 19 patients starting clozapine (5.4%) had recent events of subtherapeutic levels. In conclusion, the present retrospective study may indicate that every 10th patient starting clozapine has a recent history of undetectable or subtherapeutic serum levels of oral antipsychotics. The clinical implications of the present study for the assessment of TRS should be investigated prospectively in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41537-020-0107-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367852PMC
July 2020

Impact of antipsychotic polypharmacy on nonadherence of oral antipsychotic drugs - A study based on blood sample analyses from 24,239 patients.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 08 25;37:64-69. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, PO Box 85 Vinderen, Oslo 0319, Norway; Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Nonadherence to oral antipsychotic drugs is a major issue in clinical psychiatry giving rise to treatment failure. Further, polypharmacy is common in the treatment of psychotic disorders due to insufficient treatment effect during monotherapy. As a potential circuit problem, we hypothesized that antipsychotic polypharmacy is associated with increased risk of nonadherence. To investigate this, in terms of 'complete' nonadherence, the rates of undetectable serum drug concentrations during prescribing of doses used in psychotic disorders were compared during antipsychotic 'monotherapy' vs 'polypharmacy' treatment using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data of 24,239 patients. A complete nonadherence patient was objectively defined as the detection of at least one event of undetectable serum concentration of a prescribed antipsychotic drug. The rate of complete nonadherence patients was compared between antipsychotic monotherapy and polypharmacy by multivariate logistic regression analyses. The overall rate of complete nonadherence in the population was 6.8% (n = 1,644; 95%CI: 6.5-7.1). Compared to monotherapy patients, the rate of nonadherence increased significantly with the number of co-prescribed antipsychotic drugs. After adjusting for sex (p = 0.091) and age (p < 0.001) as covariates, the rates of nonadherence vs monotherapy were 1.69-fold (95% CI: 1.48-1.92; p < 0.001) for two, 2.60-fold (95% CI: 1.88-3.59; p < 0.001) for three, and 3.54-fold (95% CI: 1.46-8.58; p = 0.005) for four or more co-prescribed antipsychotics, respectively. The present naturalistic study shows that antipsychotic polypharmacy significantly increases the rate of complete nonadherence, which is positively correlated with increasing number of concurrently used antipsychotic drugs. Thus, the intended clinical benefit of combining oral antipsychotic drugs may probably be reduced by increased nonadherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.06.007DOI Listing
August 2020

Identification of a novel polymorphism associated with reduced clozapine concentration in schizophrenia patients-a genome-wide association study adjusting for smoking habits.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 06 19;10(1):198. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Clozapine (CLZ) is the superior antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but exhibits an extensive interpatient pharmacokinetic variability. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CLZ serum concentration adjusting for known smoking habits, which is a major nongenetic factor reducing CLZ levels. The study included 484 patients with 10,283 steady-state serum concentrations of CLZ and N-desmethylclozapine, prescribed dosing, co-medications and known smoking habits (n = 422; 9284 serum samples) from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service. The GWAS analyses were performed with and without smoking habits as covariate, where possible hits were assessed in relation to the target CLZ concentration range applied in the TDM service (300-2500 nmol/L). The smoking-independent analysis of N-desmethylclozapine serum concentration and the CLZ-to-N-desmethylclozapine ratio replicated the previously identified locus on chromosome 4. After adjusting for smoking habits in patients confirmed as 'smokers' (61%) or 'nonsmokers' (39%), a novel variant (rs28379954; minor T>C allele frequency 4.1%; 7.6% CT carriers in the population) within the gene encoding the nuclear factor 1 B-type (NFIB) was significantly associated with reduced CLZ serum concentration (p = 1.68 × 10, beta = -0.376; explained variance 7.63%). There was no significant association between rs28379954 and N-desmethylclozapine concentration in the GWAS analysis (p = 5.63 × 10). The fraction of CLZ TDM samples below 300 nmol/L was significantly higher in carriers vs. noncarriers of the rs28379954 minor C allele [12.0% (95% CI: 9.4-14.7) vs. 6.2% (95% CI: 5.7-6.8), p < 0.001]. We identified a novel variant in the NFIB gene associated with reduced CLZ levels and increased risk of subtherapeutic serum concentrations. This warrants testing of clinical relevance of screening for this gene variant, and also experimental studies to investigate the biological mechanisms of NFIB involvement in CLZ pharmacokinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-00888-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303159PMC
June 2020

Prescribed Doses of CYP2D6-Metabolized Drugs and Hemodynamic Responses in Relation to CYP2D6 Genotype Among Older Patients Exposed to Polypharmacy.

