Publications by authors named "Esam Bashir Yahya"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Insights into the Role of Biopolymer Aerogel Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 17;13(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Management & Science University Medical Centre, University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, Section 13, Shah Alam 40100, Malaysia.

The global transplantation market size was valued at USD 8.4 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 11.5% over the forecast period. The increasing demand for tissue transplantation has inspired researchers to find alternative approaches for making artificial tissues and organs function. The unique physicochemical and biological properties of biopolymers and the attractive structural characteristics of aerogels such as extremely high porosity, ultra low-density, and high surface area make combining these materials of great interest in tissue scaffolding and regenerative medicine applications. Numerous biopolymer aerogel scaffolds have been used to regenerate skin, cartilage, bone, and even heart valves and blood vessels by growing desired cells together with the growth factor in tissue engineering scaffolds. This review focuses on the principle of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and the role of biopolymer aerogel scaffolds in this field, going through the properties and the desirable characteristics of biopolymers and biopolymer tissue scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. The recent advances of using biopolymer aerogel scaffolds in the regeneration of skin, cartilage, bone, and heart valves are also discussed in the present review. Finally, we highlight the main challenges of biopolymer-based scaffolds and the prospects of using these materials in regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13101612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156123PMC
May 2021

Functional Properties and Molecular Degradation of Schizostachyum Brachycladum Bamboo Cellulose Nanofibre in PLA-Chitosan Bionanocomposites.

Molecules 2021 Apr 1;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

The degradation and mechanical properties of potential polymeric materials used for green manufacturing are significant determinants. In this study, cellulose nanofibre was prepared from Schizostachyum brachycladum bamboo and used as reinforcement in the PLA/chitosan matrix using melt extrusion and compression moulding method. The cellulose nanofibre(CNF) was isolated using supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was characterised with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR, zeta potential and particle size analysis. The mechanical, physical, and degradation properties of the resulting biocomposite were studied with moisture content, density, thickness swelling, tensile, flexural, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, and biodegradability analysis. The TEM, FT-IR, and particle size results showed successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre using this method. The result showed that the physical, mechanical, and degradation properties of PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite were significantly enhanced with cellulose nanofibre. The density, thickness swelling, and moisture content increased with the addition of CNF. Also, tensile strength and modulus; flexural strength and modulus increased; while the elongation reduced. The carbon residue from the thermal degradation and the glass transition temperature of the PLA/chitosan/CNF biocomposite was observed to increase with the addition of CNF. The result showed that the biocomposite has potential for green and sustainable industrial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26072008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037354PMC
April 2021

In vivo assessment of reversing aminoglycoside antibiotics nephrotoxicity using Jatropha mollissima crude extract.

Tissue Cell 2021 Oct 23;72:101525. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 11800, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are widely employed clinically due to their powerful bactericidal activities, less bacterial resistance compared to beta lactam group and low cost. However, their use has been limited in recent years due to their potential induction of nephrotoxicity. Here we investigate the possibility of reversing nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin in rat models by using ethanolic crude extract of the medicinal plant Jatropha Mollissima. Nephrotoxic male Wistar rats was obtained by gentamicin antibiotic, which then treated with two doses of J. mollissima crude extract for 3 weeks with monitoring their parameter in weekly base. Our results indicate that J. mollissima crude extract at both doses has strong protection ability against gentamicin nephrotoxicity, most of tested parameters backed to normal values after few days from the administration of the crude extract, which could be due to the antagonized the biochemical action of gentamicin on the proximal tubules of the kidney. The results of histopathologic analysis showed observable improvement in J. mollissima treated groups compared with untreated groups. Our findings suggests the J. mollissima has exceptional nephron protection potentials able to reverse the nephrotoxicity caused by gentamicin antibiotic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2021.101525DOI Listing
October 2021

The Role of Biopolymer-Based Materials in Obstetrics and Gynecology Applications: A Review.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Preventive and Public Health Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Syiah Kuala, Banda Aceh 23111, Indonesia.

