Publications by authors named "Ernesto Trallero-Araguas"

42 Publications

Myo-Spain: Spanish Registry of Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy. Methodology.

Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital Universitario HM Sanchinarro, Madrid, España.

Objectives: To describe the methods of the Spanish Registry of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) (Myo-Spain), as well as its strengths and limitations. The main objective of the project is to analyse the evolution and clinical management of a cohort of patients with IIM.

Methods: Observational, longitudinal, ambispective and multicentre study of a cohort of patients with IIM seen in rheumatology units in Spain. All patients with a diagnosis of IMM will be included in the regular follow-up of the participating centres, regardless of age on initiation of the process. Incident cases will be all patients who at the beginning of the study have been diagnosed for less than 12 months and prevalent cases for more than 12 months. The registry will include data from the visit at baseline, one year and two years. Socio-demographic, clinical, analytical variables, complications, comorbidities, association with other rheumatic diseases, hospital admissions, mortality and treatments will be collected. In addition, indices, scales and questionnaires of activity, muscle involvement, damage, disability, and quality of life will be determined. The recruitment period will be 23 months. The purpose is to obtain a cohort of 400 patients with IMM.

Conclusions: Myo-Spain registry provides the opportunity to develop a cohort of incident and prevalent patients with IMM in Spain. Myo-Spain will be able to assess in detail the clinical characteristics of the disease at different times. The comprehensive information collected during the visits is expected to provide a broad source of data for future analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reuma.2021.01.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Anti-TIF-1γ Antibody Detection Using a Commercial Kit vs In-House Immunoblot: Usefulness in Clinical Practice.

Front Immunol 2020 1;11:625896. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Vall d'Hebrón, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Anti-TIF-1γ autoantibody detection is important for cancer screening in patients with dermatomyositis. The gold standard for anti-TIF-1γ detection, immunoprecipitation, is only available from a few specialized laboratories worldwide, so commercial ELISA/immunoblot tests have emerged in recent years. To analyze their usefulness in diagnosing cancer-associated dermatomyositis, we compared Euroimmun Euroline profile with our previously validated in-house immunoblot assay with human recombinant TIF-1γ.

Methods: We included 308 adult patients from Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau and Vall Hebrón Hospital (Barcelona, Spain) tested for anti-TIF-1γ autoantibodies using the Euroline profile and an in-house immunoblot assay.

Results: A total of 27 anti-TIF-1γ were detected by the Euroline and 12 by the in-house assay. Fair agreement was observed between Euroline and the in-house immunoblot Cohen's kappa 0.3163. Expected prevalence of anti-TIF-1γ autoantibodies was observed for the two methods for dermatomyositis and undifferentiated connective tissue diseases, but unexpectedly high prevalence of anti-TIF-1γ autoantibodies was detected by Euroline compared to the in-house immunoblot for other diseases (16.5% Euroline vs 0.8% in-house immunoblot, p<0.01). The in-house IB compared to Euroline more reliably detected cancer in patients with DM with anti-TIF-1γ antibodies (p=0.0014 vs p=0.0502 for in-house immunoblot vs Euroline).

Conclusion: We recommend using a second validated method to confirm Euroline-detected anti-TIF-1γ antibodies when the dermatomyositis diagnosis is not definitive. Furthermore, in the context of definite DM diagnosis with negative anti-TIF-1γ antibodies by Euroline and no other myositis specific antibody, is also recommendable to confirm by a second validated method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.625896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894254PMC
February 2021

HLA association with the susceptibility to anti-synthetase syndrome.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 05 7;88(3):105115. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Universitario Valle de Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association with anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD).

Methods: We conducted the largest immunogenetic HLA-DRB1 and HLA-B study to date in a homogeneous cohort of 168 Caucasian patients with ASSD and 486 ethnically matched healthy controls by sequencing-based-typing.

Results: A statistically significant increase of HLA-DRB1*03:01 and HLA-B*08:01 alleles in patients with ASSD compared to healthy controls was disclosed (26.2% versus 12.2%, P=1.56E-09, odds ratio-OR [95% confidence interval-CI]=2.54 [1.84-3.50] and 21.4% versus 5.5%, P=18.95E-18, OR [95% CI]=4.73 [3.18-7.05]; respectively). Additionally, HLA-DRB1*07:01 allele was significantly decreased in patients with ASSD compared to controls (9.2% versus 17.5%, P=0.0003, OR [95% CI]=0.48 [0.31-0.72]). Moreover, a statistically significant increase of HLA-DRB1*03:01 allele in anti-Jo-1 positive compared to anti-Jo-1 negative patients with ASSD was observed (31.8% versus 15.5%, P=0.001, OR [95% CI]=2.54 [1.39-4.81]). Similar findings were observed when HLA carrier frequencies were assessed. The HLA-DRB1*03:01 association with anti-Jo-1 was unrelated to smoking history. No HLA differences in patients with ASSD stratified according to the presence/absence of the most representative non-anti-Jo-1 anti-synthetase autoantibodies (anti-PL-12 and anti-PL-7), arthritis, myositis or interstitial lung disease were observed.

