Publications by authors named "Ernesto G Cardona Muñoz"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Serum Neuropeptide Y Levels Are Associated with TNF- Levels and Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

J Immunol Res 2020 16;2020:8982163. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Programa de Doctorado en Farmacología, CUCS, Universidad de Guadalajara, 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Background: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter with effects on the regulation of inflammatory cells. The role of NPY on autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not completely understood. Therefore, we evaluate if NPY levels are markers of disease activity in RA and if there is a correlation between NPY levels and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-), leptin, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels.

Methods: Cross-sectional design, including 108 women with RA. We assessed disease activity by DAS28-ESR (considering active disease a score of ≥2.6). Serum NPY levels and anti-CCP2 antibody, TNF-, IL-6, and leptin levels were quantified (ELISA).

Results: Sixty-eight RA had an active disease (RA-active), and 40 were in remission (RA-remission). RA-active patients had higher NPY levels vs. RA-remission (22.8 ± 13.6 vs. 17.8 ± 10.3; = 0.04). NPY levels correlated with increased TNF- levels ( = 0.32, = 0.001). Leptin or IL-6 did not correlate with NPY levels. In the logistic regression analysis, NPY increased the risk of disease activity (OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.006-1.09, and = 0.03).

Conclusion: Higher NPY levels are an independent marker of disease activity in RA. This study encourages the quantification of NPY levels as a surrogate marker for RA-active. Future studies evaluating the role of NPY levels interacting with other proinflammatory cytokines are required.
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February 2021

Enalapril Influence on Arterial Stiffness in Rheumatoid Arthritis Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2019 29;6:341. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Instituto de Investigación en Reumatología y del Sistema Músculo Esquelético, Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Cardiovascular parameters disruption can be found in patients at early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The primary endpoint of this study was the reduction of arterial stiffness in RA patients without traditional cardiovascular risk factors or previous comorbidities, measured by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) through the enalapril intervention. The secondary endpoints were the enalapril influence on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), carotid artery distensibility (cDistensibility), Young's incremental elastic modulus (Einc)]. Fifty-three patients were enrolled in a clinical, randomized, closed-label trial. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups: One receiving 5 mg of enalapril (27) or placebo (26), both twice a day. The drug was acquired at Victory Enterprises®. The placebo was kindly provided by the Universidad de Guadalajara (UdeG), as well as the blinding into two groups: A and B. Enalapril and placebo were packed into bottles without labeling. Clinical assessment included a structured questionnaire to gather demographic and clinical variables as well as determination of CAVI, cfPWV, cIMT, carotid artery distensibility and Einc. The whole set of evaluations were analyzed at the baseline and at the end of 12 weeks of intervention. The CAVI measurement at baseline was 7.1 ± 1.4 and increased up to 7.5 ± 1.2 at the end of 12 weeks. Meanwhile, the enalapril group was as follows: 7.4 ± 1.2 and at the of intervention, reduced to 7.1 ± 0.9. A reduction in delta CAVI of 0.21 in the enalapril intervention group was found. In contrast, an increase of 0.39 was observed in the placebo group. The delta CAVI reduction was not influenced by age or peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP). Enalapril seems to be effective in CAVI reduction in RA patients. The effect of enalapril intervention on arterial stiffness translated to the clinical context might be interpreted as a reduction of 6.4 years of arterial aging. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board with the register CI-0117 from UdeG, and 0211/18 from Hospital Civil "Dr. Juan I. Menchaca", Secretaría de Salud Jalisco: DGSP/DDI/D.INV.28/18 and retrospectively registered at Protocol Registration and Results System: NCT03667131.
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January 2020

Effect of green tea extract on arterial stiffness, lipid profile and sRAGE in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2019 Dec 14;70(8):977-985. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Physiology, Pharmacology, Health Sciences University Center, University of Guadalajara , Guadalajara , Mexico.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with premature atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening due to the accumulation of advanced glycation end-products in vessel walls. Green tea polyphenols are considered cardio-protective substances. In this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial (NCT02627898), we evaluated the effect of Green tea extract on arterial stiffness parameters, lipids, body composition and sRAGE levels. Twenty normotensive patients with T2DM treated with the standard therapy and statins, mean age 53.2 ± 9.4 years and mean BMI 30.1 ± 4.5 kg/m, were randomised to receive a daily dose of 400 mg of green tea extract (polyphenols ≥90%, EGCG ≥45%) or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to placebo, administration of green tea extract decreased central augmentation index (-3.05 ± 10.8% vs. 6.7 ± 0.1%,  = .04). These findings suggest that green tea extract could be used as an adjunct to the standard therapy to improve arterial stiffness in T2DM.
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December 2019

Subclinical parameters of arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis correlate with QRISK3 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0207520. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Instituto de Terapéutica Experimental y Clínica (INTEC), Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

It is well known that cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major contributor of death in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as well in other rheumatic illness. In the last decades, there has been a growing development of different methodologies with the purpose of early detection of CVD.