Drugs Aging 2020 06;37(6):425-433

Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Many drugs with dose-dependent effects on hemodynamic variables are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The aim of this study was to compare prescribed dosages and hemodynamic responses of such drugs in relation to pharmacogenetic variability in CYP2D6 metabolism among patients aged ≥ 70 years exposed to polypharmacy.

Materials And Methods: We included 173 patients with detailed information about drug use. The patients were retrospectively subjected to CYP2D6 genotyping, which comprised the most common variant alleles encoding reduced, absent, or increased CYP2D6 metabolism. In order to compare dosages across different CYP2D6-metabolized drugs, all prescribed daily doses were harmonized to the 'percent of a daily defined dose' (DDD). The mean harmonized DDD was compared between genotype-predicted normal metabolizers (NMs) and patients with reduced or absent CYP2D6 enzyme activity, defined as intermediate or poor metabolizers (IMs/PMs). Blood pressure, pulse, and patient proportions with orthostatism and bradycardia were also compared between genotype subgroups.

Results: The genotype-predicted phenotype subgroups comprised 79 NMs (45.7%), 75 IMs (43.4%), and 16 PMs (9.2%). There were no differences in dosing of CYP2D6 substrates between NMs and IMs/PMs (p = 0.76). A higher proportion of CYP2D6 IMs/PMs experienced orthostatism (p = 0.03), while there were no significant subgroup differences for the other hemodynamic variables.

Conclusion: In this real-life clinical setting of patients aged ≥ 70 years, dosing of CYP2D6 substrates were not adjusted according to genotype-predicted CYP2D6 metabolism. The increased occurrence of orthostatism in patients with reduced/absent CYP2D6 metabolism may indicate that individualized dosing based on genotype has the potential to prevent adverse effects in these vulnerable patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40266-020-00763-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272489PMC
June 2020

The Influence of Combined CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 Genotypes on Venlafaxine and O-Desmethylvenlafaxine Concentrations in a Large Patient Cohort.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2020 Mar/Apr;40(2):137-144

From the Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital.

Purpose: The antidepressant venlafaxine is largely O-desmethylated by CYP2D6, whereas CYP2C19 mediates an alternative metabolic route of venlafaxine through N-desmethylation. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of genotype-predicted CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 phenotypes on serum concentrations of venlafaxine and metabolites in a large patient population.

Methods: Patients were retrospectively included from a therapeutic drug monitoring service at Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo (Norway) between January 01, 2007, and December 31, 2017. The study population was divided into different phenotype subgroups according to the combinations of CYP2D6/CYP2C19 phenotypes; intermediate metabolizers (IMs), poor metabolizers (PMs) and ultrarapid metabolizers, and compared using combined normal metabolizers (NMs) as reference.

Findings: The dose-adjusted serum concentration of venlafaxine was 4- and 13-fold increased in combined CYP2D6 IM/CYP2C19 PMs and combined PMs, respectively, compared with combined NMs (P < 0.001). The sum concentration of venlafaxine + ODV (pharmacological active moiety) was increased 1.9 and 3.6-fold, respectively, in the same phenotype groups. Furthermore, the dose-adjusted active moiety exposure was similar in combined IMs as combined CYP2D6 PM/CYP2C19 NMs. CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 phenotypes explained 46% of the interindividual variability in dose-adjusted venlafaxine serum concentrations, whereas CYP2D6 alone explained 24%.

