Publications by authors named "Esmaeil Mehraeen"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Design and Development of a Mobile-Based Self-Care Application for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Apr 10:19322968211007124. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Mobile-based applications play a leading role in changes in life-style, improve medication adherence, and provide a unique opportunity to aid patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) elevate their healthcare level. Therefore, we aim to design and develop a mobile-based self-care application for patients with T2DM.

Methods: The present study was an applied and developmental study to design and develop a mobile-based self-care application for people living with T2DM conducted in 2020. The design and development of the T2DM self-care application were done in 2 main phases of determining the key features and capabilities, and design and development of the T2DM self-care mobile app.

Results: We identified the main model and a set of capabilities and features for the T2DM self-care application. By content analysis on 32 different applications and a previous study by the author, 18 features were extracted for the T2DM self-care mobile app. JAVA programming languages were used to design T2DM applications. Moreover, because of the cost-effectiveness, the Android operating system (AOS) was selected as a platform, and because of the widespread use of smartphones; these phones were chosen as the format of T2DM self-care application.

Conclusions: In this study, we design and develop a mobile-based self-care application for patients with type 2 diabetes that shows potential in solving the shortcomings of mobile apps for diabetes care. By utilizing the T2DM self-care mobile app we are able to deploy a self-care application with a wide range of functionality such as text messaging, blood glucose monitoring, insulin dose suggestions, educational messaging, metabolic management, pedometer counts, and reporting. Future studies are needed to develop self-care applications for a different type of diabetes with different functions of diabetes care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19322968211007124DOI Listing
April 2021

Late Complications of COVID-19; a Systematic Review of Current Evidence.

Arch Acad Emerg Med 2021 20;9(1):e14. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Global Health and Socioepidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto. Japan.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927752PMC
January 2021

Reinfection risk of novel coronavirus (COVID-19): A systematic ‎review of current evidence.

World J Virol 2020 Dec;9(5):79-90

Université Aix-Marseille, Institutde Neuro-physiopathologie (INP), UMR 7051, Faculté de ‎Pharmacie, 27 Bd Jean Moulin, Marseille 546789235, France.

Background: There is recently a concern regarding the reinfection and reactivation of previously reCoVered coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) patients.

Aim: To summarize the recent findings and reports of CoVID-19 reinfection in patients previously reCoVered from the disease.

Methods: This study was a systematic review of current evidence conducted in August 2020. The authors studied the probable reinfection risk of novel coronavirus (CoVID-19). We performed a systematic search using the keywords in online databases. The investigation adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to ensure the reliability and validity of this study and results.

Results: We reviewed 31 studies. Eight studies described reCoVered patients with reinfection. Only one study reported reinfected patients who died. In 26 studies, there was no information about the status of the patients. Several studies indicated that reinfection is not probable and that post-infection immunity is at least temporary and short.

Conclusion: Based on our review, we concluded that a positive polymerase chain reaction retest could be due to several reasons and should not always be considered as reinfection or reactivation of the disease. Most relevant studies in positive retest patients have shown relative and probably temporary immunity after the reCoVery of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5501/wjv.v9.i5.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747024PMC
December 2020

A systematic review of ECG findings in patients with COVID-19.

Indian Heart J 2020 Nov-Dec;72(6):500-507. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Since the epidemic of COVID-19 attracted the attention, reports were surrounding electrocardiographic changes in the infected individuals. We aimed at pinpointing different observed ECG findings and discussing their clinical significance.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. We included eligible original papers, reports, letters to the editors, and case reports published from December 2019 to May 10, 2020.

Results: The team identified 20 articles related to this topic. We divided them into articles discussing drug-induced and non-drug-induced changes. Studies reported an increased risk of QTc interval prolongations influenced by different therapies based on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin. Although these medications increased risks of severe QTc prolongations, they induced no arrhythmia-related deaths. In the non-drug-induced group, ST-T abnormalities, notably ST elevation, accounted for the most observed ECG finding in the patients with COVID-19, but their relation with myocardial injuries was under dispute.

