Publications by authors named "Esmat F Ali"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Salinity Effects on Gene Expression, Morphological, and Physio-Biochemical Responses of Bertoni In Vitro.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 20;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Bertoni is a little bush, which is cultivated on a large scale in many countries for medicinal purposes and used as a natural sweetener in food products. The present work aims to conduct a protocol for stevia propagation in vitro to produce and introduce plants as a new sweetener crop to Egyptian agriculture. To efficiently maximize its propagation, it is important to study the influence of stress factors on the growth and development of grown in vitro. Two stevia varieties were investigated (Sugar High A3 and Spanti) against salt stress. Leaves were used as the source of explants for callus initiation, regeneration, multiplication and rooting. Some stress-related traits, i.e., photosynthetic pigments, proline contents, and enzyme activity for peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were studied. Murashig and Skoog (MS) medium was supplemented with four NaCl concentrations: 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 mgL, while a salt-free medium was used as the control. The data revealed that salinity negatively affected all studied characters: the number of surviving calli, regeneration%, shoot length, the number of multiple shoots, number of leaf plantlets, number of root plantlets, and root length. The data also revealed that Sugar High A3 is more tolerant than Spanti. The total chlorophyll content decreased gradually with increasing NaCl concentration. However, the opposite was true for proline content. Isozyme's fractionation exhibited high levels of variability among the two varieties. Various biochemical parameters associated with salt tolerance were detected in POD. Namely, POD4, POD6, POD 9 at an of 0.34, 0.57, and 0.91 in the Sugar High A3 variety under high salt concentration conditions, as well as POD 10 at an of 0.98 in both varieties under high salt concentrations. In addition, the overexpression of POD 5 and POD 10 at 0.52 and 0.83 was found in both varieties at high NaCl concentrations. Biochemical parameters associated with salt tolerance were detected in PPO (PPO1, PPO2 and PPO4 at an of 0.38, 0.42 and 0.62 in the Sugar High A3 variety under high salt concentrations) and MDH (MDH 3 at an of 0.40 in both varieties at high salt concentrations). Therefore, these could be considered as important biochemical markers associated with salt tolerance and could be applied in stevia breeding programs (marker-assisted selection). This investigation recommends stevia variety Sugar High A3 to be cultivated under salt conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10040820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074916PMC
April 2021

Exogenous Gibberellic Acid or Dilute Bee Honey Boosts Drought Stress Tolerance in by Rebalancing Osmoprotectants, Antioxidants, Nutrients, and Phytohormones.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum 63514, Egypt.

The use of growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA) and biostimulants, including diluted bee honey (Db-H) can improve drought tolerance in many crops, including the faba bean ( L.). Db-H contains high values of osmoprotectants, mineral nutrients, vitamins, and many antioxidants making it an effective growth regulator against environmental stress effects. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the potential improvement in the faba bean plant performance (growth and productivity) under full watering (100% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc)) and drought stress (60% of ETc) by foliar application of GA (20 mg L) or Db-H (20 g L). The ameliorative impacts of these growth regulators on growth, productivity, physio-biochemical attributes, nutrient status, antioxidant defense system, and phytohormones were evaluated. GA or Db-H attenuated the negative influences of drought stress on cell membrane stability, ion leakage, relative water content, nutrient status, leaf pigments related to photosynthesis (chlorophylls and carotenoids), and efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII in terms of F/F and performance index), thus improving faba bean growth, green pod yield, and water use efficiency. Drought stress caused an abnormal state of nutrients and photosynthetic machinery due to increased indicators of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and superoxide (O)), associated with increased osmoprotectants (proline, glycine betaine, soluble sugars, and soluble protein), non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbic acid, glutathione, and α-tocopherol), and enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase). However, foliar-applied GA or Db-H mediated further increases in osmoprotectants, antioxidant capacity, GA, indole-3-acetic acid, and cytokinins, along with decreased levels of MDA and abscisic acid. These results suggest the use of GA or Db-H at the tested concentrations to mitigate drought-induced damage in bean plants to obtain satisfactory growth and productivity under a water deficit of up to 40%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10040748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068922PMC
April 2021

Biochar and compost enhance soil quality and growth of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) under saline conditions.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8739. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Ornamental Plants and Landscape Gardening, Faculty of Agriculture, Assuit University, Assiut, Egypt.

Soil amendments may increase the slate tolerance of plants consequently; it may increase the opportunity of using saline water in agricultural production. In the present pot trial, the effects of biochar (BIC) and compost (COM) on roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) irrigated with saline water (EC = 7.50 dS m) was studied. Roselle plants were amended with biochar (BIC and BIC) or compost (COM and COM) at rates of 1 and 2% (w/w), as well as by a mixture of the two amendments (BIC+). The experiment included a control soil without any amendments. Biochar and compost significantly enhanced the soil quality and nutrients availability under saline irrigation. Compost and biochar improved the degree of soil aggregation, total soil porosity and soil microbial biomass. BIC + COM increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen over the individual application of each amendments and control soil. BIC + COM increased the activity of dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymes. Growth of roselle plants including: plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, and chlorophyll were significantly responded to the added amendments. The maximum sepal's yield was achieved from the combined application of compost and biochar. All the investigated treatments caused remarkable increases in the total flavonol and anthocyanin. BIC + COM increased the total anthocyanin and flavonol by 29 and 17% above the control. Despite the notable improvement in soil and roselle quality as a result of the single addition of compost or biochar, there is a clear superiority due to mixing the two amendments. It can be concluded that mixing of biochar and compost is recommended for roselle plants irrigated with saline water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88293-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062538PMC
April 2021