Conclusions: Our results support the association of the HLA complex with the susceptibility to ASSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2020.105115DOI Listing
May 2021

Toxicities from immunotherapy: From clinical trials to real-world clinical practice.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 12 28;155(12):541-547. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

In recent years, immunotherapy has become an important pillar of cancer treatment, with high response rates regardless of tumour histology or baseline mutations. However, immune activation associated with check-point inhibitors is not selective and a large variety of immune-related adverse events have been associated with anti-PD1, anti-PD-1/L-1 and anti-CTLA-4 agents. Though diagnosis and treatment of these toxicities have been established according to the recommendations from clinical trials and in line with the autoimmune disorders that they mimic, increasing real-world data is coming up showing that these adverse events may have differential characteristics and management, especially in terms of the use of corticoids, second-line treatments, salvage therapy for life-threatening cases and reintroduction of immunotherapy. Herein we present a comprehensive review of current recommendations and real-world data on the main immune-related adverse events of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.06.057DOI Listing
December 2020

Incidence of COVID-19 in a cohort of adult and paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases treated with targeted biologic and synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 08 16;50(4):564-570. Epub 2020 May 16.

Rheumatology Department, Rheumatology Research Group, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the incidence of COVID-19 in a cohort of adult and paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases receiving targeted biologic and synthetic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tDMARDs) and to explore the possible effect of these treatments in the clinical expression of COVID-19.

Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of a telephone survey and electronic health records review was performed including all adult and paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases treated with tDMARDs in a large rheumatology tertiary centre in Barcelona, Spain. Demographics, disease activity, COVID-19 related symptoms and contact history data were obtained from the start of the 2020 pandemic. Cumulative incidence of confirmed cases (SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR test) was compared to the population estimates for the same city districts from a governmental COVID-19 health database. Suspected cases were defined following WHO criteria and compared to those without compatible symptoms.

Results: 959 patients with rheumatic diseases treated with tDMARDs were included. We identified 11 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in the adult cohort and no confirmed positive cases in the paediatric cohort. COVID-19 incidence rates of the rheumatic patient cohort were very similar to that of the general population [(0.48% (95% CI 0.09 to 0.87%)] and [0.58% (95% CI 0.56 to 0.60%)], respectively. We found significant differences in tDMARDs proportions between the suspected and non-suspected cases (=0.002).

Conclusion: Adult and paediatric patients with rheumatic diseases on tDMARDs do not seem to present a higher risk of COVID-19 or a more severe disease outcome when compared to general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229730PMC
August 2020

Influence of MUC5B gene on antisynthetase syndrome.

Sci Rep 2020 Jan 29;10(1):1415. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Rheumatology Department, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain.

MUC5B rs35705950 (G/T) is strongly associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and also contributes to the risk of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA-ILD) and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP). Due to this, we evaluated the implication of MUC5B rs35705950 in antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), a pathology characterised by a high ILD incidence. 160 patients with ASSD (142 with ILD associated with ASSD [ASSD-ILD+]), 232 with ILD unrelated to ASSD (comprising 161 IPF, 27 RA-ILD and 44 CHP) and 534 healthy controls were genotyped. MUC5B rs35705950 frequency did not significantly differ between ASSD-ILD+ patients and healthy controls nor when ASSD patients were stratified according to the presence/absence of anti Jo-1 antibodies or ILD. No significant differences in MUC5B rs35705950 were also observed in ASSD-ILD+ patients with a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern when compared to those with a non-UIP pattern. However, a statistically significant decrease of MUC5B rs35705950 GT, TT and T frequencies in ASSD-ILD+ patients compared to patients with ILD unrelated to ASSD was observed. In summary, our study does not support a role of MUC5B rs35705950 in ASSD. It also indicates that there are genetic differences between ILD associated with and that unrelated to ASSD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58400-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989632PMC
January 2020

Emerging PD-1 and PD-1L inhibitors-associated myopathy with a characteristic histopathological pattern.

Autoimmun Rev 2020 Feb 12;19(2):102455. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Muscle Research Unit, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona (HCB), Universidad de Barcelona, Center for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Objective: Drug-induced myopathy is among the most common causes of muscle disease. An association has recently been described between programmed death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) inhibitors and immune-related adverse events (irAE) affecting the muscle. Here, we report the clinical and pathological findings of nine unrelated patients with PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors-associated myopathy.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 317 muscle biopsies performed for diagnostic purposes from January 2017 to June 2019. Patients were attended in two tertiary centers and muscle biopsies were performed and analyzed by two myology experts. Muscle biopsies were frozen in cooled isopenthane, cryostat sectioned and stained. Immunohistochemistry studies were also performed as a routine procedure in our lab.