Conclusion: This systematic review suggests that identifying ECG patterns that might be related to COVID-19 is vital. Provided that physicians do not recognize these patterns, they might erroneously risk the lives of their patients. Furthermore, important drug-induced ECG changes provide awareness to the health-care workers on the risks of possible therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2020.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661958PMC
January 2021

Identifying features of a mobile-based application for self-care of people living with T2DM.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jan 21;171:108544. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Nutrition, Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences, Khalkhal, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Diabetes self-care requires support to empower patients to improve self-monitoring and maintain the necessary self-care behaviors. We aimed to identify features of a mobile-based application as a technology-based device for self-care of people living with T2DM.

Method: This study was conducted in two main phases in 2020. In the first phase, a literature review study was performed to identify the data elements and technical features of the T2DM self-care application. In the second phase, using the information obtained from the review of similar articles, a questionnaire was designed to validate identified requirements. The statistical population of the present study consisted of 22 endocrinologists and metabolic specialists.

Results: Identification of 55 data elements and technical features for mobile-based self-care application for people with T2DM, and according to the statistical population, 15data elements for demographic requirements, 16 data elements for clinical requirements, and 17 features for the technical capability of this app were selected.

Conclusion: Blood sugar monitoring, exercise, nutrition, weight monitoring, and educational capabilities were the most highlighted technical features of the T2DM self-care application. Software designers can use these requirements to design a self-care app for people with type-2 diabetes that can help manage and improve patients' health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108544DOI Listing
January 2021

Transmission Modes of COVID-19: A Systematic Review.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran. Iran.

Background: The Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable viral infection that initiated in Wuhan, China and has spread around the world. The high prevalence and spread ways of COVID-19 have become an international challenge that requires careful consideration. We aimed to review the current evidence of COVID-19 transmission modes.

Methods: This study was a systematic review that was done to identify current evidence on transmission modes of COVID19. We searched selected keywords in six important databases to discover related sources on the main objective of the study. To identify studies meeting the inclusion criteria, the authors screened the titles and abstracts of retrieved documents. The appropriate articles were selected and their results were discussed to make the final inclusion.

Results: We identified five potential transmission modes of COVID-19 including airborne, droplet, contact with contaminated surfaces, oral and fecal secretions. Furthermore, some studies have pointed out other modes of virus transmission, such as person to person, and direct contact with animals.

Conclusion: Droplet and contact with contaminated surfaces were the most frequent transmission modes of COVID-19. Fecal excretion, environmental contamination, and fluid pollution might contribute to a viral transmission. The possibility of fecal transmission of COVID-19 has implications, especially in areas with poor sanitation and the environmental pollution can be caused by patients with SARS-CoV-2 through respiratory droplets and feces, subsequently, the human environment will change to a potential medium of virus transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666201116095934DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of mortality in patients with COVID-19-a systematic review.

Eur J Integr Med 2020 Dec 17;40:101226. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

School of Public Health, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859, United States.

Introduction: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, disease diagnosis is essential for optimal management and timely isolation of infected cases in order to prevent further spread. The aim of this study was to systematically review the assessment of risk and model the predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Variables associated with hospital mortality using bivariate analysis were included as potential independent predictors associated with mortality at the  < 0.05 levels.

Results: We included 114 studies accounting for 310,494 patients from various parts of the world. For the purpose of this analysis, we set a cutoff point of 10% for the mortality percentages. High mortality rates were defined as higher than 10% of confirmed positive cases and were given a score of two, while low mortality (<10%) was assigned the score of one. We then analyzed the associations between 72 variables and the observed mortality rates. These variables included a large range of related variables such as demographics, signs and symptoms and related morbidities, vital signs, laboratory findings, imaging studies, underlying diseases, and the status of countries' income, based on the United Nation's classifications.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that older age, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus conferred a significant increased risk of mortality among patients with COVID-19. In the multivariate analysis, only diabetes mellitus demonstrated an independent relationship with increased mortality. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationship between possible risk factors with COVID-19 mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568488PMC
December 2020

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a review of current evidence.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Feb 17;278(2):307-312. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: It is reported that coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can affect the sense of smell and taste of infected people. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known, and it is therefore important to explore the impact of COVID-19 infections on olfactory and gustatory functions. We aimed to review current evidence on olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions caused by COVID-19.

Methods: This study was a narrative review performed in 2020 to investigate the olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions of the COVID-19. We searched eight keywords in six databases to determine the related documents on the main objective of the study. To discover studies meeting the inclusion criteria, the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the identified articles. The appropriate studies were included and their results were discussed to make the final selection.

