Publications by authors named "Esias van Rensburg"

8 Publications

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Complementary and Alternative Therapy Use in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

Can J Neurol Sci 2020 Aug 28:1-7. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Objective: To describe complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use amongst children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Canada and to identify factors associated with CAM use.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, utilising data from the Canadian CP Registry. We explored the association between CAM use and regional, socioeconomic and CP phenotypic variables, and parental perception of the family-centredness of clinical care using the Measures of Process of Care-56 (MPOC-56). Chi-square analyses were performed, and odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare MPOC-56 scores between CAM users and non-CAM users.

Results: The study sample consisted of 313 families of which 27% reported CAM use in the past year. Children with CP using CAM were more likely to reside in Western Canada (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6-6.7), live in a two-parent household (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.5-8.4), have an ataxic/hypotonic or dyskinetic CP subtype (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-6.1) and have a greater motor impairment (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.9). MPOC-56 subscale scores were not significantly associated with CAM use.

Conclusion: Physicians need to be aware of existing CAM therapies, the level of evidence supporting their efficacy (beneficence), their associated risks of adverse events (non-maleficence) and enable fair access to care that may be of benefit to each child.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2020.188DOI Listing
August 2020

Baclofen Toxicity in Children With Acute Kidney Injury: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

Child Neurol Open 2020 Jan-Dec;7:2329048X20937113. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Baclofen is a medication used for tone management in cerebral palsy. Although it acts mainly at the spinal cord level, it can cause central nervous system adverse reactions at higher doses. Baclofen is mainly eliminated by renal excretion and there have been reports on adverse events when used in adults with renal impairment; however, there are no consensus guidelines as to the dose adjustments required due to renal impairment. The authors describe 2 children with acute kidney injury (AKI) and systemic side effects with initiation of oral baclofen, which was started for treatment of dystonia/spasticity in the recovery phase of their kidney injury. Following the initiation of the drug, they both had decreased level of consciousness and respiratory difficulties, which warranted discontinuation of the drug. These cases highlight the need for reduced initial dose, slow titration, and close monitoring when initiating baclofen treatment in children with AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2329048X20937113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315666PMC
June 2020

Congenital Malformations in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Is Prematurity Protective?

Pediatr Neurol 2020 07 12;108:70-76. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec City, Canada; Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Congenital malformations are more common in children who are born prematurely, and prematurity is the leading risk factor for cerebral palsy. The primary objective of this study was to describe the profile of congenital malformations in a Canadian cohort of children with cerebral palsy. The secondary objectives were to compare the profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without a congenital malformation and explore the possible role of prematurity.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry, a population based registry of children with a confirmed diagnosis of cerebral palsy. Differences between groups were compared using Pearson's chi-square and Student t test as appropriate. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated RESULTS: Congenital malformations were present in 23% participants. In term-born children, brain malformations were the most common, whereas heart and gastrointestinal malformations were more common in children born prematurely. Children with a malformation had higher odds of being born at term (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 2.04); having hypotonic, ataxic, or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.72; being nonambulatory (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.29 to 2.25); and having cerebral palsy-associated comorbidities.

Conclusions: One in four children with cerebral palsy have an associated congenital malformation. Their profile of term birth, higher Apgar scores, and lower frequency of perinatal seizures suggests a distinct causal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.02.002DOI Listing
July 2020

Ataxic-hypotonic cerebral palsy in a cerebral palsy registry: Insights into a distinct subtype.

Neurol Clin Pract 2020 Apr;10(2):131-139

Faculty of Medicine (JPL), McGill University, Montreal, QC; Department of Pediatrics and Neurology and Neurosurgery (MO, MS), McGill University, Montreal, QC; Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (MO, PN, MS), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC; Department of Pediatrics (JA), University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB; Janeway Children's Hospital (DB), St. John's, NL; Department of Paediatrics (DF), University of Toronto, Bloorview Research Institute, Toronto, ON; Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences (AK), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, AB; Centre de réadaptation Marie Enfant du CHU Sainte-Justine (LK), Montreal, QC; Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (NP), Sherbrooke, QC; BC Children's Hospital (EvR), Vancouver, BC; and IWK Health Centre (EW), Halifax, NS, Canada.