Results: We identified 9 patients receiving anti-PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitors consulting for either muscle weakness, asthenia, myasthenic-like syndrome or other muscle related-symptoms, along with biopsy-proven inflammatory myopathy. One had concomitant myocarditis. In most of the cases muscle biopsy showed a marked phenomenon of necrosis, macrophagy and muscle regeneration with perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with a large component of macrophagic cells. A tendency to perifascicular atrophy was also noticed. The expression of MHC class I antigens predominated in the perifascicular zones. Raised muscle enzymes were detected in 7 patients.

Conclusion: A characteristic clinic-pathological pattern, including a myasthenia gravis-like syndrome plus myositis was found in patients receiving PD-1 and PD-1 L inhibitors. A large component of macrophages resembling granulomas seems to be the pathological hallmark of the syndrome. Further information is required to understand the wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events involving the muscle during or after treatment with anti-PD-1 inhibitors, but the pathological picture seems to be characteristic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2019.102455DOI Listing
February 2020

PET Scan: Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Myositis.

Curr Rheumatol Rep 2019 11 21;21(11):64. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) has proven useful as a cancer screening technique in patients with inflammatory myopathy, mainly dermatomyositis. In this review, we focus on advances in this direction and other potential applications of PET/CT in patients with inflammatory myopathy.

Recent Findings: Cancer screening by PET/CT seems suitable and cost-effective in patients with myositis. It has also shown value as a hybrid technique for diagnosing myositis versus controls and could be of interest for differentiating between polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis. Quantification of muscle activity by PET/CT seems reliable. Preliminary data suggest that it could also be used to diagnose and measure the activity of the disease in the lung. PET/CT should be in the toolbox of physicians managing patients with myositis. The multiple applications of PET/CT include its value for cancer screening, measuring the activity of the disease in muscle, and helping to differentiate between myositis phenotypes. The possibility to diagnose and monitor inflammatory lung activity remains to be demonstrated in well-designed studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11926-019-0864-3DOI Listing
November 2019

Influence of Antisynthetase Antibodies Specificities on Antisynthetase Syndrome Clinical Spectrum Time Course.

J Clin Med 2019 Nov 18;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Department of Rheumatology, S. Maria Hospital-IRCCS, 42123 Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a rare clinical condition that is characterized by the occurrence of a classic clinical triad, encompassing myositis, arthritis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD), along with specific autoantibodies that are addressed to different aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS). Until now, it has been unknown whether the presence of a different ARS might affect the clinical presentation, evolution, and outcome of ASSD. In this study, we retrospectively recorded the time of onset, characteristics, clustering of triad findings, and survival of 828 ASSD patients (593 anti-Jo1, 95 anti-PL7, 84 anti-PL12, 38 anti-EJ, and 18 anti-OJ), referring to AENEAS (American and European NEtwork of Antisynthetase Syndrome) collaborative group's cohort. Comparisons were performed first between all ARS cases and then, in the case of significance, while using anti-Jo1 positive patients as the reference group. The characteristics of triad findings were similar and the onset mainly began with a single triad finding in all groups despite some differences in overall prevalence. The "ex-novo" occurrence of triad findings was only reduced in the anti-PL12-positive cohort, however, it occurred in a clinically relevant percentage of patients (30%). Moreover, survival was not influenced by the underlying anti-aminoacyl tRNA synthetase antibodies' positivity, which confirmed that antisynthetase syndrome is a heterogeneous condition and that antibody specificity only partially influences the clinical presentation and evolution of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8112013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912490PMC
November 2019

Malignancy and myositis, from molecular mimicry to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

Neuromuscul Disord 2019 11 26;29(11):819-825. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States.

Cancer-associated dermatomyositis provides a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we describe the related epidemiological issues, considering the various currently accepted myositis phenotypes, their link with cancer, and the possible mechanisms leading to this relationship. We discuss current evidence regarding the role of molecular mimicry, somatic DNA tumor mutations, and the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in the association between cancer and myositis. We also review tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as a relevant factor to be evaluated in cancer-associated myositis, their interaction with tumor neoantigens, and the tumor mutational burden, all of which have implications for the treatment of these patients with immunotherapy. Finally, we discuss clinical scenarios related to the relationship between cancer and myositis, delineating a comprehensive theory linking autoimmunity and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2019.09.014DOI Listing
November 2019

Anti-transcriptional intermediary factor 1 gamma antibodies in cancer-associated myositis: a longitudinal study.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Jan-Feb;38(1):67-73. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate anti-TIF1-γ antibodies in longitudinally followed patients with myositis and cancer.

Methods: Serum levels of anti-TIF1-γ antibodies at different time-points in relation to myositis and cancer diagnosis were analysed by ELISA in 79 patients from a Swedish cohort with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) and a Spanish cohort restricted to DM patients. Anti-TIF1-γ positive and negative patients were compared with Fisher's exact test, student t-tests and Wilcoxon test.