Effects of microorganism-mediated inoculants on humification processes and phosphorus dynamics during the aerobic composting of swine manure.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 25;416:125738. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

There is significant interest in the treatment of swine manure, which is a hazardous biowaste and a source of pathogenic contamination. This work investigated the effects of microorganism-mediated inoculants (MMIs) on nutrient flows related to humification or phosphorus (P) dynamics during the aerobic composting of swine manure. The impact of MMIs on microbe succession was also evaluated. The addition of MMIs had positive effects associated with nutrient flows, including thermal activation, decreases in certain fluorescence emissions, lower mass loss and variations in levels of certain elements and functional groups. MMIs altered the maturation behavior and kinetics of organic matter while improving microbial activity. Phosphorus was found in the compost in the forms of MgNHPO·6HO crystals and Poly-P as the IP species, and Mono-P as the OP species in compost generated from the dissolution or inter-transformation among P pools. These nutrient flows are attributed to changes in the structure of microbial communities as a consequence of introducing MMIs. Diverse microbial compositions were identified in different composting phases, although Bacillus appeared in each phase. This work provides support for the aerobic composting of hazardous biowaste as well as an improved understanding of nutrient flows, as a means of producing higher quality compost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125738DOI Listing
March 2021

Exogenously Used 24-Epibrassinolide Promotes Drought Tolerance in Maize Hybrids by Improving Plant and Water Productivity in an Arid Environment.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 12;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

The influence of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), applied to leaves at a concentration of 5 μM, on plant physio-biochemistry and its reflection on crop water productivity (CWP) and other agronomic traits of six maize hybrids was field-evaluated under semi-arid conditions. Two levels of irrigation water deficiency (IWD) (moderate and severe droughts; 6000 and 3000 m water ha, respectively) were applied versus a control (well-watering; 9000 m water ha). IWD reduced the relative water content, membrane stability index, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal conductance, and rates of transpiration and net photosynthesis. Conversely, antioxidant enzyme activities and osmolyte contents were significantly increased as a result of the increased malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to the control. These negative influences of IWD led to a reduction in CWP and grain yield-related traits. However, EBR detoxified the IWD stress effects and enhanced all the above-mentioned parameters. The evaluated hybrids varied in drought tolerance; Giza-168 was the best under moderate drought, while Fine-276 was the best under severe drought. Under IWD, certain physiological traits exhibited a highly positive association with yield and yield-contributing traits or CWP. Thus, exogenously using EBR for these hybrids could be an effective approach to improve plant and water productivity under reduced available water in semi-arid environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918100PMC
February 2021

Foliar Application of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Promotes Drought Stress Tolerance in Eggplant ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Water shortage and salinity are major challenges for sustaining global food security. Using nutrients in the nano-scale formulation including zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) is a novel fertilization strategy for crops. In this study, two field-based trials were conducted during 2018 and 2019 to examine the influence of three ZnO NP concentrations (0, 50, and 100 ppm) in eggplant grown under full irrigation (100 of crop evapotranspiration; ETc) and drought stress (60% of ETc). Plant growth, yield, water productivity (WP), physiology, biochemistry, and anatomy responses were evaluated. Drought stress significantly decreased membrane stability index (MSI), relative water content (RWC), and photosynthetic efficiency, thus hampered eggplant growth and yield. In contrast, exogenous ZnO NP to water-stressed eggplant resulted in increased RWC and MSI associated with improved stem and leaf anatomical structures and enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. Under drought stress, supplementation of 50 and 100 ppm ZnO NP improved growth characteristics and increased fruit yield by 12.2% and 22.6%, respectively, compared with fully irrigated plants and nonapplied ZnO NP. The highest water productivity (WP) was obtained when eggplant was irrigated with 60% ETc and foliarly treated with 50 or 100 ppm of ZnO NP, which led to 50.8-66.1% increases in WP when compared with nontreated fully irrigated plants. Collectively, these findings demonstrated that foliar spraying ZnO NP gives the utility for alleviating drought stress effects on eggplant cultivated in saline soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926631PMC
February 2021

Recycling of sugar crop disposal to boost the adaptation of canola (Brassica napus L.) to abiotic stress through different climate zones.

J Environ Manage 2021 Mar 2;281:111881. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, China. Electronic address:

We need to produce higher foods even under declining natural resources to feed the projected population of 9 billion by 2050 and to sustain food security and nutrition. Abiotic stress has adversely affected canola crop and oil quality especially in sandy soils. To combat this stress, adaptation at the farm level using new and cost-effective amendments are required. Field trials were conducted in two different climatic zones to determine the efficacy of cane molasses, bagasse ash, sugar beet factory lime, and their compost mixtures to improve soil quality and heat stress-adapting canola. The results showed a significant improvement in bulk density, hydraulic conductivity, organic matter content, and available macronutrients of sandy soil and subsequent canola growth, yield, quality and water productivity due to the application of the tested soil amendments, particularly those mixed with compost. Despite the estimated reduction of yield by 18.5% due to heat stress, application of sugar beet lime and compost mixture not only compensated for this reduction but also increased the seed yield by 27.0%. These findings highlight the value of recycling compost-based sugar crop disposal as a cost-effective technology to boost crop tolerance to abiotic stress, ensuring sustainable agriculture and food security in arid environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111881DOI Listing
March 2021