Publications by authors named "Erin Wendt-Hornickle"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Novel Pathway of Adenosine Generation in the Lungs from NAD: Relevance to Allergic Airway Disease.

Molecules 2020 Oct 27;25(21). Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Adenosine and uric acid (UA) play a pivotal role in lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In the present experiments, we measured adenosine synthesis from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in membranes prepared from wild type (WT) and CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mouse lungs, from cultured airway smooth muscle and epithelial cells, and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after airway challenge with epidemiologically relevant allergens. Adenosine was determined using an enzymatically coupled assay that produces ATP and is detected by luminescence. Uric acid was determined by ELISA. Exposure of cultured airway epithelial cells to extract caused significant nucleotide (NAD and ATP) release in the culture media. The addition of NAD to membranes prepared from WT mice resulted in faster generation of adenosine compared to membranes from CD38KO mice. Formation of adenosine from NAD affected UA and ATP concentrations, its main downstream molecules. Furthermore, NAD and adenosine concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid decreased significantly following airway challenge with house-dust mite extract in WT but not in CD38KO mice. Thus, NAD is a significant source of adenosine and UA in the airways in mouse models of allergic airway disease, and the capacity for their generation from NAD is augmented by CD38, a major NADase with high affinity for NAD. This novel non-canonical NAD-adenosine-UA pathway that is triggered by allergens has not been previously described in the airways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25214966DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663290PMC
October 2020

Owner evaluation of quality of life and mobility in osteoarthritic cats treated with amantadine or placebo.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Jun 28;23(6):568-574. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine if amantadine improves owner-identified mobility impairment and quality of life associated with osteoarthritis in cats.

Methods: Using a blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover design, 13 healthy client-owned cats with clinical and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis and owner-identified mobility impairment were studied. Cats received 5 mg/kg amantadine or placebo q24h PO for 3 weeks each with no washout period in between. Locomotor activity was continuously assessed with a collar-mounted activity monitor system, and owners chose and rated two mobility-impaired activities using a client-specific outcome measures (CSOM) questionnaire on a weekly basis. Locomotor activity on the third treatment week was analyzed with two-tailed paired -tests. The CSOM scores were analyzed using a mixed-effect model and the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Owner-perceived changes in quality of life were compared between treatments using the χ test. Statistical significance was set at 0.05.

Results: Mean ± SD activity counts during the third week of each treatment were significantly lower with amantadine (240,537 ± 53,880) compared with placebo (326,032 ± 91,759). CSOM scores assigned by the owners were significantly better with amantadine on the second (3 ± 1) and third (3 ± 1) weeks compared with placebo (5 ± 2 and 5 ± 1, respectively). A significantly greater proportion of owners reported improvement in quality of life with amantadine compared with placebo.

Conclusions And Relevance: Amantadine significantly decreased activity, but improved owner-identified impaired mobility and owner-perceived quality of life in cats with osteoarthritis. Amantadine appears to be an option for the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X20967639DOI Listing
June 2021

Anesthetic risk during subsequent anesthetic events in brachycephalic dogs that have undergone corrective airway surgery: 45 cases (2007-2019).

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2020 Oct;257(7):744-749

Objective: To determine whether previous corrective upper airway surgery in brachycephalic dogs would decrease perianesthetic complications in subsequent anesthetic events.

Animals: 45 client-owned dogs.

Procedures: Brachycephalic dogs undergoing any combination of staphylectomy, nasal alaplasty, or laryngeal sacculectomy that were anesthetized at a later date for additional surgical procedures or imaging from August 2, 2007, to February 8, 2019, had their medical records reviewed during both anesthetic events for signalment, American Society of Anesthesiologists status, perianesthetic drug administration, anesthetic duration, presence and total time of positive-pressure ventilation, procedure invasiveness, and perianesthetic complications such as bradycardia, hypothermia, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension, vomiting or regurgitation, dysphoria, respiratory distress, hypoxemia, reintubation, and prolonged periods of recovery.

Results: The odds of having complications during the postanesthetic period following subsequent anesthetic events were decreased by 79% in dogs having previous surgical intervention to correct clinical signs of brachycephalic airway syndrome. Intra-anesthetic bradycardia increased the odds of developing a postanesthetic complication by 4.56 times. Every 15-minute increase in anesthetic duration increased the odds of having a postanesthetic complication by 12% and having an intra-anesthetic complication by 11%.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Previous corrective upper airway surgery decreased odds of postanesthetic complications in brachycephalic dogs that underwent subsequent anesthetic events. Findings in this study indicated that corrective upper airway surgery for brachycephalic dogs may reduce postanesthetic complications following subsequent anesthetic events, which may reduce perianesthetic morbidity in patients undergoing multiple surgical or diagnostic imaging procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.257.7.744DOI Listing
October 2020

Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of xylazine and dexmedetomidine in horses recovering from isoflurane anesthesia.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jul 12;43(4):369-376. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

This study determined the pharmacokinetics and compared the clinical effects of xylazine and dexmedetomidine in horses recovering from isoflurane anesthesia. Six healthy horses aged 8.5 ± 3 years and weighing 462 ± 50 kg were anesthetized with isoflurane for 2 hr under standard conditions on two occasions one-week apart. In recovery, horses received 200 μg/kg xylazine or 0.875 μg/kg dexmedetomidine intravenously and were allowed to recover without assistance. These doses were selected because they have been used for postanesthetic sedation in clinical and research studies. Serial venous blood samples were collected for quantification of xylazine and dexmedetomidine, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Two individuals blinded to treatment identity evaluated recovery quality with a visual analog scale. Times to stand were recorded. Results (mean ± SD) were compared using paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed-ranked test with p < .05 considered significant. Elimination half-lives (62.7 ± 21.8 and 30.1 ± 8 min for xylazine and dexmedetomidine, respectively) and steady-state volumes of distribution (215 ± 123 and 744 ± 403 ml/kg) were significantly different between xylazine and dexmedetomidine, whereas clearances (21.1 ± 17.3 and 48.6 ± 28.1 ml/minute/kg), times to stand (47 ± 24 and 53 ± 12 min) and recovery quality (51 ± 24 and 61 ± 22 mm VAS) were not significantly different. When used for postanesthetic sedation following isoflurane anesthesia in healthy horses, dexmedetomidine displays faster plasma kinetics but is not associated with faster recoveries compared to xylazine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvp.12855DOI Listing
July 2020

Preliminary appraisal of the reliability and validity of the Colorado State University Feline Acute Pain Scale.

J Feline Med Surg 2019 04 31;21(4):335-339. Epub 2018 May 31.

1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN, USA.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability and convergent validity of the Colorado State University Feline Acute Pain Scale (CSU-FAPS) in a preliminary appraisal of its performance in a clinical teaching setting.

Methods: Sixty-eight female cats were assessed for pain after ovariohysterectomy. A cohort of 21 cats was examined independently by four raters (two board-certified anesthesiologists and two anesthesia residents) with the CSU-FAPS, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine inter-rater reliability. Weighted Cohen's kappa was used to determine inter-rater reliability centered on the 'need to reassess analgesic plan' (dichotomous scale). A separate cohort of 47 cats was evaluated independently by two raters (one board-certified anesthesiologist and one veterinary small animal rotating intern) using the CSU-FAPS and the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-Feline), and Spearman rank-order correlation was determined to assess convergent validity. Reliability was interpreted using Altman's classification as very good, good, moderate, fair and poor. Validity was considered adequate if correlation coefficients were between 0.4 and 0.8.

Results: The ICC was 0.61 for anesthesiologists and 0.67 for residents, indicating good reliability. Weighted Cohen's kappa was 0.79 for anesthesiologists and 0.44 for residents, indicating moderate to good reliability. The Spearman rank correlation indicated a statistically significant ( P = 0.0003) positive correlation (0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.14-0.46) between the CSU-FAPS and the CMPS-Feline.

Conclusions And Relevance: The CSU-FAPS showed moderate-to-good inter-rater reliability when used by veterinarians to assess pain level or need to reassess analgesic plan after ovariohysterectomy in cats. The validity fell short of current guidelines for correlation coefficients and further refinement and testing are warranted to improve its performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X18777506DOI Listing
April 2019

Transversus abdominis plane block in ponies: a preliminary anatomical study.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2018 May 7;45(3):392-396. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Objective: To describe a single-site transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block technique in horses.

Study Design: Prospective, descriptive, experimental anatomical study.

Animals: Four adult pony cadavers.

Methods: Freshly euthanized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency. A 6-13 MHz linear ultrasonic probe was used to scan the abdominal wall bilaterally midway between the last rib and iliac crest in search of the TAP location. By modifying the technique to accommodate the equine anatomy, the TAP was successfully visualized with the transducer positioned in a transverse plane with its side indicator over the intercept of two lines, one connecting the most cranial aspect of the iliac crest and the most caudal extent of the last rib and another originating just caudal to the umbilicus and extending laterally. Each hemiabdomen was injected with 0.5 mL kg of a 1:1 solution of 1% methylene blue and 0.5% bupivacaine via a 21 gauge 10 cm stimulating needle inserted ventral-dorsally and in plane with the ultrasound beam. Approximately 3 hours after injection, the abdomen was dissected and nerves stained over 1 cm in length were identified.

