Publications by authors named "Erin S LeBlanc"

84 Publications

The impact of gestational weight gain on glucose and insulin physiology in pregnancy-does timing matter?

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research.

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October 2021

Proinflammatory and Hyperinsulinemic Dietary Patterns Are Associated With Specific Profiles of Biomarkers Predictive of Chronic Inflammation, Glucose-Insulin Dysregulation, and Dyslipidemia in Postmenopausal Women.

Front Nutr 2021 20;8:690428. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia and chronic inflammation, including the empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), have been shown to strongly influence risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. EDIH was developed using plasma C-peptide, whereas EDIP was based on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor 2 (TNF-αR2). We investigated whether these dietary patterns were associated with a broader range of relevant biomarkers not previously tested. In this cross-sectional study, we included 35,360 women aged 50-79 years from the Women's Health Initiative with baseline (1993-1998) fasting blood samples. We calculated EDIH and EDIP scores from baseline food frequency questionnaire data and tested their associations with 40 circulating biomarkers of insulin response/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipids, and lipid particle size. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used to estimate the percent difference in biomarker concentrations per 1 standard deviation increment in dietary index. FDR-adjusted < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) were significantly associated with altered concentrations of 25 of the 40 biomarkers examined. For EDIH, the percent change in biomarker concentration in the insulin-related biomarkers ranged from +1.3% (glucose) to +8% (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance) and -9.7% for IGF-binding protein-1. EDIH impacted inflammation and endothelial dysfunction biomarkers from +1.1% (TNF-αR2) to +7.8% (CRP) and reduced adiponectin by 2.4%; and for lipid biomarkers: +0.3% (total cholesterol) to +3% (triglycerides/total cholesterol ratio) while reducing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 2.4%. EDIP showed a similar trend of associations with most biomarkers, although the magnitude of association was slightly weaker for the insulin-related biomarkers and stronger for lipids and lipid particle size. Dietary patterns with high potential to contribute to insulin hypersecretion and to chronic systemic inflammation, based on higher EDIH and EDIP scores, were associated with an unfavorable profile of circulating biomarkers of glucose-insulin dysregulation, chronic systemic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and dyslipidemia. The broad range of biomarkers further validates EDIH and EDIP as mechanisms-based dietary patterns for use in clinical and population-based studies of metabolic and inflammatory diseases.
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September 2021

Weight Loss Prior to Pregnancy and Early Gestational Glycemia: Prepare, a Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Kaiser Permanente, Center for Health Research, 3800 N. Interstate Ave, Portland, OR.

Purpose: To determine whether pre-pregnancy weight loss improved the early metabolic environment as measured by early gestational diabetes diagnosis.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a pragmatic randomized clinical trial conducted between May 2015 and October 2019 in an integrated health system that encouraged first trimester gestational diabetes screening for high-risk women, including those with obesity. Women aged 18-40 years with BMI ≥27 kg/m 2 who were planning pregnancy were randomized to a behavioral weight loss intervention or usual care. Clinical care decisions and data collection were blind to condition assignment. We compared rates of diagnosis with gestational diabetes in early pregnancy between the groups using logistic regression.

Results: Of 326 participants, 168 (89 in the intervention and 79 in usual care) had singleton pregnancies during the study period. At baseline, mean age was 31.3±3.5 years and BMI was 34.8±5.8kg/m 2. Fifty-nine (66%) intervention participants and 57 (72%) usual care participants underwent early screening. Among those, intervention participants were 73% less likely to be diagnosed with gestational diabetes than usual care participants (aOR 0.27 [95%; 0.09, 0.80]). There was no difference in diagnosis of gestational diabetes in later pregnancy (aOR 1.08 [0.41, 2.81]).

Main Conclusions: Participation in a pre-pregnancy weight loss intervention led to lower rates of gestational diabetes diagnosis in early pregnancy. This suggests positive effects of pre-pregnancy weight loss on the early metabolic environment, a critical factor in offspring metabolic risk.
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July 2021

Counseling and Behavioral Interventions for Healthy Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

JAMA 2021 05;325(20):2094-2109

Pacific Northwest Evidence-based Practice Center, Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland.

Importance: Counseling and active behavioral interventions to limit excess gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy may improve health outcomes for women and infants. The 2009 National Academy of Medicine (NAM; formerly the Institute of Medicine) recommendations for healthy GWG vary according to prepregnancy weight category.

Objective: To review and synthesize the evidence on benefits and harms of behavioral interventions to promote healthy weight gain during pregnancy to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation.

Data Sources: Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library to March 2020, with surveillance through February 2021.

Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials and nonrandomized controlled intervention studies focused on diet, exercise, and/or behavioral counseling interventions on GWG.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Independent data abstraction and study quality rating with dual review.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Gestational weight-related outcomes; maternal and infant morbidity and mortality; harms.