Objective: The aim of this study is to correlate the usefulness of subclinical parameters of vascular aging and QRISK 3-2017 score for early detection of CVD in SLE.

Methods: Clinical assessment including systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) and systemic lupus international collaborating clinics / american college of rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR DI), laboratory measurements, carotid ultrasound examination, carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) measurement, carotid distention and diameter analysis, arterial stiffness measurement measured by tonometry and QRISK 3-2017 were done. All results were analyzed by SPSS 24 software.

Results: We observed correlation between QRISK3 and mean cIMT (rs = 0.534, P < 0.001), PWV (rs = 0.474, P < 0.001), cfPWV (rs = 0.569, P < 0.001) and distensibility (rs = -0.420, P = 0.006). Consistent with above, SLE patients in middle and high risk QRISK 3-2017 showed increased arterial stiffness versus low risk group.

Conclusions: We encourage to the rheumatology community to assess cardiovascular risk in SLE patients with QRISK 3-2017 risk calculator as an alternative method at the outpatient clinic along a complete cardiovascular evaluation when appropriate.
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May 2019

[Reliability of an automatic monitor for blood pressure measurement].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Feb;146(2):190-195

Instituto de Terapéutica Experimental y Clínica, Departamento de Fisiología del Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México.

Background A correct blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential for the diagnosis and control of high BP.

Aim: To evaluate the agreement and repeatability of BP measurements with the OMRON HEM-7320-LA device compared to a mercury sphygmomanometer.

Material And Methods: A cross-sectional study comparing BP measurements made by two randomly selected trained nurses and an automatic oscillometric device. The mercurial sphygmomanometer was connected to the automated device via a "T" type connector and a dual-head stethoscope was used, allowing simultaneous measurements. The results were analyzed with one-factor analysis of variance, Bland-Altman's test, repeatability coefficient (RC), and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC).

Results: Forty-nine participants aged 56 ± 19 years were included. Nineteen had hypertension (38%). We did not observe a significant difference in either systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) pressure measurements between the observers and the device. The mean difference was -0.09 mmHg (95% confidence intervals (CI)-0.9 to 0.7) for SBP and -0.9 mmHg (95% CI -1.7 to -0.13) for DBP. The RC for SBP (6.2, 5.2 and 5.8 mmHg) and DBP (4.7, 4.2 y 5.2 mmHg) was similar between the observers and the device. The ICC for SBP was 0.990 (95% CI 0.983 to 0.995, p < 0.01) and 0.986 (95% CI 0.977 to 0.991, p < 0.01) for DBP.

Conclusions: There was a high level of agreement and similar measurement repeatability in the measurements performed by the automatic device and the mercurial sphygmomanometer. No differences in BP measurements were observed.
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February 2018

Validation of the Omron HEM-7320-LA, upper arm blood pressure monitor with Intelli Wrap Technology Cuff HEM-FL1 for self-measurement and clinic use according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010 in the Mexican population.

Blood Press Monit 2017 Dec;22(6):375-378

Arterial Stiffness Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Omron HEM-7320-LA with Intelli Wrap technology cuff HEM-FL1 for self-measurement and clinic blood pressure (BP) measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol revision 2010.

Participants And Methods: The evaluation was performed in 39 individuals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±14 years; systolic BP was 145.2±24.3 mmHg (range: 97-190), diastolic BP was 90.9±12.9 mmHg (range: 68-120), and arm circumference was 30.8±4 cm (range: 25-38.5).