Results: We have studied 24 current articles on the olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions due to COVID-19. A review of current studies has shown that we have a surge in the spread of olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions that happened during the epidemic of COVID-19 infection. Most studies (95.8%) have confirmed the symptoms of anosmia in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A review of current studies showed that, in addition to anosmia, evidence of ageusia and dysgeusia (parageusia) was also seen in patients with COVID-19.

Conclusion: The results of our study support recent reports that SARS-CoV-2 may infect oral and nasal tissues and cause olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions. These findings may aid future research on the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06120-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297932PMC
February 2021

Identification and Validation of Requirements for a Registry System of Children's Developmental Motor Disorders in Iran.

Methods Inf Med 2019 Nov 13;58(4-05):124-130. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Health Information Technology, Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences, Khalkhal, Iran.

Background:  Despite recent advances in the field of medical sciences, children's developmental motor disorders (DMDs) are considered as one of the challenges in this area. Establishment of electronic systems for recording and monitoring children's DMDs can play an effective role in identifying patients and reducing the costs and consequences of the disease management. The aim of this study was to identify and validate the requirements for a registry system of children's DMDs in Iran.

Methods:  The present descriptive-analytical study was performed in three main stages. In the first step, the literature was reviewed to identify the requirements. In the second stage, the information obtained from the literature review was used to develop a questionnaire for validating and selecting the requirements for an electronic system of recording DMDs in infants. In the final stage, the requirements were validated by selected experts (22 specialists). Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 software (IBM Corporation, New York, United States).

Results:  According to findings, the requirements of a registry system for children's DMDs were identified in three areas of demographic (24 data elements), clinical data (87 data elements), and technical (28 capabilities). In the demographic section, data elements of "family history of motor disorders" (mean = 1.18) and "drug allergy" (mean = 2.9) gained an average score of < 2.5 and therefore were not selected as data elements necessary for the registry system of data recording and monitoring children's DMDs.

Conclusion:  In such developing countries as Iran, standard information recording and management is not properly done due to a large amount of information and the lack of comprehensive information registry systems. The findings of this study can help to design and establish information registry systems in the field of children's DMDs. Based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that future research be done to explore infrastructures necessary for providing a suitable platform to design and implement information registry systems in the field of children's DMDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1701482DOI Listing
November 2019

Iranian physicians' expectations of telemedicine development and implementation infrastructures in teaching hospitals.

AIMS Public Health 2019 22;6(4):514-522. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.

Introduction: In spite of the fact that telemedicine has various advantages; similarly as in some other data systems, it is essential to investigate clients' perspective of technology. Besides, the clients' awareness and satisfaction of the telemedicine are significant issues that ought to be considered before starting a telemedicine program. The present examination in this way looks to assess Iranian doctors' demeanor and recognition toward the infrastructures of telemedicine development and implementation.

Methods: The participants of this examination included doctors working in health care organizations subsidiary to Semnan University of Medical Sciences during 2019 in Iran. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used in order to evaluate the subjects' attitudes.

Results: The mean score of physicians' attitudes towards human factors was 3.43 ± 0.59, towards educational factors was 3.68 ± 0.94 and towards security factors was 3.50 ± 0.52. Regression analysis showed that there were significant relationships between physicians' knowledge and their attitudes towards human (P < 0.001), educational (P < 0.001) and security (P = 0.046) infrastructures.

Conclusion: the findings of this study show that there are several obstacles that can be reduced through teaching, change-management methods and personal patient-to-provider communication. These techniques can improve acceptance and continuous usage of telemedicine among Iranian physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2019.4.514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940578PMC
November 2019

International Comparison of Thalassemia Registries: Challenges and Opportunities.

Acta Inform Med 2019 Mar;27(1):58-63

Department of Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Patient registries use standardized methods to systematically gather uniform data for specific groups of patients managed in clinical practice to evaluate specified outcomes.

Aim: The objective of this study was to identify and describe structures of the identified thalassemia registries in worldwide and summarize their key characteristics.

Methods: We reviewed the literature on thalassemia registries. A search of PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Science Direct databases was conducted in September 2018. We also reviewed the existing thalassemia registry websites in different countries. The keywords used to our search were as follows: Thalassemia, Hemoglobinopathy, Registry, Database, and Registration System. Some features such as the name of registry, funding source, objectives of the registry, minimum data set, and methods of data collection were determined.