Results: Thirty-six patients (17 from cohort 1 and 19 from cohort 2) with myositis and cancer were anti-TIF1-γ antibody positive; all had DM. In 88% of anti-TIF1-γ positive patients, cancer was diagnosed within 3 years from DM diagnosis compared to 63% in anti-TIF1-γ negative. Four DM patients, anti-TIF1-γ positive at cancer diagnosis had positive serum samples even antedating cancer diagnosis up to five years. In cohort 1 the median (interquartile range) antibody level was higher, 2.13 au (1.82-2.15), in the seven patients who died <1 year after cancer diagnosis, compared to the seven that died >1 year after cancer diagnosis, 1.34 au (0.92-1.59), (p=0.004). Three patients were still alive and in remission from cancer and DM 14-16 years after cancer treatment of whom two became negative for anti-TIF1-γ antibodies. In the second cohort remission of cancer coincided with remission of DM and low or negative serum levels of autoantibodies.

Conclusions: Anti-TIF1-γ antibodies may be detected before clinical symptoms of cancer and may disappear after successful treatment of cancer with remission of DM supporting DM being a paramalignant phenomenon.
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March 2020

Nailfold Capillaroscopy Characteristics of Antisynthetase Syndrome and Possible Clinical Associations: Results of a Multicenter International Study.

J Rheumatol 2019 03 15;46(3):279-284. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

From the Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Policlinico of Modena, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; ACURA Rheumatology Center, Bad Kreuznach, Germany; Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, IDiVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain; Rheumatology Division, University Hospital of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany; Interstitial Lung Disease and Rheumatology Unit, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Ismael Cosío Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine (DIM), Rheumatology Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; Rheumatology Department, Hospital Universitario de la Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria (IIS) Princesa, Madrid; Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, on behalf of the GEAS group, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, and Department of Medical and Surgical Critical Care, Section of Dermatology, University of Florence, Florence; Unità Operativa Complessa (UOC) Reumatologia, Ospedale San Camillo-Forlanini, Rome; ACURA Centre for Rheumatic Diseases, Baden-Baden, Germany; Rheumatology Department, Città Della Salute e della Scienza, Torino; Division of Rheumatology, University and Institute for Research and Health Care (IRCCS) Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, Pavia, Italy; Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain; Dermatology Clinic, University Hospital of Trieste; Department of Pneumology and Respiratory Intermediate Care Unit, University Hospital of Cattinara, Trieste; Rheumatology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti di Trieste, Trieste, Italy; Medizinische Klinik A, Klinikum der Stadt, Ludwigshafen, Germany; Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, San Martino Polyclinic Hospital IRCCS Genoa, Genoa, Italy; Interstitial and Rare Lung Disease Unit, Ruhrlandklinik University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; UOC Reumatologia, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria S. Anna, University of Ferrara, Italy; Department for Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, St. Josef Krankenhaus, University Clinic, Essen, Germany; Division of Rheumatology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa; Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Johannes-Gutenberg, Mainz, Germany; University of Ghent, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: To describe nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) features of patients with antisynthetase syndrome (AS) and to investigate possible correlations with clinical and serological features of the disease.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed NVC images of 190 patients with AS [females/males 3.63, mean age 49.7 ± 12.8 yrs, median disease duration 53.7 mos (interquartile range 82), 133 anti-Jo1 and 57 non-anti-Jo1-positive patients]. For each patient, we examined number of capillaries, giant capillaries, microhemorrhages, avascular areas, ramified capillaries, and the presence of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-like pattern. Finally, we correlated NVC features with clinical and serological findings of patients with AS. Concomitantly, a historical cohort of 75 patients with antinuclear antibody-negative primary Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and longterm followup was used as a control group (female/male ratio 4.13/1, mean age 53.9 ± 17.6 yrs) for NVC measures.

Results: NVC abnormalities were observed in 62.1% of AS patients compared with 29.3% of primary RP group (p < 0.001). An SSc-like pattern was detected in 67 patients (35.3%) and it was associated with anti-Jo1 antibodies (p = 0.002) and also with a longer disease duration (p = 0.004). Interestingly, there was no significant correlation between the presence of SSc-like pattern and RP, and only 47% of patients with SSc-like pattern had RP.

Conclusion: NVC abnormalities are commonly observed in AS, independently from the occurrence of RP. The presence of an SSc-like pattern could allow identification of a more defined AS subtype, and prospective studies could confirm the association with clinical and serological features of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3899/jrheum.180355DOI Listing
March 2019

Classification and management of adult inflammatory myopathies.

Lancet Neurol 2018 09;17(9):816-828

Muscle Disease Unit, Laboratory of Muscle Stem Cells and Gene Regulation, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Inflammatory myopathies, collectively known as myositis, are heterogeneous disorders characterised by muscle inflammation, and frequently accompanied by extramuscular manifestations that affect the skin, lung, and joints. Patients with inflammatory myopathies were previously classified as having dermatomyositis if characteristic rashes accompanied the muscle involvement, and as having polymyositis if no rashes were present. Five main types of inflammatory myopathies are now widely recognised: dermatomyositis, immune-mediated necrotising myopathy, sporadic inclusion-body myositis, overlap myositis (including antisynthetase syndrome), and polymyositis. The discovery of autoantibodies that are specifically associated with characteristic clinical phenotypes has been instrumental to the understanding of inflammatory myopathies. Treatment is still largely based on expert opinion, but several studies have shown effectiveness of different therapies in various subsets of inflammatory myopathies. These advances will undoubtedly improve the outcomes of patients with inflammatory myopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30254-0DOI Listing
September 2018

The diagnostic work-up of cancer-associated myositis.