Results: The device successfully fulfilled the established criteria of the validation protocol. The device overestimated systolic BP by 0.6±5.7 mmHg and diastolic BP by 2.2±5.1 mmHg. The specially designed cuff HEM-FL1 to cover a broad range of arm circumferences and self-placement fulfilled the requirements of the International Protocol.
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December 2017

Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial on the cardiovascular effects of dulaglutide.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 01 14;20(1):42-49. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

The aim was to determine the effects of dulaglutide, a synthetic once-weekly, injectable human glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue that lowers blood glucose, body weight, appetite and blood pressure, on cardiovascular outcomes. People with type 2 diabetes, aged ≥50 years, with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤9.5%, and either a previous cardiovascular event, evidence of cardiovascular disease or ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors were randomly allocated to a weekly subcutaneous injection of either dulaglutide (1.5 mg) or placebo and followed within the ongoing Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial every 3 to 6 months. The primary cardiovascular outcome is the first occurrence of the composite of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes include each component of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome, a composite clinical microvascular outcome comprising retinal or renal disease, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure requiring hospitalization or an urgent heart failure visit, and all-cause mortality. Follow-up will continue until the accrual of 1200 confirmed primary outcomes. Recruitment of 9901 participants (mean age 66 years, 46% women) occurred in 370 sites located in 24 countries over a period of 2 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 10 years, mean baseline HbA1c was 7.3%, and 31% had prior cardiovascular disease. The REWIND trial's international scope, high proportion of women, high proportion of people without prior cardiovascular disease and inclusion of participants whose mean baseline HbA1c was 7.3% suggests that its cardiovascular and safety findings will be directly relevant to the typical middle-aged patient seen in general practice throughout the world.
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January 2018

Association of adipokines, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations with clinical characteristics and presence of spinal syndesmophytes in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: A cross-sectional study.

J Int Med Res 2017 Jun 23;45(3):1024-1035. Epub 2017 May 23.

2 Doctorado en Farmacología, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jal., México.

Objective To identify correlations of the serum leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations with the clinical characteristics, presence of spinal syndesmophytes, and body composition in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Forty-eight patients with AS were compared with 41 sex- and age-matched controls. Assessment included clinical characteristics and the presence of spinal syndesmophytes. The serum leptin, adiponectin, TNF-α, and IL-6 concentrations were determined. Body composition was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Patients with AS and controls had similar fat mass and lean mass. Patients with AS had higher serum TNF-α and leptin concentrations than controls (52.3 vs. 1.5 pg/mL and 17.2 vs. 9.0 µg/mL, respectively). The IL-6 and adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Patients with syndesmophytes had higher leptin concentrations than those without syndesmophytes (22.1 vs. 10.9 µg/mL); this difference remained after adjustment for the body mass index. Conclusion Elevated leptin concentrations are associated with spinal radiographic damage in patients with AS and can serve as a biomarker. Future studies should evaluate whether leptin might be a potential target for treatments to avoid structural damage.
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June 2017

Safety and efficacy of fimasartan in Mexican patients with grade 1-2 essential hypertension.

Arch Cardiol Mex 2017 Oct - Dec;87(4):316-325. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde", Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of 60mg and 120mg Fimasartan (FMS) alone or combined with 12.5mg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in a Mexican population.

Methods: A six month, treat-to-target, open study was conducted on subjects with grade 1-2 hypertension. The subjects were initially treated with 60mg FMS once daily. In week 8, those with Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) <90mmHg continued on the same FMS dose during the rest of the study, while those with DBP ≥90mmHg were randomised to either 120mg FMS or 60mg FMS + 12.5mg HCTZ once daily. In week 12, randomised subjects with DBP ≥90mmHg received 120mg FMS+12.5mg HCTZ, while those achieving target continued with their assigned treatment until the end of the study.

Results: FMS 60mg (n=272) decreased both DBP and Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) by 11.3±8.9 (p<.0001) and 16.0±14.1 (p<.0001)mmHg, respectively, with 75.4% of subjects reaching the treatment target. Subjects assigned to FMS 120mg, FMS 60mg+HCTZ 12.5mg, or FMS 120mg+HCTZ 12.5mg once daily, showed significant reductions in DBP and SBP with their assigned treatment. At the end of the study, 237/272 subjects (87.1%) achieved a DBP<90mmHg and an SBP<140mmHg. The most frequently reported adverse reactions included headache (3.7%), dry mouth (1.1%), transient liver enzyme increase (1.1%), and dizziness (0.7%).

Conclusion: Fimasartan is safe and effective in Mexican subjects with grade 1-2 essential hypertension.
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September 2018

Effectiveness of degradable and non-degradable implants to close large septal perforations in an experimental model.

