Publications by authors named "Eslam A Elghonaimy"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 regulates colon cancer stem cell function via a focal adhesion kinase-Wnt signaling axis.

FEBS J 2021 Jan 25;288(2):486-506. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Münster University Hospital, Germany.

In colon cancer, downregulation of the transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) is associated with increased invasiveness, metastasis, and dedifferentiation. As Sdc-1 modulates signaling pathways relevant to stem cell function, we tested the hypothesis that it may regulate a tumor-initiating cell phenotype. Sdc-1 small-interfering RNA knockdown in the human colon cancer cell lines Caco2 and HT-29 resulted in an increased side population (SP), enhanced aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 activity, and higher expression of CD133, LGR5, EPCAM, NANOG, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 2, KLF2, and TCF4/TCF7L2. Sdc-1 knockdown enhanced sphere formation, cell viability, Matrigel invasiveness, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related gene expression. Sdc-1-depleted HT-29 xenograft growth was increased compared to controls. Decreased Sdc-1 expression was associated with an increased activation of β1-integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and wingless-type (Wnt) signaling. Pharmacological FAK and Wnt inhibition blocked the enhanced stem cell phenotype and invasive growth. Sequential flow cytometric SP enrichment substantially enhanced the stem cell phenotype of Sdc-1-depleted cells, which showed increased resistance to doxorubicin chemotherapy and irradiation. In conclusion, Sdc-1 depletion cooperatively enhances activation of integrins and FAK, which then generates signals for increased invasiveness and cancer stem cell properties. Our findings may provide a novel concept to target a stemness-associated signaling axis as a therapeutic strategy to reduce metastatic spread and cancer recurrence. DATABASES: The GEO accession number of the Affymetrix transcriptomic screening is GSE58751.
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January 2021

Induced Tumor Heterogeneity Reveals Factors Informing Radiation and Immunotherapy Combinations.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 06 25;26(12):2972-2985. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Purpose: To investigate how induced tumor heterogeneity influences immune responses to radiotherapy with different proportions of mixed immune-responsive and unresponsive tumor cells in a triple-negative breast cancer model. It is hypothesized that studying the immune environment of mixed tumors and responses to radiotherapy could nominate immune active therapies to enhance immune responses after radiotherapy.

Experimental Design: Evaluate efficacy and immune responses generated by radiotherapy in tumors with different proportions of immunologically responsive and unresponsive tumor cells. Then study the cellular responses and transcriptomic differences between the tumors to nominate immunotherapy combinations with radiotherapy and evaluate the combination.

Results: The addition of the responsive cells to unresponsive tumors led to a greater than expected therapeutic response to radiotherapy with both innate and adaptive immune components. There was a distinct change in myeloid cells, greater inflammatory macrophage activity, and enhanced antigen presentation with responsive cells after radiotherapy. Because differences in matrix components, cell adhesion biology, and innate immune signaling correlated with myeloid cell response and phenotype, we hypothesized that radiotherapy combined with CD40 agonist antibody would sensitize unresponsive tumors. The combination therapy resulted in improved innate and adaptive immune response. Importantly, CD40 treatment increased tumor response to radiotherapy and protected against metastatic spread in a metastatic model.

Conclusions: These data combined with transcriptomics from human patients support radiotherapy and myeloid cell targeting for immunologically cold tumors. The established study model presents opportunities to investigate the complex overlapping biologic mechanisms that limit immunotherapy and to implement radiotherapy with different immunotherapy combinations.
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June 2020

Secretome of tumor-associated leukocytes augment epithelial-mesenchymal transition in positive lymph node breast cancer patients via activation of EGFR/Tyr845 and NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway.

Tumour Biol 2016 Sep 22;37(9):12441-12453. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza, 12613, Egypt.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential process in breast cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of secretions of tumor-associated leukocytes (TALs) isolated from negative and positive lymph nodes (nLNs and pLNs, respectively) breast cancer patients in regulating EMT mechanism and the associated signaling pathways. We found an increased infiltration of TALs, which was associated with downregulation of E-cadherin and over-expression of vimentin in the breast carcinoma tissues of pLNs as compared to nLNs patients and normal breast tissues obtained from healthy volunteers during mammoplasty. Furthermore, TALs isolated from pLNs breast cancer patients secreted an elevated panel of cytokines by up to 2-5-fold when compared with those isolated from nLNs patients. Secretome of TALs of pLNs possessed higher TARC, IGF-1, IL-3, TNF-β, IL-5, G-CSF, IL-4, and IL-1α with more than a fivefold compared to those of nLNs. Using the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, we found that cytokines secreted by TALs isolated from nLNs and pLNs breast cancer patients promoted EMT via upregulation of TGF-β and vimentin and downregulation of E-cadherin at messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in both cell lines and at protein level in MCF-7. While TGF-β is over-expressed by MDA-MB-231 seeded in media conditioned by secretome of TALs isolated from nLNs and pLNs breast cancer patients. The downstream TGF-β signaling transcription factors, Snail, Slug, and Twist, known to be associated with EMT mechanism were over-expressed by MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 seeded in media conditioned by secretome of TALs isolated from nLNs and pLNs breast cancer patients. Acquisition of EMT in MCF-7 cells is mechanistically attributed to the activation of EGFR and NF-κB/p65 signaling which are significantly highly expressed by MCF-7 cells seeded in media conditioned by secretome of TALs isolated from pLNs compared to nLNs patients. Overall, this study provides implications of secretome of TALs and activated EGFR and NF-κB/p65 in EMT process that may be considered a therapeutic strategy to inhibit lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients.
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September 2016