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2018 11;30(6):630-636

Muscle Diseases Unit, NIAMS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Despite the well-recognized association between malignancy and myositis, definite data indicating the best strategy for diagnosing cancer in myositis patients is lacking. In this article, we review the data on cancer screening in patients with myositis, and propose an algorithm for this purpose based on recently published data.

Recent Findings: Evidence has recently emerged supporting blind screening in patients with certain myositis phenotypes. In addition to the clinical examination, imaging techniques such as PET/computed tomography scanning and whole-body MRI, and determination of the autoantibody profile beyond anti-TIF1γ antibody, the well known cancer biomarker in dermatomyositis, will help the clinician face this complex clinical situation. Molecules related to the checkpoint inhibitor pathway, specifically soluble programmed death 1, may also have a role in the diagnostic work-up of cancer in myositis. In the future, blood tests analysing circulating DNA will certainly help in detecting patients with cancer-associated myositis (CAM).

Summary: A step forward has been achieved in the pathway to establish optimal cancer screening for myositis patients. International consensus guidelines for an effective diagnostic work-up of CAM are in progress and will be of paramount importance to improving the outcome in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000535DOI Listing
November 2018

Statin-induced myalgia and myositis: an update on pathogenesis and clinical recommendations.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2018 03 23;14(3):215-224. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

e Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Clinic , Universitat de Barcelona , CIBERER , Barcelona , Spain.

Introduction: Musculoskeletal manifestations are well-recognized side effects of treatment with statins. New advances in this field have appeared in recent years. This review focuses on the diagnosis of these conditions and their underlying pathogenesis, in particular immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Areas covered: Clinical phenotypes including rhabdomyolysis, myalgia and/or mild hyperCKemia, self-limited toxin statin myopathy, and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy are herein described. Therapeutic recommendations and a diagnostic algorithm in statin-associated myopathy are also proposed. The etiology and pathogenesis of statin-induced myopathy has mainly focused on the anti-HMGCR antibodies and the responsibility of the immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy is discussed. The fact that patients who have not been exposed to statins may develop statin-associated autoimmune myopathy with anti-HMGCR antibodies is also addressed. The literature search strategy included terms identified by searches of PubMed between 1969 and December 2017. The search terms 'myositis', 'statin-induced autoimmune myopathy', 'immune-mediate necrotizing myopathy', 'statins', 'muscular manifestations', and 'anti-HMGCR antibodies' were used. Expert commentary: Full characterization of the known phenotypes of statin toxicity and the specific role of the anti-HMGCR in those exposed and not exposed (i.e. juvenile forms) to statins and in some types of neoplasms is of paramount relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1744666X.2018.1440206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6019601PMC
March 2018

Opportunistic infections in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies.

Int J Rheum Dis 2018 Feb 5;21(2):487-496. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Internal Medicine Department, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Aim: To describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and risk factors of opportunistic infection (OI) in a cohort of patients with inflammatory myopathies, and compare mortality rates between those with and without OIs.

Methods: In total, 204 patients from our myositis cohort were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced an OI during the period 1986-2014. The patients' clinical characteristics, treatments received, and outcomes were systematically recorded. Disease activity at the OI diagnosis and the cumulative doses of immunosuppressive drugs were analyzed, as well as the specific pathogens involved and affected organs.

Results: The prevalence of OI in the total cohort was 6.4%: viruses, 44.4% (varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus); bacteria, 22.2% (Salmonella sp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. chelonae); fungi, 16.7% (Candida albicans, Pneumocystis jirovecii); and parasites, 16.7% (Toxoplasmosis gondii, Leishmania spp.). Lung and skin/soft tissues were the organs most commonly affected (27.8%). Overall, 55.6% of OIs developed during the first year after the myositis diagnosis and OI was significantly associated with administration of high-dose glucocorticoids (P = 0.0148). Fever at onset of myositis (P = 0.0317), biological therapy (P < 0.001) and sequential administration of four or more immunosuppressive agents during myositis evolution (P = 0.0032) were significantly associated with OI. All-cause mortality in the OI group was 3.69 deaths per 100 patients/year versus 3.40 in the remainder of the cohort (P = 0.996).

Conclusions: The prevalence of OI was 6.4% in our myositis cohort, higher than the rest of the inpatients of our hospital (1.7%; P < 0.01). High-dose glucocorticoids at disease onset and severe immunosuppression are the main factors implicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1756-185X.13255DOI Listing
February 2018

Tumour TIF1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity related to cancer-associated myositis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 02;57(2):388-396

Internal Medicine Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: To analyse the influence of genetic alterations and differential expression of transcription intermediary factor 1 (TIF1) genes in the pathophysiology of cancer-associated myositis (CAM).