Conclusions: The combined CYP2D6/CYP2C19 phenotype has a significant impact on serum concentrations of venlafaxine and also on the active moiety of venlafaxine + ODV, than CYP2D6 alone. In clinical practice, it is therefore important to take into account phenotype variabilities of both enzymes when assessing the risk of dose-dependent adverse effects during venlafaxine treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001174DOI Listing
December 2020

Fatal liver failure after therapeutic doses of paracetamol in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and atypical pharmacogenetic profile of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 Jul 5;127(1):47-51. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Norwegian National Unit for CBRNE Medicine, Department of Acute Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Paracetamol has a good safety profile, but pharmacogenetic differences in drug-metabolizing enzymes may have an impact on its risk of hepatotoxicity. We present a case of fatal acute liver failure (ALF) after therapeutic doses of paracetamol in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, where pharmacogenetic screening was conducted. This 30-year-old man was electively admitted for a tracheostomy. A total of 14.5 g paracetamol was given over four days. He developed a severe ALF and died 11 days after admission. Pharmacogenetic screening showed absent CYP2D6 metabolism and increased CYP1A2 activity, which may have increased the formation of toxic intermediate metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine (NAPQI). He also had decreased function of UGT2B15, which increases the amount of paracetamol available for metabolism to NAPQI. Having a reduced muscle mass and thus a reduced glutathione levels to detoxify produced NAPQI may add to the risk of toxicity. This case may indicate that pharmacogenetic variability is of potential relevance for the risk of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in patients with neuromuscular diseases. Further studies should investigate if pharmacogenetic screening could be a tool to detect potentially increased risk of hepatotoxicity in these patients at therapeutic doses of paracetamol and hence provide information for selection of analgesic treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13389DOI Listing
July 2020

Impact of genotype-predicted CYP2D6 metabolism on clinical effects and tolerability of metoprolol in patients after myocardial infarction - a prospective observational study.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 May 15;76(5):673-683. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, PO BOX 23, Vinderen, N-0319, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: The β-1 adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol is primarily metabolized by the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P 450 2D6 (CYP2D6), an enzyme with substantial genetic heterogeneity. Our purpose was to investigate the impact of CYP2D6 metabolism on clinical effects and tolerability of metoprolol in patients after myocardial infarction (MI).

Methods: We included 136 patients with MI discharged on treatment with metoprolol with a recommendation to the general practitioner (GP) to increase the metoprolol dose up to 200 mg/day within 2 months if possible. At follow-up, metoprolol dosage after up-titration, metoprolol steady-state trough plasma concentrations, hemodynamic parameters, potential metoprolol-induced adverse drug reactions and number of visits to the GP were measured. CYP2D6 genotyping including the reduced-function variant alleles CYP2D6*9, CYP2D6*10 and CYP2D6*41 was performed after end of follow-up.

Results: According to the genotype-defined CYP2D6 phenotypes, 30% of the patients were metoprolol extensive metabolizers (EMs), 55% intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and 13% poor metabolizers (PMs; carriers of non-coding and reduced-function variant included). Dose-adjusted metoprolol trough concentrations were significantly higher in IM (2-fold) and PM (6.2-fold) groups vs. the EM group (p < 0.001). Only 35% of patients in the PM group achieved the primary end point, i.e. reaching at least 85% of the expected maximum heart rate (HR) during exercise, compared with 78% in the EM group (p < 0.01), and maximum observed HR at exercise was significantly lower in the PM group vs. the EM group (129 ± 5 vs. 142 ± 2 bpm, p < 0.007). In contrast, metoprolol maintenance dose, blood pressure, exercise capacity, number of visits at the GP and frequency and severity of self-reported potential metoprolol-related adverse drug reactions were not significantly different between the groups.

Conclusion: Using a comprehensive CYP2D6 genotyping panel, the present study demonstrates a > 6-fold increase of dose-adjusted plasma metoprolol trough concentration in CYP2D6 PMs vs. EMs with a parallel lower increase in achieved maximum HR during exercise but without association between genotype and frequency or severity of self-reported adverse drug effects. This may indicate that CYP2D6 PMs potentially could benefit of the increased plasma concentration per dose in a naturalistic setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02832-0DOI Listing
May 2020

The Effect of Valproic Acid on Olanzapine Serum Concentration: A Study Including 2791 Patients Treated With Olanzapine Tablets or Long-Acting Injections.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Nov/Dec;39(6):561-566

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital.