Biopolymers have gained tremendous attention in many daily life applications, including medical applications, in the past few years. Obstetrics and gynecology are two fields dealing with sensitive parts of the woman's body and her newborn baby, which are normally associated with many issues such as toxicity, infections, and even gene alterations. Medical professions that use screening, examination, pre, and post-operation materials should benefit from a better understanding of each type of material's characteristics, health, and even environmental effects. The underlying principles of biopolymer-based materials for different obstetric and gynecologic applications may discover various advantages and benefits of using such materials. This review presents the health impact of conventional polymer-based materials on pregnant women's health and highlights the potential use of biopolymers as a safer option. The recent works on utilizing different biopolymer-based materials in obstetric and gynecologic are presented in this review, which includes suture materials in obstetric and gynecologic surgeries, cosmetic and personal care products, vaginal health, and drug delivery; as well as a wound dressing and healing materials. This review highlights the main issues and challenges of biopolymers in obstetric and gynecologic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923797PMC
February 2021

Isolation of Textile Waste Cellulose Nanofibrillated Fibre Reinforced in Polylactic Acid-Chitin Biodegradable Composite for Green Packaging Application.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jan 20;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Textile waste cellulose nanofibrillated fibre has been reported with excellent strength reinforcement ability in other biopolymers. In this research cellulose nanofibrilated fibre (CNF) was isolated from the textile waste cotton fabrics with combined supercritical carbon dioxide and high-pressure homogenisation. The isolated CNF was used to enhance the polylactic acid/chitin (PLA/chitin) properties. The properties enhancement effect of the CNF was studied by characterising the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite for improved mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties. The tensile properties, impact strength, dynamic mechanical analysis, thermogravimetry analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and the PLA/chitin/CNF biocomposite wettability were studied. The result showed that the tensile strength, elongation, tensile modulus, and impact strength improved significantly with chitin and CNF compared with the neat PLA. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscopy SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) morphological images showed uniform distribution and dispersion of the three polymers in each other, which corroborate the improvement in mechanical properties. The biocomposite's water absorption increased more than the neat PLA, and the contact angle was reduced. The results of the ternary blend compared with PLA/chitin binary blend showed significant enhancement with CNF. This showed that the three polymers' combination resulted in a better material property than the binary blend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13030325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864045PMC
January 2021

Recent trends in cancer therapy: A review on the current state of gene delivery.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 19;269:119087. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Faculty of Medicine, Al Mergib University, Al Khums, Libya.

Cancer treatment has been always considered one of the most critical and vital themes of clinical issues. Many approaches have been developed, depending on the type and the stage of tumor. Gene therapy has the potential to revolutionize different cancer therapy. With the advent of recent bioinformatics technologies and genetic science, it become possible to identify, diagnose and determine the potential treatment using the technology of gene delivery. Several approaches have been developed and experimented in vitro and vivo for cancer therapy including: naked nucleic acids based therapy, targeting micro RNAs, oncolytic virotherapy, suicide gene based therapy, targeting telomerase, cell mediated gene therapy, and CRISPR/Cas9 based therapy. In this review, we present a straightforward introduction to cancer biology and occurrence, highlighting different viral and non-viral gene delivery systems for gene therapy and critically discussed the current and various strategies for cancer gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119087DOI Listing
March 2021

Properties of Macroalgae Biopolymer Films Reinforcement with Polysaccharide Microfibre.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Oct 30;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, Malaysia.

Developing robust and biodegradable biopolymer films based on macroalgae is a challenging task because of its inadequate mechanical strength and poor moisture barrier attribute to its hydrophilic nature. A promising and sustainable approach to overcome this challenge is to reinforce the biopolymer film with polysaccharide microfibre (microcrystalline cellulose) derived from bamboo (GL-MCC). macroalgae were used for the development of biopolymer films without further extraction and purification, which was considered economical and easy. The mechanical, water contact angle (WCA), water absorption capacity (WSC), and thermal behaviour of macroalgae-based biopolymer films revealed that the inclusions of GL-MCC significantly enhanced the durability, moisture barrier, and thermal stability of the biopolymer films. The enhancement is ascribed to the interaction between macroalgae and GL-MCC due to high compatibility. Moreover, the incorporation of GL-MCC successfully increased the rigidity of the macroalgae-based biopolymer films against microorganism and moisture attack, but remain biodegradable and environmental-friendly. The developed biodegradable macroalgae/GL-MCC biopolymer films can potentially be used as packaging materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12112554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692191PMC
October 2020

A Review on Revolutionary Natural Biopolymer-Based Aerogels for Antibacterial Delivery.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2020 Sep 28.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