Methods: Paired blood and tumour DNA samples from patients with anti-TIF1γ-positive CAM and from controls were analysed by whole-exome sequencing for the presence of somatic mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in their TIF1 genes. The genesis and maintenance of the autoimmune process were investigated immunohistochemically by studying TIF1γ expression in the different tissues involved in CAM (skin, muscle and tumour) based on the immunohistochemical H-score.

Results: From seven patients with anti-TIF1γ-positive CAM, we detected one somatic mutation and five cases of LOH in one or more of the four TIF1 genes compared with just one case of LOH in tumours from TIF1γ-negative myositis patients (86% vs 17%; P = 0.03). Compared with type-matched control tumours from non-myositis patients, TIF1γ staining was more intense in tumours from anti-TIF1γ-positive patients (H-score 255 vs 196; P = 0.01). Also, TIF1γ staining in muscle was slightly more intense in anti-TIF1γ-positive than in anti-TIF1γ-negative myositis (H-score 22 vs 5; P = 0.03). In contrast, intense TIF1γ staining was detected in the skin of both myositis and control patients.

Conclusion: Tumours from paraneoplastic anti-TIF1γ-positive patients showed an increased number of genetic alterations, such as mutations and LOH, in TIF1 genes. These genetic alterations, in the context of a high expression of TIF1γ in the tumour, muscle and skin of these patients may be key to understanding the genesis of paraneoplastic myositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kex413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850766PMC
February 2018

Timing of onset affects arthritis presentation pattern in antisyntethase syndrome.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 Jan-Feb;36(1):44-49. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

UOC Reumatologia, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria S. Anna, University of Ferrara, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate if the timing of appearance with respect to disease onset may influence the arthritis presentation pattern in antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD).

Methods: The patients were selected from a retrospective large international cohort of ASSD patients regularly followed-up in centres referring to AENEAS collaborative group. Patients were eligible if they had an antisynthetase antibody testing positive in at least two determinations along with arthritis occurring either at ASSD onset (Group 1) or during the course of the disease (Group 2).

Results: 445 (70%; 334 females, 110 males, 1 transsexual) out of the 636 ASSD we collected had arthritis, in the majority of cases (367, 83%) from disease onset (Group 1). Patients belonging to Group 1 with respect to Group 2 had an arthritis more commonly polyarticular and symmetrical (p=0.015), IgM-Rheumatoid factor positive (p=0.035), erosions at hands and feet plain x-rays (p=0.036) and more commonly satisfying the 1987 revised classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (p=0.004). Features such as Raynaud's phenomenon, mechanic's hands and fever (e.g. accompanying findings) were more frequently reported in Group 2 (p=0.005).

Conclusions: In ASSD, the timing of appearance with respect to disease onset influences arthritis characteristics. In particular, RA features are more common when arthritis occurs from ASSD onset, suggesting an overlap between RA and ASSD in these patients. When arthritis appears during the follow-up, it is very close to a connective tissue disease-related arthritis. Also, the different prevalence of accompanying features between these two groups is in line with this possibility.
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April 2018

Antisynthetase syndrome. Multidisciplinary evaluation and comittment.

Med Clin (Barc) 2017 Feb 7;148(4):164-165. Epub 2017 Jan 7.

Grupo para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas (GEAS) de la Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI); Unidad de Enfermedades Autoinmunes Sistémicas, Servicio de Medicina Interna, Reumatología, Barcelona, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2016.12.007DOI Listing
February 2017

Clinical manifestations and long-term outcome of anti-Jo1 antisynthetase patients in a large cohort of Spanish patients from the GEAS-IIM group.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016 10 30;46(2):225-231. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Internal Medicine Department, Vall d'Hebron General Hospital, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical manifestations, long-term clinical outcome and longitudinal pulmonary function in a large cohort of Spanish patients with anti-Jo1 antibodies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data and lung function parameters of 148 anti-Jo1 patients recruited from a multicentre registry including 18 Spanish hospitals. A composite endpoint was defined, comprising death due to respiratory failure directly related to antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), the need for long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Results: Median follow-up was 78.3 months. Clinical presentation patterns at onset are as follows: isolated interstitial lung disease (ILD) (32.4%), isolated myositis (26.9%), concomitant myositis and ILD (22.8%), and isolated polyarthritis (17.9%). Myositis with ILD was the most frequent final clinical phenotype (67.6%). In most ASS patients, ILD was a non-progressive disease, tending to stabilize with therapy. The endpoint was reached in a significantly larger number of ILD patients with dyspnea at onset than those with paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic forms (p = 0.01). A steady FVC decrease was the hallmark of patients with end-stage lung disease. Estimated survival rates were 87.7% and 75.4% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Cancer (p = 0.02) and advanced age at ASS diagnosis (p < 0.0001) were related to poorer survival. Mortality was significantly higher than in the general Spanish population, with a standardised mortality ratio (95% CI) of 4.03 (2.79-5.64).