Background: The combination of olanzapine and valproic acid (VPA) is regularly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar or schizoaffective disorders. The VPA has been shown to reduce olanzapine concentration, but the mechanism behind this interaction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of VPA on olanzapine concentration during oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) formulation in a real-life setting.

Methods: From a therapeutic drug monitoring service, prescribed doses and serum concentrations from 2791 olanzapine-treated patients (9433 measurements) were included.

Results: The number of patients on olanzapine-LAI treatment was 328, whereas 2463 were using oral olanzapine. The frequency of patients comedicated with VPA was 9.4% for olanzapine tablets and 5.8% for olanzapine-LAI. The VPA had no effect on olanzapine dose-adjusted concentrations in LAI users (1.6 vs 1.7 [ng/mL]/[mg/d]; P = 0.38), whereas in the oral group the dose-adjusted olanzapine concentration was lower in VPA users (2.2 vs 2.7 [ng/mL]/[mg/d]; P < 0.001). For smokers in the oral olanzapine group using VPA, 8.7% of the measurements were in the subtherapeutic range (<10 ng/mL) compared with 6.0% in nonusers (P = 0.003).

Implications: These findings show that the VPA-olanzapine interaction involves a presystemic mechanism and is therefore restricted to oral olanzapine treatment. For oral treatment of olanzapine, comedication with VPA implies a risk of insufficient effect, which may be of clinical relevance in smokers in particular. Thus, it is important to be aware of the interaction potential with VPA during oral olanzapine use, whereas for LAI-treated patients fewer precautions are required from a pharmacokinetic point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000001126DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of CYP2C19 genotype on sertraline exposure in 1200 Scandinavian patients.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2020 02 24;45(3):570-576. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Sertraline is an (SSRI-)antidepressant metabolized by the polymorphic CYP2C19 enzyme. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CYP2C19 genotype on the serum concentrations of sertraline in a large patient population. Second, the proportions of patients in the various CYP2C19 genotype-defined subgroups obtaining serum concentrations outside the therapeutic range of sertraline were assessed. A total of 2190 sertraline serum concentration measurements from 1202 patients were included retrospectively from the drug monitoring database at Diakonhjemmet Hospital in Oslo. The patients were divided into CYP2C19 genotype-predicted phenotype subgroups, i.e. normal (NMs), ultra rapid (UMs), intermediate (IMs), and poor metabolisers (PMs). The differences in dose-harmonized serum concentrations of sertraline and N-desmethylsertraline-to-sertraline metabolic ratio were compared between the subgroups, with CYP2C19 NMs set as reference. The patient proportions outside the therapeutic concentration range were also compared between the subgroups with NMs defined as reference. Compared with the CYP2C19 NMs, the sertraline serum concentration was increased 1.38-fold (95% CI 1.26-1.50) and 2.68-fold (95% CI 2.16-3.31) in CYP2C19 IMs and PMs, respectively (p < 0.001), while only a marginally lower serum concentration (-10%) was observed in CYP2C19 UMs (p = 0.012). The odds ratio for having a sertraline concentration above the therapeutic reference range was 1.97 (95% CI 1.21-3.21, p = 0.064) and 8.69 (95% CI 3.88-19.19, p < 0.001) higher for IMs and PMs vs. NMs, respectively. CYP2C19 IMs and PMs obtain significantly higher serum concentrations of sertraline than NMs. Based on the relative differences in serum concentrations compared to NMs, dose reductions of 60% and 25% should be considered in PMs and IMs, respectively, to reduce the risk of sertraline overexposure in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0554-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6969041PMC
February 2020

Impact of age and CYP2D6 genetics on exposure of aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole in patients using long-acting injectable versus oral formulation: relevance of poor and intermediate metabolizer status.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jan 21;76(1):41-49. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, PO Box 85 Vinderen, 0319, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: Tailoring medication dosing for the individual patient is complex, and many factors can influence drug exposure. We investigated the effect of age and CYP2D6 genotype on aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole exposure in patients using long-acting injectable (LAI) or oral aripiprazole.

