Publications by authors named "Ernest S Moyer"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Real-time evaluation of ventilation filter-bank systems.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2007 Jan;4(1):58-69

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, Laboratory Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA.

This study evaluated two government facility ventilation systems. One was a metropolitan government office complex with a recirculation system where outside air was the makeup air; the other was a NIOSH facility that used 100% outside air with no recirculation. The methodology employed was a modified American Society of Agricultural Engineers standard (S525) for testing total enclosure filtration efficiency, in agricultural tractor cabs, with optical particle counters (OPC). The low-efficiency bag filters were tested when new and after being in the ventilation system for 3 months. The replacement medium-efficiency filters were evaluated for 6 months (the manufacturer's suggested change-out schedule). These eight-chamber, medium-efficiency filters had an increased filter surface area that resulted in increased airflow through the system. Unfortunately, these filters contained electrostatic filter media and lost filtration efficiency rapidly, which was subsequently confirmed in a 30-day study conducted to determine an appropriate change-out schedule for the eight-chamber bag filters. The study determined that less than 6 months' use was justified due to the reduced efficiency of the electrostatic filter media. The NIOSH facility's air handler #8 (100% outside air unit) was upgraded from electrostatic bag filters, which had a suggested 9-month change-out schedule, to V Bank mechanical, wet-laid, glass fiber filters. The results of a 3-year evaluation showed that the V Bank filters had better filter efficiency after 3 years of service than the electrostatic filters had at 9 months. Both studies employed matched OPC instruments to reduce instrument-to-instrument bias. The methodology is adaptable to monitoring the total efficiency of most air filtration systems, and results can help make decisions about upgrading filter performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459620601079642DOI Listing
January 2007

Evaluation of a high-efficiency, filter-bank system.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2006 Apr;3(4):204-13; quiz D45

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigators evaluated filtration efficiencies at three U.S. Postal Service (USPS) facilities. Ventilation and filtration systems (VFSs) had been installed after the 2001 bioterrorist attacks when the USPS unknowingly processed letters laden with B. anthracis spores. The new VFS units included high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and were required by USPS contract specifications to provide an overall filtration efficiency of at least 99.97% for particles between 0.3 microm and 3.0 micro m. The USPS evaluation involved a modification of methodology used to test total filtration system efficiency in agricultural tractor cab enclosures. The modified sampling strategy not only proved effective for monitoring the total filtration system component of VFS performance but also distinguished between filtration systems performing to the high USPS performance criteria and those needing repair or replacement. The results clearly showed the importance of choosing a pair of optical particle counters that have been closely matched immediately prior to testing. The modified methodology is readily adaptable to any workplace wishing to evaluate air filtration systems, including high-efficiency systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459620600584378DOI Listing
April 2006

Test for the integrity of environmental tractor cab filtration systems.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2005 Oct;2(10):516-23

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, Laboratory Research Branch, Morgantown, West Virginia 26505, USA.

Cab filtration systems can be used to protect vehicle operators from hazardous air contaminants. In a cab filtration system, a fan draws air through filters and pressurizes the cab with this filtered air. This article describes the application of a low-cost, optical particle counter to evaluate the performance of tractor cab filtration systems. The tractors were equipped with environmental enclosures to protect the operators from pesticide exposures that occur during air blast spraying in orchards. Prior to testing, all environmental tractor cabs underwent a complete maintenance overhaul followed by a careful inspection by the manufacturer's field representative. As part of this maintenance effort, 13 tractors with cab filtration systems were tested in an enclosure. A Met One model 227B two-channel optical particle counter was used to measure the aerosol concentration outside and inside the cab. Ambient aerosol and/or aerosol generated by burning incense sticks were used to challenge the stationary cab filtration system in an enclosure. The ratio of the outside to inside concentration (Co/Ci) is the exposure reduction attained by the cab system. Alternatively, the inside concentration divided by the outside concentration times 100 (Ci/Co x 100) gives the percent penetration. All 13 tractors were tested for leak sites. Leak sites were identified and sealed. This process was repeated until each cab showed an exposure reduction ratio Co/Ci of at least 50 (aerosol penetration into the cab Ci/Co x 100 was less than 2%) at the 0.3-0.5 microm particle size interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459620500297519DOI Listing
October 2005

Reducing enclosed cab drill operator's respirable dust exposure with effective filtration and pressurization techniques.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2005 Jan;2(1):54-63

Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236, USA.

Many different types of surface mining equipment use enclosed cabs to protect equipment operators from health and safety hazards. The overburden removal and mining process can be extremely dusty and can cause excessive dust exposure. To study this issue, a cooperative research effort was established between the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Silica Co., Clean Air Filter Co., and Red Dot Corp. in an effort to lower respirable dust levels in an enclosed cab on an older surface drill at a silica sand operation. Throughout this research effort, a number of modifications were incorporated into the drill's filtration and pressurization system, as well as in other areas, to improve its design and performance. An average cab efficiency of 93.4% was determined with gravimetric sampling instruments when comparing the outside with the inside cab dust levels on the final design. Although this study considered just one operation, the goal was to identify cost-effective improvements that could be implemented on all types of enclosed cabs to lower respirable dust concentrations. Two critical components for an effective enclosed cab system are having a properly designed, installed, and maintained filtration and pressurization system, along with a method for maintaining structural cab integrity, which allows the cab to be positively pressurized. Another important component is maintaining cab cleanliness. Although this research was originally directed toward the mining industry, it is also applicable to agricultural or construction equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459620590903444DOI Listing
January 2005

Environmental agricultural tractor cab filter efficiency and field evaluation.

AIHA J (Fairfax, Va) 2003 May-Jun;64(3):394-400

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, College of Public Health, 100 Oakdale Campus, 136 IREH, Iowa City, IA 52242-5000, USA.

To evaluate filter efficiency and performance of environmental enclosures for tractors, 3- to 4-year-old tractor enclosure combinations (cabs retrofitted to tractors after manufacturing) were studied at a custom pesticide applicators facility. Optical particle counters were used to measure the aerosol number concentration inside and outside the cab. The ratio of these concentrations multiplied by 100 is termed percentage penetration, the amount of the aerosol that penetrates into the enclosure. For particles in the 0.3 to 0.4 microm range, penetration into the cab was reduced from 11 to 0.4% in the following sequential steps. First, manufacturing mistakes were corrected by fixing a bowed flange and inappropriate sealing of the sheet metal used to separate incoming air from air that had passed through the filter. This reduced aerosol penetration from 11 to 4.8%. Replacing gasket material on the used filter reduced penetration from 4.8 to 0.65%. This suggests that the filter gaskets are deforming and allowing leakage. Also, the filter media were evaluated for aerosol penetration as a function of particle size and were tested per the criteria stipulated in 42 CFR 84 for negative pressure air-purifying particulate respirators. These results showed penetration through the filter media of less than 0.03%, indicating that filter media were not a major source of aerosol leakage into the cab. The results suggest that the manufacturer should implement a quality control program to ensure that minimal aerosol penetration criteria into the cabs are met and an acceptable maintenance program exists to ensure compliance. Furthermore, the degradation of filter gasket material over time needs to be minimized to ensure that the environmental cabs continue to provide acceptable performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15428110308984832DOI Listing
October 2003
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