J Plast Surg Hand Surg 2016 Aug 16;50(4):222-6. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

a Instituto de Terapéutica Experimental y Clínica, Departamento de Fisiología, CUCS , Universidad de Guadalajara , Guadalajara Jalisco , México.

Background Reparation of large nasal septum perforations continues to be challenging. Bipedicled mucoperichondrial and inter-positional grafts currently show the most promising results. New implants have emerged to be used as a support membrane to carry on the mucosal cells, taking advantage of the innate proliferative properties of the mucosal tissue. Objective To compare the effectiveness of two kinds of material; non-absorbable dimethylsiloxane (silicone elastomers) and absorbable porcine small intestinal submucosa (Surgisis), both used as an inter-positional graft without neighbouring flaps to close nasal septal perforations in an experimental model. Methods Fifteen dogs were divided into three groups. One group received Surgisis, the other sheets of dimethylsiloxane and the last group a sham group. The dogs were followed for 6 weeks. Results The initial perforation of the nasal septum showed complete mucosal closure in the dimethylsiloxane group. The Surgisis group, on the other hand, had a smaller reduction than that at the beginning (final mean area = 23.0 ± 5.4 mm(2) (p < 0.05); however, complete closure was not achieved. Sham animals showed an inconstant and slight reduction in dimension from 100 mm(2) to 70 ± 16 mm(2) of mucosa and cartilage, but closure was not achieved. A significantly higher number of capillaries were observed in the Surgisis group compared to the dimethylsiloxane group (p < 0.05) without differences in inflammation, fibrosis, or necrosis. Conclusions The non-absorbable implant; dimethylsiloxane facilitates a better closure of the nasal septum.
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August 2016

Procollagen Type I and III Aminoterminal Propeptide Levels and Severity of Interstitial Lung Disease in Mexican Women With Progressive Systemic Sclerosis.

Arch Bronconeumol 2015 Sep 7;51(9):440-8. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud (CUCS), Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, México; Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica, Departamento de Radiodiagnóstico y División de Investigación, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Guadalajara, México. Electronic address:

Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent complication in progressive systemic sclerosis (SSc), being present in 25% to 90% of cases.

Objectives: To evaluate whether serum levels of procollagen typei and iii aminoterminal propeptide (PINP and PIIINP) correlate with severity and patterns of ILD in Mexican women with SSc.

Methods: Thirty three SSc patients were assessed for disease characteristics and anti-topoisomerase antibodies (topoi), and also underwent pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Nineteen patients had ILD+SSc, and 14 had no lung involvement (no ILD-SSc); data were compared with those from 45 healthy controls. PINP and PIIINP were assessed in all 3 groups.

Results: Patients with SSc had higher PINP and PIIINP vs controls (P=.001, P<.001, respectively). Compared to no ILD-SSc patients, those with ILD+SSc had longer disease duration in years (P=.005), higher modified Rodnan skin score (P<.001), higher Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability-Index scores (P<.001), higher topoi U/mL (P<.001), PINP (49.28±28.63 vs. 32.12±18.58μg/L, P=.05), and PIIINP (4.33±1.03 vs. 2.67±1.26μg/L, P<.001) levels. ILD severity based on total HRCT correlated with PINP (r=.388, P=.03) and PIIINP (P=.594, P<.001). On adjusted analysis, ILD severity was associated with disease duration (P=.037), PIIINP (P=.038), and topoi (P=.045).

Conclusions: PINP and PIIINP are useful markers for severe ILD+SSc, suggesting they could play a role in the follow-up of this complication in SSc.
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September 2015

[Prognostic value of the lethal triad among patients with multiple trauma].

Rev Med Chil 2013 Nov;141(11):1420-6

Background: Patients who have suffered multiple traumatic injuries, have a serious risk for death. Hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy are three complications in these patients, whose presence is known as lethal triad and indicates bad prognosis.

Aim: To determine if the lethal triad in multiple trauma patients is associated with higher mortality and Injury Score Severity (ISS).

Material And Methods: One hundred multiple trauma patients aged 26 to 56 years (90 males), admitted to an emergency room, were studied. Body temperature, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, platelet count and blood gases were determined on admission.

Results: Twenty six patients had the lethal triad and 15% died in the emergency room within the first 6 hours. No death was recorded among the 74 patients without the lethal triad. The mean ISS among patients with and without the lethal triad was 31.7 and 25.6, respectively (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The presence of the lethal triad among patients with multiple trauma is associated with a higher mortality and ISS.
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November 2013

The effect of ubiquinone in diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.