Results: Staining was evident from the fourteenth thoracic (T14) to the third lumbar (L3) nerves. The ventral branches of the fifteenth to the eighteenth thoracic nerves (T15-T18) and first and second lumbar nerves (L1 and L2) were stained in three, six, eight, eight, eight and seven of eight injections, respectively.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Nerves T16-L2 had over 75% success rate in staining, suggesting that this technique would block transmission from T16 to L2, assuming that staining indicates potential nerve block. Dorsal spread occurred in three of eight hemiabdomens. Further studies developing techniques for the cranial abdomen and adjusting volume and concentration of injectate are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2018.01.009DOI Listing
May 2018

Comparison of anesthesia with a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine infusion or a morphine-lidocaine epidural on time to extubation in dogs.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2016 Jan 25;43(1):86-90. Epub 2015 May 25.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Objective: To evaluate and compare the time to extubation in two commonly used methods of analgesia in dogs undergoing elective pelvic limb orthopedic procedures.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical study.

Animals: Twenty-five adult, client-owned, healthy dogs aged 4.4 ± 1.6 years and weighing 38.5 ±3.5 kg.

Methods: All dogs were premedicated with dexmedetomidine (5-10 μg kg(-1)) intramuscularly (IM) and anesthesia was induced with propofol (2-6 mg kg(-1)) intravenously (IV). Atipamazole (0.05-0.1 mg kg(-1)) was administered IM after instrumentation. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups. In one group, morphine (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and lidocaine (2% lidocaine added to a total volume of 0.2 mL kg(-1)) were administered epidurally and a saline placebo constant rate infusion (CRI) was administered IV (group EPI). In the other group (group MLK), morphine (4 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)), lidocaine (50 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) and ketamine (10 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) were administered as an IV CRI and a saline placebo was administered by epidural injection. Temperature at the discontinuation of isoflurane, temperature at extubation, time to extubation, duration of inhalation anesthesia and duration of surgery were recorded.

Results: No significant differences between the groups were found in time to extubation, temperature at the end of surgery, temperature at extubation and total surgical time. Total anesthesia time was significantly longer in group EPI.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Administration of MLK at the doses reported in this study did not prolong the time to extubation in comparison with a morphine-lidocaine epidural nerve block. The results indicate that concern over prolonging the time to extubation is not a reason to avoid the administration of MLK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12273DOI Listing
January 2016

General anesthesia in horses on fluid and electrolyte therapy.

Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2013 Apr 14;29(1):169-78. Epub 2013 Feb 14.

Anesthesia & Pain Management, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

The purpose of this article is to update the community of veterinarians performing general anesthesia in horses on fluid therapy. The rationale behind intraoperative fluid therapy, fluid dynamics, and various fluid options (crystalloids, hypertonic saline, colloids) is discussed. Additionally, electrolytes (calcium, potassium, and sodium) are included in the discussion in relation to general anesthesia and intraoperative fluid management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cveq.2012.11.009DOI Listing
April 2013

Anesthesia case of the month. CNS trauma.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2011 Jul;239(2):194-7

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.239.2.194DOI Listing
July 2011

The effects of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or LRS and 6% hetastarch on the colloid osmotic pressure, total protein and osmolality in healthy horses under general anesthesia.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2011 Jul 1;38(4):336-43. Epub 2011 Jun 1.

Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.

Objective: To investigate changes in colloid osmotic pressure (COP), total protein (TP) and osmolality (OSM) during anesthesia in horses given intravenous lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) or LRS and hetastarch (HES).

Study Design: Prospective, clinical trial.

Animals: Fourteen horses presented for surgery. Mean age 8.3 ± 1.9 years; mean weight 452 ± 25 kg.

Methods: Horses were premedicated with xylazine intravenously (IV); anesthesia was induced with ketamine and diazepam IV, and maintained with sevoflurane. Butorphanol was administered IV with pre-medications or immediately after induction. Xylazine was administered IV for recovery if necessary. LRS was administered IV to all horses with a target rate of 5-10 mL kg(-1) hour(-1). Half of the horses also received 6% HES, 2.5 mL kg(-1) over 1 hour in addition to LRS. Horses that received LRS only were considered the LRS group. Horses that received both LRS and HES were considered the LRS/HES group. Blood was drawn pre- and post-anesthesia, immediately following induction, and every 30 minutes throughout anesthesia. COP, TP and OSM were measured.

Results: COP and TP significantly decreased at similar rates for both treatment groups from pre-anesthetic values. Pre-anesthetic COP was significantly greater in the LRS group when compared to the LRS/HES group pre-, post- and throughout anesthesia. In the LRS group post-anesthetic OSM was significantly different than the pre-anesthesia value and that for the LRS/HES group.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Administration of IV HES (2.5 mL kg(-1), over 1 hour) in combination with LRS does not attenuate the decrease in COP typically seen during anesthesia with crystalloid administration alone. Based on these results, administration of HES at this rate and total volume would not be expected to prevent fluid shifts into the interstitium through its effects on COP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2011.00622.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3307133PMC
July 2011
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