Objective: To specifically report on ataxic-hypotonic cerebral palsy (CP) using registry data and to directly compare its features with other CP subtypes.

Methods: Data on prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal characteristics and gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]) and comorbidities in 35 children with ataxic-hypotonic CP were extracted from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry and compared with 1,804 patients with other subtypes of CP.

Results: Perinatal adversity was detected significantly more frequently in other subtypes of CP (odds ratio [OR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-11.7). The gestational age at birth was higher in ataxic-hypotonic CP (median 39.0 weeks vs 37.0 weeks, = 0.027). Children with ataxic-hypotonic CP displayed more intrauterine growth restriction (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.8) and congenital malformation (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). MRI was more likely to be either normal (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.5) or to show a cerebral malformation (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.9) in ataxic-hypotonic CP. There was no significant difference in terms of GMFCS or the presence of comorbidities, except for more frequent communication impairment in ataxic-hypotonic CP (OR 4.2, 95% CI 1.5-11.6).

Conclusions: Our results suggest a predominantly genetic or prenatal etiology for ataxic-hypotonic CP and imply that a diagnosis of ataxic-hypotonic CP does not impart a worse prognosis with respect to comorbidities or functional impairment. This study contributes toward a better understanding of ataxic-hypotonic CP as a distinct nosologic entity within the spectrum of CP with its own pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical profile, and prognosis compared with other CP subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156190PMC
April 2020

Profile of children with cerebral palsy spectrum disorder and a normal MRI study.

Neurology 2019 07 24;93(1):e88-e96. Epub 2019 May 24.

From the Faculty of Medicine (A.S.) and Departments of Pediatrics (M.O., M.S.) and Neurology & Neurosurgery (M.O., M.S.), McGill University; Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry (S.D.H.), Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal; Department of Pediatrics (J.A.), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Janeway Children's Hospital (D.B.), St. John's; Department of Paediatrics (D.F.), Bloorview Research Institute, University of Toronto; Departments of Pediatrics and Clinical Neurosciences (A.K.), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Centre de Réadaptation Marie Enfant du CHU Sainte-Justine (L.K.), Montreal; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (N.P.); BC Children's Hospital (E.V.R.), Vancouver; and IWK Health Centre (E.W.), Halifax, Canada.

Objective: This study looks at what profile can be expected in children with cerebral palsy spectrum disorder (CP) and a normal MRI.

Methods: The data were excerpted from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry database. Only patients who had undergone MRI were included in the analysis. Neuroimaging classification was ascertained by university-based pediatric neuroradiologists and split into 2 categories: normal and abnormal MRIs. Six factors were then compared between those 2 groups: prematurity, perinatal adversity, presence of more than 1 comorbidity, CP subtype, bimanual dexterity (Manual Ability Classification System [MACS]), and gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]).

Results: Participants with no perinatal adversity were 5.518 times more likely to have a normal MRI ( < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.153-7.330). Furthermore, participants with dyskinetic, ataxic/hypotonic, and spastic diplegic forms of CP were 2.045 times more likely to have a normal MRI than those with hemiplegia, triplegia, and quadriplegia ( < 0.0001, 95% CI 1.506-2.778). No significant difference was found in prematurity, GMFCS levels, MACS levels, and the number of comorbidities.

Conclusions: Normal MRIs were associated with lack of perinatal adversity as well as with the dyskinetic, ataxic/hypotonic, and spastic diplegic CP subtypes. As MRI normality is not strongly associated with the severity of CP, continuous follow-up in children with normal imaging appears warranted. Further advanced imaging modalities, as well as strong consideration for metabolic and genetic testing, may provide additional insights into causal pathways in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007726DOI Listing
July 2019

Family-centred health care for children with cerebral palsy.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 01 7;61(1):62-68. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Aim: To identify characteristics of young children with cerebral palsy (CP), and intrinsic and extrinsic factors, that may be associated with parental perceptions regarding family-centred health care services.

Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study, drawing our sample from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry (CCPR). Parents rated the extent of family-centred care provided by their child's health care teams using the 56-item Measures of Process of Care (MPOC) questionnaire. Environmental and CP phenotypic variables were extracted from the CCPR for group comparisons. Low and high MPOC-56 raters were also compared.

Results: Valid responses were obtained from 282 families (90%). All MPOC-56 subscales were highly rated (median ≥6.0), indicating satisfaction with health care services, with the exception of the Providing General Information subscale (median 4.8, interquartile range 3.2-6.0). Parents from Nova Scotia rated all subscales significantly higher than parents from other regions. CP subtype and severity were not significantly associated with MPOC-56 subscale scores. Higher socio-economic status was associated with lower MPOC-56 subscale scores. Higher paternal educational attainment and household income were significantly associated with lower scores on the Providing General Information and Providing Specific Information about the Child subscales respectively.

Interpretation: Participants affirmed the provision of family-centred services from Canadian pediatric rehabilitation centres. Sociodemographic factors were associated with parental perceptions of family-centred services.

What This Paper Adds: Sociodemographic factors were associated with parental perceptions of family-centred care. Factors intrinsic to the child's cerebral palsy were not associated with parental perceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14053DOI Listing
January 2019

The Association Between Maternal Age and Cerebral Palsy Risk Factors.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 05 12;82:25-28. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Neurology/Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Advanced maternal age is associated with higher frequencies of antenatal and perinatal conditions, as well as a higher risk of cerebral palsy in offspring. We explore the association between maternal age and specific cerebral palsy risk factors.

Methods: Data were extracted from the Canadian Cerebral Palsy Registry. Maternal age was categorized as ≥35 years of age and less than 20 years of age at the time of birth. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to calculate odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals.

Results: The final sample consisted of 1391 children with cerebral palsy, with 19% of children having mothers aged 35 or older and 4% of children having mothers below the age of 20. Univariate analyses showed that mothers aged 35 or older were more likely to have gestational diabetes (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8), to have a history of miscarriage (odds ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.4), to have undergone fertility treatments (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.9), and to have delivered by Caesarean section (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.2). These findings were supported by multivariate analyses. Children with mothers below the age of 20 were more likely to have a congenital malformation (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.2), which is also supported by multivariate analysis.

Conclusions: The risk factor profiles of children with cerebral palsy vary by maternal age. Future studies are warranted to further our understanding of the compound causal pathways leading to cerebral palsy and the observed greater prevalence of cerebral palsy with increasing maternal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2018.01.005DOI Listing
May 2018

Neonatal Infection in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

Pediatr Neurol 2018 03 13;80:77-83. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The goal of this study was to explore the association between neonatal infection and outcomes in children with cerebral palsy.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Canadian CP Registry. Neonatal infection was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: (1) septicemia, (2) septic shock, or (3) administration of antibiotics for ≥10 days. Phenotypic profiles of children with cerebral palsy with and without an antecedent neonatal infection were compared. Subgroup analysis was performed, stratified by gestational age (term versus preterm).

Results: Of the 1229 registry participants, 505 (41.1%) were preterm, and 192 (15.6%) met the criteria for neonatal infection with 29% of preterm children having a neonatal infection compared with 6.5% in term-born children. Children with prior neonatal infection were more likely to have a white matter injury (odds ratio 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 3.2), spastic diplegic neurological subtype (odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.3), and sensorineural auditory impairment (odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.3). Among preterm children, neonatal infection was not associated with a difference in phenotypic profile. Term-born children with neonatal infection were more likely to have spastic triplegia or quadriplegia (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.3), concomitant white matter and cortical injury (odds ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 10.3), and more severe gross motor ability (Gross Motor Function Classification System IV to V) (odds ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.8) compared with preterm children.

Conclusions: Findings suggest a role of systemic infection on the developing brain in term-born infants, and the possibility to develop targeted therapeutic and preventive strategies to reduce cerebral palsy morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.11.006DOI Listing
March 2018