Methods: Matched data on serum concentration of aripiprazole and CYP2D6 genotype of patients using oral or LAI aripiprazole were included retrospectively from a therapeutic drug monitoring service. The patients were divided into the following CYP2D6 genotype-defined categories: poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs), normal metabolizers (NMs), and ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). Linear mixed model analyses were used to evaluate the impact of CYP2D6 genotype on dose-adjusted serum concentrations of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in relation to age and formulation.

Results: We identified 635 patients (mean age = 40.1 years, 9.4% ≥ 65 years, 53.7% females) using LAI (n = 166) or oral formulation (n = 469). The genotype-predicted CYP2D6 phenotype subgroups were 2.4% UMs, 82.0% NMs, 8.0% IMs, and 7.2% PMs. Age did not significantly affect exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in the LAI (p = 0.071) or oral (p = 0.14) subgroups. Compared with CYP2D6 NMs, PMs and IMs had significantly increased exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole+dehydroaripiprazole in the LAI (1.7-fold higher, p < 0.001, and 1.5-fold higher, p < 0.001) and oral (1.7-fold higher, p < 0.001, and 1.6-fold higher, p < 0.001) subgroups.

Conclusions: In conclusion, doses should be adjusted according to CYP2D6 genotype when initiating treatment with aripiprazole LAI or tablets, while advanced age do not affect the exposure of the active moiety of aripiprazole treatment regardless of formulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-019-02768-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of Clinical Geriatric Assessments and Collaborative Medication Reviews by Geriatrician and Family Physician for Improving Health-Related Quality of Life in Home-Dwelling Older Patients Receiving Polypharmacy: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 02;180(2):181-189

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Importance: Polypharmacy and inappropriate drug regimens are major health concerns among older adults. Various interventions focused on medication optimization strategies have been carried out, but the effect on patient-relevant outcomes remains uncertain.

Objective: To investigate the effect of clinical geriatric assessments and collaborative medication reviews by geriatrician and family physician (FP) on health-related quality of life and other patient-relevant outcomes in home-dwelling older patients receiving polypharmacy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Cluster randomized, single-blind, clinical trial. Norwegian FPs were recruited from March 17, 2015, to March 16, 2017, to participate in the trial with their eligible patients. Participants were home-dwelling patients 70 years or older, using at least 7 medications regularly, and having their medications administered by the home nursing service. Patients in the control group received usual care. Randomization occurred at the FP level. A modified intent-to-treat analysis was used.

Intervention: The intervention consisted of 3 main parts: (1) clinical geriatric assessment of the patients combined with a thorough review of their medications; (2) a meeting between the geriatrician and the FP; and (3) clinical follow-up.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was health-related quality of life as assessed by the 15D instrument (score range, 0-1; higher scores indicate better quality of life, with a minimum clinically important change of ±0.015) at week 16. Secondary outcomes included changes in medication appropriateness, physical and cognitive functioning, use of health services, and mortality.

Results: Among 174 patients (mean [SD] age, 83.3 [7.3] years; 67.8% women; 87 randomized to the intervention group and 87 randomized to the control [usual care] group) in 70 FP clusters (36 intervention and 34 control), 158 (90.8%) completed the trial. The mean (SD) 15D instrument score at baseline was 0.708 (0.121) in the intervention group and 0.714 (0.113) in the control group. At week 16, the mean (SD) 15D instrument score was 0.698 (0.164) in the intervention group and 0.655 (0.184) in the control group, with an estimated between-group difference of 0.045 (95% CI, 0.004-0.086; P = .03). Several secondary outcomes were also in favor of the intervention. There were more drug withdrawals, reduced dosages, and new drug regimens started in the intervention group.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study's findings indicate that, among older patients exposed to polypharmacy, clinical geriatric assessments and collaborative medication reviews carried out by a geriatrician in cooperation with the patient's FP can result in positive effects on health-related quality of life.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02379455.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2019.5096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6802420PMC
February 2020

Prevalence and risk factors of drug-related hospitalizations in multimorbid patients admitted to an internal medicine ward.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(7):e0220071. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Section for Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Knowledge of risk factors for drug-related hospitalizations (DRHs) is limited.