Conclusions: Anti-Jo1 ASS is a heterogeneous syndrome. ILD in ASS under immunosuppressive therapy is mainly a non-progressive disease. Dyspnea at ILD onset and a steady FVC decrease over time were related to a poorer respiratory prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.03.011DOI Listing
October 2016

Inflammatory myopathy: diagnosis and clinical course, specific clinical scenarios and new complementary tools.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2015 Jun 30;11(6):737-47. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

1 Internal Medicine Department, Vall d'Hebron General Hospital, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetric proximal muscle weakness and inflammatory infiltrates on muscle biopsy. A meticulously collected combination of clinical, serological, and pathological data is essential to correctly diagnose and classify myositis patients, often a considerable challenge for clinicians. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the most useful tools for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with myositis. Capillaroscopy, serological biomarkers (particularly the autoantibody profile) and imaging techniques, such as muscle magnetic resonance and chest ultrasound, are of great aid in diagnosing, classifying and managing these patients. Relevant clinical scenarios, such as interstitial lung disease, associated cancer and pregnancy are also addressed in this review. Myositis registries, identification of new autoantibodies, and genetic studies will enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of these conditions and help to define new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/1744666X.2015.1035258DOI Listing
June 2015

Identification of a novel myositis-associated antibody directed against cortactin.

Autoimmun Rev 2014 Oct 27;13(10):1008-12. Epub 2014 Aug 27.

Immunology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study is to describe a novel myositis-associated autoantibody (anti-cortactin antibody) and assess related clinical and immunological manifestations and its clinical significance.

Methods: Adult patients with myositis (dermatomyositis, polymyositis, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, and inclusion body myositis), as well as patients with other autoimmune diseases and non-inflammatory myopathies were analyzed for the presence of anti-cortactin antibody using in-house developed ELISA and immunoblotting techniques with a commercial source of purified cortactin. The cut-off for positive status was determined in a group of healthy volunteers.

Results: Antibody against cortactin was positive in 7/34 (20%) polymyositis patients, 9/117 (7.6%) dermatomyositis, 2/7 (26%) immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy, and none of the 4 patients with inclusion body myositis. The antibody also tested positive in 3/101 patients with other autoimmune diseases (2 systemic sclerosis and 1 systemic lupus erythematosus), and in 1/29 patients with non-inflammatory myopathy. No relevant association with specific clinical features was found in patients with these antibodies. Anti-cortactin antibody was more frequently positive in patients with polymyositis and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy than in the remaining myositis patients, and was the only myositis autoantibody found in sera of 3 patients from these groups.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that cortactin is a novel target antigen in patients with autoimmune diseases, especially patients with polymyositis or immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Anti-cortactin can be considered a new myositis-associated antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.038DOI Listing
October 2014

Anti-MDA5 antibodies in a large Mediterranean population of adults with dermatomyositis.

J Immunol Res 2014 4;2014:290797. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Immunology Department, Hospital de La Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

A new myositis-specific autoantibody directed against melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) has been described in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We report the clinical characteristics of patients with anti-MDA5 in a large Mediterranean cohort of DM patients from a single center, and analyze the feasibility of detecting this autoantibody in patient sera using new assays with commercially available recombinant MDA5. The study included 117 white adult patients with DM, 15 (13%) of them classified as clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM). Clinical manifestations were analyzed, with special focus on interstitial lung disease and its severity. Determination of anti-MDA5 antibodies was performed by a new ELISA and immunoblot technique. In sera, from 14 (12%) DM patients (8 CADM), MDA5 was recognized by ELISA, and confirmed by immunoblot. Eight of the 14 anti-MDA5-positive patients (57.14%) presented rapidly-progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) versus 3 of 103 anti-MDA5-negative patients (2.91%) (P < 0.05; OR: 44.4, 95% CI 9.3-212). The cumulative survival rate was significantly lower in anti-MDA5-positive patients than in the remainder of the series (P < 0.05). Patients with anti-MDA5-associated ILD presented significantly lower 70-month cumulative survival than antisynthetase-associated ILD patients. Among the cutaneous manifestations, only panniculitis was significantly associated with the presence of anti-MDA5 antibodies (P < 0.05; OR: 3.85, 95% CI 1.11-13.27). These findings support the reliability of using commercially available recombinant MDA5 for detecting anti-MDA5 antibodies and confirm the association of these antibodies with RP-ILD in a large series of Mediterranean patients with DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/290797DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987881PMC
January 2015

[Lanthanum carbonate abdominal foreign bodies].

Med Clin (Barc) 2014 May 28;142(9):426. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario Vall d́Hebron, Barcelona, España.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2013.10.010DOI Listing
May 2014

Calcineurin inhibitors in a cohort of patients with antisynthetase-associated interstitial lung disease.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2013 May-Jun;31(3):436-9. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Vall d´Hebron General Hospital. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporine) for treating patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with antisynthetase autoantibodies.