Results: Sixty-eight studies (N = 25 789) were included. Sixty-seven studies evaluated interventions during pregnancy, and 1 evaluated an intervention prior to pregnancy. GWG interventions were associated with reductions in risk of gestational diabetes (43 trials, n = 19 752; relative risk [RR], 0.87 [95% CI, 0.79 to 0.95]; absolute risk difference [ARD], -1.6%) and emergency cesarean delivery (14 trials, n = 7520; RR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.74 to 0.96]; ARD, -2.4%). There was no significant association between GWG interventions and risk of gestational hypertension, cesarean delivery, or preeclampsia. GWG interventions were associated with decreased risk of macrosomia (25 trials, n = 13 990; RR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65 to 0.92]; ARD, -1.9%) and large for gestational age (26 trials, n = 13 000; RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80 to 0.99]; ARD, -1.3%) but were not associated with preterm birth. Intervention participants experienced reduced weight gain across all prepregnancy weight categories (55 trials, n = 20 090; pooled mean difference, -1.02 kg [95% CI, -1.30 to -0.75]) and demonstrated lower likelihood of GWG in excess of NAM recommendations (39 trials, n = 14 271; RR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.77 to 0.89]; ARD, -7.6%). GWG interventions were associated with reduced postpartum weight retention at 12 months (10 trials, n = 3957; mean difference, -0.63 kg [95% CI, -1.44 to -0.01]). Data on harms were limited.

Conclusions And Relevance: Counseling and active behavioral interventions to limit GWG were associated with decreased risk of gestational diabetes, emergency cesarean delivery, macrosomia, and large for gestational age. GWG interventions were also associated with modest reductions in mean GWG and decreased likelihood of exceeding NAM recommendations for GWG.
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May 2021

Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Cancer: The D2d Cancer Outcomes (D2dCA) Ancillary Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug;106(9):2767-2778

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

Context: Observational studies suggest that low vitamin D status may be a risk factor for cancer.

Objective: In a population with prediabetes and overweight/obesity that is at higher risk of cancer than the general population, we sought to determine if vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of cancer and precancers.

Methods: The Vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) cancer outcomes study (D2dCA) is an ancillary study to the D2d study, which was conducted at 22 academic medical centers in the United States. Participants had prediabetes and overweight/obesity and were free of cancer for the previous 5 years. Participants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 4000 IU daily or placebo. At scheduled study visits (4 times/year), cancer and precancer events were identified by questionnaires. Clinical data were collected and adjudicated for all reported events. Cox proportional hazard models compared the hazard ratio (HR) of incident cancers and precancers between groups.

Results: Over a median follow-up period of 2.9 years, among 2385 participants (mean age 60 years and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 28 ng/mL), there were 89 cases of cancer. The HR of incident cancer for vitamin D vs placebo was 1.07 (95% CI 0.70, 1.62). Of 241 participants with incident precancers, 239 had colorectal adenomatous polyps. The HR for colorectal polyps for vitamin D vs placebo was 0.83 (95% CI 0.64, 1.07).

Conclusion: In the D2d population of participants with prediabetes and overweight/obesity, not selected for vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D supplementation did not have a significant effect on risk of incident cancer or colorectal polyps.
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August 2021

Lessons Learned From a Program to Reduce Diabetes Risk Among Low-Income Hispanic Women in a Community Health Clinic.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 8;11:489882. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, OR, United States.

Background: The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD studies demonstrated that modest weight loss and increased physical activity can significantly reduce the incidence of diabetes among overweight individuals with prediabetes. However, these studies involved costly interventions, all of which are beyond the reach of most real-world settings serving high-risk, low-income populations. Our project, De Por Vida, implemented a diabetes risk-reduction intervention for Hispanic women in a Federally Qualified Health Center and assessed the program's efficacy. This report describes the methodology used to develop and implement De Por Vida, the cultural adaptations made, the community-academic partnership formed to carry out this program, and the barriers and challenges encountered through the implementation process.

Methods: Our goal was to translate the DPP and Look AHEAD programs into an intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce diabetes complications among high-risk Hispanic women at a federally qualified health center in Hillsboro, Oregon, where more than half of clinic patients are Spanish-speaking, and nearly all live in poverty. This randomized clinical trial targeted overweight Spanish-speaking women at risk for, or diagnosed with, type 2 diabetes. We developed a 12-month behavioral diabetes risk-reduction intervention that was responsive to the cultural practices of the Hispanic population and that could be implemented in low-income clinical settings. Study planning and implementation involved close collaboration among the clinic leadership, a research team from the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, and Arizona State University.

Discussion: Creating a fully informed partnership between research and clinical institutions is the first step in successful cooperative research projects. The adoption of a bidirectional, rather than a top-down, approach to communication between researchers and health-care providers, and between clinic management and the clinic frontline staff, gave the research study team crucial information about barriers, constraints, and needs that clinic staff experienced in implementing the program. This allowed clinic management and front-line clinic staff to play an active role in study implementation, identifying problem areas, and collaborating in finding practical solutions.

Clinical Trial Registration:, NCT03113916.
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May 2021

The severity of vasomotor symptoms and number of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women and select clinical health outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D randomized clinical trial.

Menopause 2020 11;27(11):1265-1273

Departments of ObGyn, Reading Hospital/Tower Health, Reading, PA.

Objective: This study evaluated whether vasomotor symptom (VMS) severity and number of moderate/severe menopausal symptoms (nMS) were associated with health outcomes, and whether calcium and vitamin D (CaD) modified the risks.