Results: We identified 16 thalassemia registries operating on a multinational, national, or regional level between1984 and 2016. Most of these aimed to improve the diagnosis and management of control programs. Government funding was the most common funding source for registries. Furthermore, the most common method of data submission was Web-based data entry. The data were entered by a member of the clinical team or a nominated data manager.

Conclusion: Registries provide a positive return on investment; their establishment and maintenance require ongoing support by government, policy makers, research funding bodies, clinicians, thalassemia patients and their caregivers. However, the results of research suggest the establishment of an international network for coordination and collaboration between thalassemia registries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/aim.2019.27.58-63DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511274PMC
March 2019

Identifying and validating requirements of telemental health services for Iranian veterans.

J Family Med Prim Care 2019 Mar;8(3):1216-1221

Department of Health Information Technology, Khalkhal University of Medical Sciences, Khalkhal, Iran.

Background: The ability of timely access to mental health care is very important for combat veterans that are facing many barriers such as living in rural and remote areas and the lack of integration. Telemental health services improve the veterans' health situation by providing mental health care from a distance. We aimed to identify the telemental health service requirements for Iranian veterans and validate them from the perspective of the statistical population.

Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018. In the first phase, a review was conducted in relevant databases, such as PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Ebsco, and Web of Science. In the second phase, veterans, mental health providers, and telemedicine experts were consulted to validating of the identified telemental health service requirements by a researcher-made questionnaire. Analysis of collecting data was done using SPSS software.

Results: By full-text reviewing of 15 related articles, the identified elements were justified in 2 main categories and 24 subcategories including telemental health services (17 items) and telemental health requirements (7 items). According to the findings, the highest score was related to "save health-care costs" (4.47) and "reduce transportation-related problems" (4.47). Moreover, the "feasible alternative to face-to-face care" (2.22) obtained the lowest score from the perspective of the statistical population.

Conclusion: Due to the importance of accessibility and patient-based mental health services, more studies are needed to investigate the point of views of patients and specialists to better understand the concerns and barriers to the implementation and use of telemental health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_324_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6482756PMC
March 2019

Questionnaire development and validation for designing a health telemonitoring system for frail elderly people.

Digit Health 2019 Jan-Dec;5:2055207619838940. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Advancements in information technology have been instrumental in successful recent developments in telemonitoring systems. In this regard, there is a lack of development of valid and reliable tools to determine the requirements and applications of telemonitoring systems used to provide health care for frail elderly people living at home, specifically in a national setting.

Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2018. The statistical population was 15 geriatric and gerontology professionals and 15 health information management experts. Then, content validity ratio (CVR), Cronbach's alpha, and correlation coefficient were calculated for measuring content validity, internal consistency and external reliability (through the test-retest method) respectively. SPSS software was used to analyze the collected data.

Results: Based on the identified items, a draft questionnaire was developed. Using the validity analysis in two stages, 37 items were removed, and 60 items were approved as the essential system requirements. The final questionnaire was organized into five sections with content validity index 99% and internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient 0.9). Furthermore, the external reliability results of the questionnaire showed that this instrument has a desirable correlation coefficient ( = 0.85, -value<0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the desirable validity and reliability of the questionnaire developed, it is recommended to telemonitoring system designers to determine the usages and requirements of health monitoring systems for frail elderly people living at home. The verified instrument is suitable for use in countries with the same living conditions and level of development as Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055207619838940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437328PMC
March 2019

Identifying and Prioritizing of Data Elements for the Ophthalmology Health Smart Card.

Acta Inform Med 2018 Dec;26(4):245-248

School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Recently, with the development of information and communication technology in the healthcare industry, the tools of this technology have different applications such as Health Smart Card in this area. The main application of health smart card in the field of ophthalmology is providing demographic and clinical information for different people. Therefore, this study was done to identify and prioritize the data elements of the ophthalmology health smart card.

Methods: This study was a descriptive-development one that was done in 2017. A review was conducted in relevant databases including PubMed, Web of knowledge, Science direct, and Web of Science to identify appropriate related sources. In the second phase, the ophthalmology specialists and health information managers (20) in RassolAkram, Farabi and Noor Eye Hospital consulted by a questionnaire for health smart card requirements. This study carried out in Iran. Collected data were analyzed by descriptive methods in SPSS software version 19.