Aim: To examine the prevalence of DRHs and the relationships between DRHs and various variables in multimorbid patients admitted to an internal medicine ward.

Methods: Multimorbid patients ≥ 18 years, using minimum of four regular drugs from minimum two therapeutic classes, were included from the Internal Medicine ward, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, from August 2014 to March 2016. Clinical pharmacists prospectively conducted medicines reconciliations and reviews to reveal drug-related problems (DRPs). Blinded for identified DRPs, an interdisciplinary group retrospectively made comprehensive, clinical assessments of each patient case to classify hospitalizations as drug-related (DRH) or non-drug-related (non-DRH). Age, sex distribution, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), renal function, aberrant genotype frequencies, body-mass index, number of drugs, proportion of patients which received assistance for drug administration from the home care service, and/or through multidose-dispensed drugs, and occurrence of specific DRP subgroups, were compared separately between patients with DRHs versus non-DRHs, followed by multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results: Hospitalizations were classified as drug-related in 155 of the 404 included patients (38%). Factors significantly associated with DRHs were occurrence of adverse effect DRPs (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-8.0), adherence issues (OR 2.9, 1.1-7.2), home care (OR 1.9, 1.1-3.5), drug monitoring DRPs (OR 1.9, 1.2-3.0), and CCI score ≥6 (OR 0.33, 0.14-0.77). Frequencies of aberrant genotypes did not differ between the patient groups, but in 41 patients with DRHs (26.5%), gene-drug interactions influenced the assessments of DRHs.

Conclusion: DRHs are prevalent in multimorbid patients with adverse effect DRPs and adherence issues as the most important risk factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220071PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6645516PMC
February 2020

Reduction in N-Desmethylclozapine Level Is Determined by Daily Dose But Not Serum Concentration of Valproic Acid-Indications of a Presystemic Interaction Mechanism.

Ther Drug Monit 2019 08;41(4):503-508

Center for Psychopharmacology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Valproic acid (VPA) is frequently used together with clozapine (CLZ) as mood-stabilizer or for the prevention of seizures in patients with psychotic disorders. VPA is known to reduce levels of the pharmacologically active CLZ-metabolite N-desmethylclozapine (N-DMC), but factors determining the degree of this interaction are unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between VPA dose and serum concentration on N-DMC levels in a large patient population adjusting for sex, age, and smoking habits as covariates.

Methods: A total of 763 patients with steady-state serum concentrations of CLZ and N-DMC concurrently using VPA (cases, n = 76) or no interacting drugs (controls, n = 687) were retrospectively included from a therapeutic drug monitoring service at Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, between March 2005 and December 2016. In addition to information about prescribed doses, age, sex, smoking habits, and use of other interacting drugs were obtained. The effects of VPA dose and serum concentration on dose-adjusted N-DMC levels were evaluated by univariate correlation and multivariate linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for covariates.

Results: The dose-adjusted N-DMC levels were approximately 38% lower in VPA users (cases) versus nonusers (controls) (P < 0.001). Within the VPA cases, a negatively correlation between VPA dose and dose-adjusted N-DMC levels was observed with an estimated reduction of 1.42% per 100-mg VPA dose (P = 0.033) after adjusting for sex, age, and smoking. By contrast, there was no correlation between VPA serum concentration and dose-adjusted N-DMC levels (P = 0.873).

Conclusions: The study shows that VPA dose, not concentration, is of relevance for the degree of reduction in N-DMC level in clozapine-treated patients. Presystemic induction of UGT enzymes or efflux transporters might underlie the reduction in N-DMC level during concurrent use of VPA. Our findings indicate that a VPA daily dose of 1500 mg or higher provides a further 21% reduction in N-DMC concentration. This is likely a relevant change in the exposure of this active metabolite where low levels are associated with implications of CLZ therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0000000000000619DOI Listing
August 2019
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