Methods: Sixty patients with antisynthetase autoantibodies were identified in our myositis cohort of 179 patients. The medical records of 15 patients with antisynthetase autoantibody-associated ILD treated with tacrolimus/cyclosporine (11 for refractory disease and 4 as first-line therapy) between 1980 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Serial pulmonary function tests were used to assess the clinical response. Qualitative data are presented as a number and percentage, and quantitative data as the median and interquartile range (IQR).

Results: Patients were classified as having probable or definite idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (8 dermatomyositis and 4 polymyositis), and pure interstitial lung disease (3 cases). The 15 patients had received tacrolimus/cyclosporine for an average of 19 (IQR 14-30) months. Median age at onset of ILD was 42.3 (IQR 32.4-56.8) years and median duration of lung disease before administration of calcineurin inhibitors was 11 (IQR: 5-49) months. Median duration of follow-up was 24 (IQR 12-32) months. Thirteen patients had anti-histidyl-transfer RNA synthetase autoantibody (anti-Jo-1) and two had anti-alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase autoantibody (anti-PL-12). A more than 10% increase in FVC or stabilisation was observed in 13 (87%; 95%CI 56-98) patients who received calcineurin inhibitors (9 [81%] refractory cases and 4 [100%] as first-line therapy).

Conclusions: Calcineurin inhibitors seem to be a good therapeutic option for managing ILD associated with antisynthetase autoantibodies, not only in refractory cases, but also as first-line treatment.
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August 2013

The stone man (Myositis ossificans progressiva).

Joint Bone Spine 2012 Jul 27;79(4):415. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

Internal Medicine Department, Vall d'Hebron General Hospital, P° Vall d'Hebron s/n, Barcelona 08035, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2012.02.009DOI Listing
July 2012

Anti-TIF1γ antibodies (anti-p155) in adult patients with dermatomyositis: comparison of different diagnostic assays.

Ann Rheum Dis 2012 Jun 30;71(6):993-6. Epub 2012 Jan 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Vall d’Hebron General Hospital. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: A new myositis-specific autoantibody (anti-p155) directed against transcriptional intermediary factor 1 γ (TIF1γ) has been described as a good marker of cancer-associated myositis (CAM).

Objective: To analyse the feasibility of detecting this autoantibody in patient serum samples using new assays with commercially available recombinant TIF1γ.

Methods: The study included 90 Spanish patients with dermatomyositis (DM), classified as clinically amyopathic DM, CAM, or DM without cancer. Anti-TIF1γ antibodies were detected by ELISA and immunoblot techniques and compared with anti-p155 antibody detection by protein immunoprecipitation assays with radiolabelled HeLa cells. The κ coefficient was used to compare the agreement between the different tests.

Results: Serum samples from 23 (25.6%) and 20 (22.2%) patients with DM recognised TIF1γ by ELISA and immunoblot, respectively. ELISA (κ=0.91) and immunoblot (κ=0.88) showed excellent agreement with immunoprecipitation analysis (anti-p155). Good concordance (κ=0.91) was also seen between ELISA and immunoblot.

Conclusions: Excellent agreement was found between anti-p155 detected by immunoprecipitation and anti-TIF1γ detected by ELISA or immunoblot. These data indicate that identification of this autoantibody can be reliably performed in a standard laboratory setting, with potential application in clinical practice for cancer screening in adult patients with DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200871DOI Listing
June 2012

Usefulness of anti-p155 autoantibody for diagnosing cancer-associated dermatomyositis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arthritis Rheum 2012 Feb;64(2):523-32

Vall d'Hebron General Hospital, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Anti-p155 autoantibody, which was recently described in adult patients with dermatomyositis (DM), seems to be associated with cancer in this population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to ascertain the accuracy of anti-p155 testing for the diagnosis of cancer-associated myositis.

Methods: We searched relevant databases, with no restrictions on study design or language, for original studies that included adult patients with probable/definite DM or amyopathic DM who were evaluated for neoplasm and anti-p155 status. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate model. We computed the diagnostic odds ratio (OR), likelihood ratios (LRs) for positive and negative test results, positive and negative predictive values, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Statistical heterogeneity between studies was assessed using the I(2) statistic, and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed for the parameters studied.

Results: Six studies including a total of 312 adult patients with DM were selected. The pooled sensitivity of anti-p155 for diagnosing cancer-associated DM was 78% (95% CI 45-94%), and specificity was 89% (95% CI 82-93%). The diagnostic OR was 27.26 (95% CI 6.59-112.82), and LRs for positive and negative test results were 6.79 (95% CI 4.11-11.23) and 0.25 (95% CI 0.08-0.76), respectively. Heterogeneity was substantial except with regard to the LR for a positive test result. The area under the SROC curve was 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.93). Taking the pooled prevalence of 17% as pretest probability, anti-p155 had a positive predictive value of 58% and a negative predictive value of 95%.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that anti-p155 autoantibody determination is useful for diagnosing cancer-associated myositis and guiding disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.33379DOI Listing
February 2012