Results: Two categories of demographic and clinical data requirements for health smart card were determined. Patient ID, Occupation, and National Code were the most important demographic requirements of ophthalmology health card. Furthermore, clinical data elements of the ophthalmology health smart card were identified in three categories: Corneal Tests, Retinal Tests, Glaucoma Tests, and Associated Conditions.

Conclusion: Using the identified data elements, it is possible to design and implement an ophthalmology health smart card. Developing an ophthalmology health smart card is expected to progress of information retrieve, facilitate communication of healthcare organizations and improve healthcare quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/aim.2018.26.245-248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311119PMC
December 2018

Exploring and Prioritization of Mobile-Based Self-Management Strategies for HIV Care.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(3):288-296

Department of Health Information Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Appropriate mobile-based self-management strategies can be as new approaches to decelerate the HIV infection progression and improve the quality of life. This study aims at (i) identifying in the literature mobile-based self-management strategies for HIV care and (ii) prioritizing those from the point of view of infectious diseases specialists. This study provides some clues to design useful mobile-based self-management tools for HIV patients, from the point of view of practitioners.

Methods: This mixed methods study was done in two main phases. In the first phase, a review was conducted in: PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, and Ovid. In this manner, related studies published between 2010 and 2017 and in the English language were reviewed. In the second phase, identified mobile-based self-management strategies were scored and prioritized by 23 participants. Frequency distribution and mean reports were calculated using SPSS statistical software.

Results: By detailed reviewing of 24 related articles, the HIV mobile-based self-management strategies were identified in 47 categories and subcategories. According to the findings, "enhance the quality of life" was the main self-management strategy addressed by reviewed studies. However, "antiretroviral therapy and medication adherence" was reported at a higher rate to be a more helpful strategy than "enhance the quality of life".

Conclusion: In this study, helpful HIV mobile-based self-management strategies were identified that can be used to guide self-management interventions which have the potential to improve the healthcare services for people living with HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526518666181022113900DOI Listing
February 2020

The challenges of E-learning system: Higher educational institutions perspective.

J Educ Health Promot 2018 14;7:116. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Health Information Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: The development of information technology (IT) in education has led to the expansion of new teaching and learning methods at universities. Implementation of E-learning programs at Iran's universities as well as assessing the prerequisites and level of preparation of learners to attend E-learning environments require extensive study. Therefore, this study examined to investigate the challenges of E-learning system at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Methodology: This study was a descriptive and cross-sectional one that conducted in 2016_2017. The statistical populations were all of the students that have an E-learning course in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, from whom, 300 were selected to participate in the study using a stratified random sampling method. The tool of the study was a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed through SPSS software.

Results: According to the findings of this study, about half of the participants (40%) had problems accessing the technology, and only 26.4% of the participants had good preparation for the use of E-learning system. Furthermore, a significant difference was found between the challenges of skill and culture of the participants ( value = 0.01).

Conclusion: Success in the implementation of E-learning educational system as one of the main approaches in managing knowledge and educational needs of higher education organization will not be achieved without identifying the different skill, technical and cultural challenges. To overcome this challenge, establishing IT infrastructure and standards, using experiences of the leading countries in the field of E-learning, creating proper culture, and familiarizing learners and teachers to the development and use of E-learning materials are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_39_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149121PMC
September 2018

Common elements and features of a mobile-based self-management system for people living with HIV.

Electron Physician 2018 Apr 25;10(4):6655-6662. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Professor, Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: In recent years, mobile-based applications have become important technologies to the delivery of healthcare around the world. Mobile-based self-management systems with standard features for providing, evaluating, and improving HIV care are significantly required in developing countries.

Objective: To determine the common elements of a mobile-based self-management system for people living with HIV (PLWH).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in two main phases in 2017. In the first phase, a review was conducted in relevant databases such as; PubMed, Scopus, Up To Date, and Web of Science. The keywords used to search for resources were as follows; Self-care, Self-management, Data elements, Minimum data set, Mobile application, Mobile health, and HIV/AIDS. In the second phase, the infectious diseases specialists and health information managers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences were consulted to score identified elements by a questionnaire. Frequency and mean of collected data were calculated using SPSS software (version 19).