A biopolymer-based aerogel has been developed to become one of the most potentially utilized materials in different biomedical applications. The biopolymer-based aerogel has unique physical, chemical, and mechanical properties and these properties are used in tissue engineering, biosensing, diagnostic, medical implant and drug delivery applications. Biocompatible and non-toxic biopolymers such as chitosan, cellulose and alginates have been used to deliver antibiotics, plants extract, essential oils and metallic nanoparticles. Antibacterial aerogels have been used in superficial and chronic wound healing as dressing sheets. This review critically analyses the utilization of biopolymer-based aerogels in antibacterial delivery. The analysis shows the relationship between their properties and their applications in the wound healing process. Furthermore, highlights of the potentials, challenges and proposition of the application of biopolymer-based aerogels is explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9100648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601537PMC
September 2020

A Review on Micro- to Nanocellulose Biopolymer Scaffold Forming for Tissue Engineering Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Sep 8;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Nanotechnology Research Centre, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, UPSI, Tanjung Malim 35900, Perak, Malaysia.

Biopolymers have been used as a replacement material for synthetic polymers in scaffold forming due to its biocompatibility and nontoxic properties. Production of scaffold for tissue repair is a major part of tissue engineering. Tissue engineering techniques for scaffold forming with cellulose-based material is at the forefront of present-day research. Micro- and nanocellulose-based materials are at the forefront of scientific development in the areas of biomedical engineering. Cellulose in scaffold forming has attracted a lot of attention because of its availability and toxicity properties. The discovery of nanocellulose has further improved the usability of cellulose as a reinforcement in biopolymers intended for scaffold fabrication. Its unique physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological properties offer some important advantages over synthetic polymer materials. This review presents a critical overview of micro- and nanoscale cellulose-based materials used for scaffold preparation. It also analyses the relationship between the method of fabrication and properties of the fabricated scaffold. The review concludes with future potential research on cellulose micro- and nano-based scaffolds. The review provides an up-to-date summary of the status and future prospective applications of micro- and nanocellulose-based scaffolds for tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12092043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565330PMC
September 2020

A Review on Plant Cellulose Nanofibre-Based Aerogels for Biomedical Applications.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Aug 6;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Chemistry Institute, Federal University of Uberlandia-UFU, Campus Santa Monica-Bloco1D-CP 593, Uberlandia 38400-902, Brazil.

Cellulose nanomaterials from plant fibre provide various potential applications (i.e., biomedical, automotive, packaging, etc.). The biomedical application of nanocellulose isolated from plant fibre, which is a carbohydrate-based source, is very viable in the 21st century. The essential characteristics of plant fibre-based nanocellulose, which include its molecular, tensile and mechanical properties, as well as its biodegradability potential, have been widely explored for functional materials in the preparation of aerogel. Plant cellulose nano fibre (CNF)-based aerogels are novel functional materials that have attracted remarkable interest. In recent years, CNF aerogel has been extensively used in the biomedical field due to its biocompatibility, renewability and biodegradability. The effective surface area of CNFs influences broad applications in biological and medical studies such as sustainable antibiotic delivery for wound healing, the preparation of scaffolds for tissue cultures, the development of drug delivery systems, biosensing and an antimicrobial film for wound healing. Many researchers have a growing interest in using CNF-based aerogels in the mentioned applications. The application of cellulose-based materials is widely reported in the literature. However, only a few studies discuss the potential of cellulose nanofibre aerogel in detail. The potential applications of CNF aerogel include composites, organic-inorganic hybrids, gels, foams, aerogels/xerogels, coatings and nano-paper, bioactive and wound dressing materials and bioconversion. The potential applications of CNF have rarely been a subject of extensive review. Thus, extensive studies to develop materials with cheaper and better properties, high prospects and effectiveness for many applications are the focus of the present work. The present review focuses on the evolution of aerogels via characterisation studies on the isolation of CNF-based aerogels. The study concludes with a description of the potential and challenges of developing sustainable materials for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12081759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465206PMC
August 2020

Enhancement of Oil Palm Waste Nanoparticles on the Properties and Characterization of Hybrid Plywood Biocomposites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