J Diabetes Complications 2012 Jul-Aug;26(4):352-8. Epub 2012 May 16.

Unidad de Investigación Cardiovascular, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Introduction: Diabetic polyneuropathy aetiology is based on oxidative stress generation due to production of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinone is reduced to ubiquinol and redistributed into lipoproteins, possibly to protect them from oxidation.

Aims: To evaluate the impact of oral ubiquinone in diabetic polyneuropathy, and the role of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nerve growth factor (NGF-β).

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, patients were randomized to ubiquinone (400 mg) or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Main outcomes were clinical scores, nerve conduction studies, LPO, NGF-β and safety.

Results: Twenty four patients on experimental group and twenty five on control group met the inclusion criteria (mean age 56 years, 22% male and 78% female, mean evolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus 10.7 years). Significant improvement on experimental vs control group was found in neuropathy symptoms score (from 2.5 ± 0.7 to 1 ± 0.8, p<0.001), neuropathy impairment score (5.5 ± 4 to 3.1 ± 2.6, p<0.001), sural sensory nerve amplitude (13.0 ± 6.1 to 15.8 ± 5.1 μV, p=0.049), peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (39.7 ± 5.0 to 47.8 ± 4.9 m/s, p=0.047), and ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity (48.8 ± 6.8 to 54.5 ± 6.1m/s, p=0.046). There was a significant reduction of LPO in subjects treated with ubiquinone vs placebo (16.7 ± 8.6 and 23.2 ± 15.8 nmol/mL, respectively) with p<0.05, and NGF-β did not change (control 66.5 ± 26.7 vs. experimental 66.8 ± 28.4 pg/mL, p=0.856). No drug-related adverse reactions were reported.

Conclusions: Twelve weeks treatment with ubiquinone improves clinical outcomes and nerve conduction parameters of diabetic polyneuropathy; furthermore, it reduces oxidative stress without significant adverse events.
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January 2013

[Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 levels among patients suffering a bile duct injury during cholecystectomy].

Rev Med Chil 2010 Oct 10;138(10):1259-63. Epub 2011 Jan 10.

Departamento de Clínicas Quirúrgicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

Background: During cholecystectomy, the bile duct may be injured. When this complication occurs, Kupffer cells are activated and produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL6) to phagocyte toxic products

Aim: To measure serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 among patients that suffered a bile duct injury after a cholecystectomy.

Patients And Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were measured prior to the bile-enteric derivation and after one year of follow up, in 31 patients that had a complete bile duct obstruction after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy and in 5 healthy controls.

Results: At baseline TNF-α levels in healthy subjects and patients with bile duct injury were 0 and 43.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.01). At one year of follow up, TNF-á became undetectable among patients. At baseline, the values for IL-6 among healthy controls and patients were 3.0 ± 2.0 and 72.0 ± 94.7 pg/mL respectively, (p < 0,004). After one year of follow up, IL-6 levels decreased to 6.4 ± 0.3 pg/mL among patients.

Conclusions: TNF-α and IL-6 levels were elevated before bile-enteric derivation among patients with bile duct injury and became normal one year later.
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October 2010

Circulating leptin and bone mineral density in rheumatoid arthritis.

J Rheumatol 2009 Mar 22;36(3):512-6. Epub 2009 Jan 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital General Regional, Guadalajara, Mexico.

Objective: To evaluate the association between circulating leptin and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: One-hundred thirty postmenopausal women with RA were assessed for body mass index (BMI), disease characteristics, history of drug use, rheumatoid factor, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). BMD (g/cm(2)) was determined in the hip and spine by DEXA. Serum leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Spearman's correlation coefficients (rho) were determined between BMD and leptin and other variables. A multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for confounders.

Results: Patients' serum leptin levels varied widely (range 2-128 ng/ml). Thirty-three patients (25%) had osteoporosis. Higher levels of leptin correlated significantly with BMD in the lumbar spine (rho = 0.17, p = 0.04) and total hip (rho = 0.21, p = 0.01). The variables that were negatively correlated with BMD were age, duration of menopause, and ESR. After adjustment for confounders, leptin was no longer associated with BMD. In the multivariate model, factors that remained associated with BMD in the total hip were age (p = 0.021) and BMI (p = 0.003); and the factors that remained associated with BMD in the lumbar spine were BMI (p = 0.03) and ESR (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: No relevant association was found between circulating leptin levels and BMD in patients with RA in this cross-sectional study. Followup studies are needed to evaluate whether abnormal leptin levels confer a risk for fractures due to osteoporosis.
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March 2009

Hyperhomocysteinemia in ankylosing spondylitis: prevalence and association with clinical variables.