Results: By full-text reviewing of 9 related articles, the identified elements were justified in 3 main categories and 37 subcategories including: clinical data elements (17), technical capabilities (12) and demographic data elements (8). According to the findings, among the clinical category, 11 data elements were selected by the statistical population. Among the identified technical capabilities, 11 features were selected. Moreover, 6 data elements were selected as the demographic category.

Conclusion: We obtained data elements and technical capabilities of a mobile-based self-management system for people living with HIV. Using these elements and features, designing of self-management system architecture will be possible. Self-management skills of PLWH and their communication with healthcare providers will improve by using this system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/6655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5984020PMC
April 2018

Mobile-Based Applications and Functionalities for Self-Management of People Living with HIV.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2018 ;248:172-179

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Background: Due to the chronicity of HIV/AIDS and the increased number of people living with HIV (PLWH), these people need the innovative and practical approaches to take advantage of high-quality healthcare services. The objectives of this scoping review were to identify the mobile-based applications and functionalities for self-management of people living with HIV.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Scopus, Science direct, Web of Science and Embase databases for literature published from 2010 to 2017. Screening, data abstraction, and methodological quality assessment were done in duplicate.

Results: Our search identified 10 common mobile-based applications and 8 functionalities of these applications for self-management of people living with HIV. According to the findings, "text-messaging" and "reminder" applications were more addressed in reviewed articles. Moreover, the results indicated that "medication adherence" was the common functionality of mobile-based applications for PLWH.

Conclusion: Inclusive evidence supports the use of text messaging as a mobile-based functionality to improve medication adherence and motivational messaging. Future mobile-based applications in the healthcare industry should address additional practices such as online chatting, social conversations, physical activity intervention, and supply chain management.
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June 2018

Identifying and Validating Requirements of a Mobile-Based Self-Management System for People Living with HIV.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2018 ;248:140-147

Department Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Due to the widespread use of mobile technology and the low cost of this technology, implementing a mobile-based self-management system can lead to adherence to the medication regimens and promotion of the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We aimed to identify requirements of a mobile-based self-management system, and validate them from the perspective of infectious diseases specialists.

Method: This is a mixed-methods study that carried out in two main phases. In the first phase, we identified requirements of a mobile-based self-management system for PLWH. In the second phase, identified requirements were validated using a researcher made questionnaire. The statistical population was infectious diseases specialists affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (version 19), and descriptive statistics.

Results: By full-text review of selected studies, we determined requirements of a mobile-based self-management system in four categories: demographic, clinical, strategically and technical capabilities. According to the findings, 6 data elements for demographic category, 11 data elements for clinical category, 10 items for self-management strategies, and 11 features for technical capabilities were selected.

Conclusion: Using the identified preferences, it is possible to design and implement a mobile-based self-management system for HIV-positive people. Developing a mobile-based self-management system is expected to progress the skills of self-management PLWH, improve of medication regimen adherence, and facilitate communication with healthcare providers.
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June 2018

Web and Mobile Based HIV Prevention and Intervention Programs Pros and Cons - A Review.

Stud Health Technol Inform 2017 ;236:319-327

Department of Health Information Management, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them.

Objectives: In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web.

Results: Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included.

Conclusion: The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
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April 2018

Health Information Security in Hospitals: the Application of Security Safeguards.

Acta Inform Med 2016 Feb 2;24(1):47-50. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: A hospital information system has potentials to improve the accessibility of clinical information and the quality of health care. However, the use of this system has resulted in new challenges, such as concerns over health information security. This paper aims to assess the status of information security in terms of administrative, technical and physical safeguards in the university hospitals.

Methods: This was a survey study in which the participants were information technology (IT) managers (n=36) who worked in the hospitals affiliated to the top ranked medical universities (university A and university B). Data were collected using a questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was examined by the experts and the reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach's coefficient alpha (α=0.75).

Results: The results showed that the administrative safeguards were arranged at a medium level. In terms of the technical safeguards and the physical safeguards, the IT managers rated them at a strong level.

Conclusion: According to the results, among three types of security safeguards, the administrative safeguards were assessed at the medium level. To improve it, developing security policies, implementing access control models and training users are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/aim.2016.24.47-50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4789743PMC
February 2016