Using oil palm trunk (OPT) layered with empty fruit bunch (EFB), so-called hybrid plywood enhanced with palm oil ash nanoparticles, with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin as a binder, was produced in this study. The phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins filled with different loading of oil palm ash (OPA) nanoparticles were prepared and used as glue for layers of the oil palm trunk (OPT) veneer and empty fruit bunch fibre mat. The resulting hybrid plywood produced was characterised. The physical, mechanical, thermal, and morphological properties of the hybrid plywood panels were investigated. The results obtained showed that the presence of OPA nanoparticles significantly affected the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of the plywood panels. Significant improvements in dimension from water absorption and thickness swelling experiments were obtained for the plywood panels with the highest OPA nanoparticles loading in PF resin. The mechanical properties indicated that plywood composites showed improvement in flexural, shear, and impact properties until a certain loading of OPA nanoparticles in PF resin. Fracture surface morphology also showed the effectiveness of OPA nanoparticles in the reduction of layer breakage due to force and stress distribution. The thermal stability performance showed that PF filled OPA nanoparticles contributed to the thermal stability of the plywood panels. Therefore, the results obtained in this study showed that OPA nanoparticles certainly improved the characteristic of the hybrid plywood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12051007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7284790PMC
April 2020

Plasticizer Enhancement on the Miscibility and Thermomechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid-Chitin-Starch Composites.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jan 5;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 5.

School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia.

In previous research, a polylactic chitin starch composite was prepared without the use of a solvent to enhance the miscibility. In this study, a polylactic acid (PLA) chitin starch composite was produced with chloroform as a plasticizer in the ratio 1:10. The blending of chitin and starch with PLA ranges from 2% to 8%. Tensile strength, impact, thermogravimetry analysis-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA)-FTIR, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to test the thermomechanical properties. Also, the morphological properties, water absorption, and wear rate of the material was observed. The results showed that the tensile strength, yield strength, and impact strength were improved compared to the pure polylactic acid. Also, the elastic modulus of the samples increased, but were lower compared to that of the pure polylactic acid. The result of the fractured surface morphology showed good miscibility of the blending, which accounted for the good mechanical properties recorded in the study. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis DTA show a single degradation and peak respectively, which is also shown in the glass temperature measures from the DSC analysis. The water absorption test shows that the water absorption rate increases with starch content and the wear rate recorded sample A (92% P/8% C) as the highest. The high miscibility projected was achieved with no void, with the use of chloroform as a plasticizer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12010115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022536PMC
January 2020

Prevalence of Human Papilloma Virus Sub Genotypes following Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas in Asian Continent, A Systematic Review Article.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2019 Nov 1;20(11):3269-3277. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Haripur, Pakistan.

Objectives: In current era of blue brain intelligence and technology access at ease, standardization of disease etiology demands extensive research to drop-down human papilloma virus associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas impact at large. Present retrospection aims to estimate comparative association of human papilloma virus sub-genotypes in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, critical analysis of existing research gap, treatment progress, co-infection, gender association, national status and challenges following Human papilloma virus led head and neck squamous cell carcinomas among world largest continent.

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are not just like malignancies of uterine cervix, lymph nodes and breast cancers. Human papilloma virus led head and neck squamous cell carcinomas treatment directly impact Central nervous system in humans. Intriguingly, human papilloma virus mediated immune response increases patient survival, which indirectly transmit human papilloma virus in future generations and act as a potential threat developing neurogenic disorders.

Methods: An objective based search strategy, following comprehensive and specific search approaches were made to retrieve recent 12 years research data from five different NCBI databases. Out of 300 shortlisted articles, only 24 principal studies met the inclusion criteria.

Results: Highest human papilloma virus prevalence (10.42 %) was found in South Asia, 5.8 % in South East Asia, 5.7 % East Asia, 2.5% in west Asia and no relevant updated data was found from central Asian continent. Highest prevalence (10%) of HPV genotype-16 was recorded in Asia among 3, 710 enrolled cases including 2201 males, 1149 females and 360 cases of unknown gender. While undifferentiated multiple HPV genotype prevalence was 5.5 % (204 cases). Lowest percentage of HPV sub-types 68, 72, 57, 39 were recorded respectively. Pakistan ranked top reporting highest number of HPV-16 cases, Taiwan HPV-18, India HPV-31, Japan HPV-35 and Singapore in HPV-16 and HPV-18 co-infection rates respectively.

Conclusions: Exact prevalence of HPV associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas among Asian population is still debatable. Due to higher heterogeneity (P< 0.00001), I2 = 81-88% at 95 % confidence interval), non-availability and limitations of reported studies from Asian sub-continents especially central Asia, western Asia and from south and south east Asia demand large scale collaborative research culture to standardize head and neck squamous cell carcinomas aetiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063012PMC
November 2019
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