Rheumatol Int 2008 Oct 22;28(12):1223-8. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Department of Internal Medicine-Rheumatology, Hospital General Regional 110, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico.

We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Ninety-seven patients with AS were compared with 97 controls. The assessment included clinical characteristics, disease activity (BASDAI), functioning (BASFI), history of drugs, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Total serum homocysteine (tHcy) was determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. A higher frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 micromol/L) was observed in AS (12 vs. 1%, P = 0.002). In the multivariate analysis the risk for hyperhomocysteinemia was increased in patients with higher score of HAQ-S (OR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.29-21.44) and higher ESR (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02-1.18). No statistical associations was observed between hyperhomocysteinemia with other variables including methotrexate or sulfasalazine utilization. In conclusion, this study found a significant prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in Mexican patients with AS mainly associated to a worst functional impairment. Further follow-up studies are required to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease in these patients.
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October 2008

The DISCOVERY PENTA study: a DIrect Statin COmparison of LDL-C Value--an Evaluation of Rosuvastatin therapY compared with atorvastatin.

Curr Med Res Opin 2005 Aug;21(8):1307-15

Disciplina de Cardiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: International guidelines emphasize the need to achieve recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in order to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, many patients with hypercholesterolemia fail to achieve LDL-C goals on treatment.

Objective: The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin for enabling patients to achieve National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) LDL-C goals. Secondary objectives were European LDL-C goal achievement, changes in the lipid profile, and safety.

Research Design And Methods: This 12-week, multicenter, multinational, randomized, open-label trial compared the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin 10 mg with atorvastatin 10 mg in statin-naïve and switched patients with primary hypercholesterolemia from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Portugal, and Venezuela.

Results: A total of 1124 patients with similar baseline characteristics were randomized to the two treatment groups. After 12 weeks of treatment, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving rosuvastatin 10 mg compared with atorvastatin 10 mg achieved NCEP ATP III LDL-C goals (71.2% vs 61.4%, p < 0.001), 1998 European LDL-C goals (73.5% vs 59.2%, p < 0.001) and 2003 European LDL-C goals (58.9% vs 44.6%, p < 0.001). Rosuvastatin treatment was associated with significant reductions in LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) and, in statin-naïve patients, a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with atorvastatin treatment. Both treatments were well tolerated with a similar incidence of adverse events. Clinically significant elevations in creatinine, creatine kinase or hepatic transaminases were low and similar between treatment groups.

Conclusions: Rosuvastatin 10 mg is significantly more effective at achieving NCEP ATP III and European LDL-C goals, lowering LDL-C and TC in both naïve and switched patients and increasing HDL-C in naïve patients than atorvastatin 10mg, with a similar safety and tolerability profile. This study also provides evidence regarding the comparative effects of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in Latin American and Portuguese populations.
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August 2005

Serum leptin levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Rheumatol Int 2002 Aug 27;22(4):138-41. Epub 2002 Jun 27.

Division of Musculoskeletal Diseases, Clinical Epidemiology Research Unit, Hospital de Especialidades del Centro Medico, Nacional de Occidente, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum leptin levels in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Forty-one women with SLE were compared with 23 healthy women of similar age and body mass index (BMI). Clinical characteristics and Mexican systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (Mex-SLEDAI) score were assessed. Serum leptin levels (ng/dl) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Comparisons of leptin levels were made with the Mann-Whitney U-test. In a multiple regression analysis, those factors that could influence the leptin levels were adjusted. Patients with SLE had higher leptin levels than the control group (SLE median 31 vs control median 15, P=0.023). After adjusting by other variables, the serum leptin levels remained higher in SLE than in controls (P=0.02). Patients with SLE had no association between leptin levels and Mex-SLEDAI score, age, duration of disease, or prednisone doses. Those with SLE had higher leptin levels than controls. Further longitudinal studies are required to evaluate the role of this hormone in the exacerbations of SLE.
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August 2002