Methods: The Women's Health Initiative CaD study was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, which tested 400 IU of 25-hydroxyvitamin-D and 1,000 mg of calcium per day in women aged 50 to 79 years. This study included 20,050 women (median follow-up of 7 y). The outcomes included hip fracture, colorectal cancer, invasive breast cancer, all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular death, and total cardiovascular disease (CVD). MS included: hot flashes, night sweats, dizziness, heart racing, tremors, feeling restless, feeling tired, difficulty concentrating, forgetfulness, mood swings, vaginal dryness, breast tenderness, migraine, and waking up several times at night. Associations between VMS severity and nMS with outcomes were tested.

Results: No association between VMS severity and any outcome were found. In contrast, nMS was associated with higher stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.89 for ≥ 2 MS vs none; HR 1.20 95% CI 0.89-1.63 for 1 MS vs none, P trend = 0.03) and total CVD (HR 1.35, 95% CI, 1.18-1.54 for ≥ 2 MS vs none; HR 0.99, 95% CI, 0.87-1.14 for 1 MS vs none P trend < 0.001). CaD did not modify any association.

Conclusion: Severity of VMS was not associated with any outcome. Having ≥2 moderate or severe MS was associated with an increased risk for CVD. The number of moderate/severe MS may be a marker for higher CVD risk. : Video Summary:
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November 2020

Intratrial Exposure to Vitamin D and New-Onset Diabetes Among Adults With Prediabetes: A Secondary Analysis From the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study.

Diabetes Care 2020 12 5;43(12):2916-2922. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD.

Objective: Postrandomization biases may influence the estimate of efficacy of supplemental vitamin D in diabetes prevention trials. In the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study, repeated measures of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level provided an opportunity to test whether intratrial vitamin D exposure affected diabetes risk and whether the effect was modified by trial assignment (vitamin D vs. placebo).

Research Design And Methods: The D2d study compared the effect of daily supplementation with 100 μg (4,000 units) of vitamin D versus placebo on new-onset diabetes in adults with prediabetes. Intratrial vitamin D exposure was calculated as the cumulative rolling mean of annual serum 25(OH)D measurements. Hazard ratios for diabetes among participants who had intratrial 25(OH)D levels of <50, 75-99, 100-124, and ≥125 nmol/L were compared with those with levels of 50-74 nmol/L (the range considered adequate by the National Academy of Medicine) in the entire cohort and by trial assignment.

Results: There was an interaction of trial assignment with intratrial 25(OH)D level in predicting diabetes risk (interaction = 0.018). The hazard ratio for diabetes for an increase of 25 nmol/L in intratrial 25(OH)D level was 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.82) among those assigned to vitamin D and 0.90 (0.80-1.02) among those assigned to placebo. The hazard ratios for diabetes among participants treated with vitamin D who maintained intratrial 25(OH)D levels of 100-124 and ≥125 nmol/L were 0.48 (0.29-0.80) and 0.29 (0.17-0.50), respectively, compared with those who maintained a level of 50-74 nmol/L.

Conclusions: Daily vitamin D supplementation to maintain a serum 25(OH)D level ≥100 nmol/L is a promising approach to reducing the risk of diabetes in adults with prediabetes.
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December 2020

Weight loss prior to pregnancy and subsequent gestational weight gain: Prepare, a randomized clinical trial.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 01 18;224(1):99.e1-99.e14. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Kaiser Permanente, Center for Health Research, Portland, OR.

Background: Women with elevated body mass index are encouraged to lose weight before pregnancy, but no trials have tested the effects of prepregnancy weight loss on health outcomes.

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether prepregnancy weight loss reduces gestational weight gain and improves pregnancy outcomes.

Study Design: Pragmatic randomized clinical trial was conducted between May 2015 and October 2019 at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, an integrated health system. Data collection was blind to condition assignment. Eligible participants were women aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index of ≥27 kg/m who were planning pregnancy within 2 years. Recruitment contacts were sent to 27,665 health system members who met age and body mass index criteria; 329 women attended screening visits, and 326 were randomized. They were randomized to either a behavioral weight loss intervention or usual care control. The intervention consisted of health coaching phone sessions weekly for 6 months and then monthly for 18 months or until end of pregnancy. We used logistic regression to examine the a priori primary hypothesis that participants in the intervention would be less likely to exceed National Academy of Medicine guidelines for gestational weight gain during each trimester and overall. Secondary and exploratory outcomes included absolute weight gain before and during pregnancy and perinatal and newborn outcomes.

Results: Of the 326 participants, 169 had singleton pregnancies lasting ≥14 weeks (analytical cohort: intervention, 89; control, 80). At baseline, mean age was 31.3±3.5 years, and body mass index was 34.8±5.8 kg/m. Participants in the intervention group lost more weight before pregnancy than those in the control group (-0.25±0.51 vs -0.03±0.21 kg/wk; P<.001). However, participants in the intervention group gained more weight than those in the control group in the second trimester (0.42±0.26 vs 0.33±0.28 kg/wk; P=.04) and third trimester (0.56±0.37 vs 0.43±0.33 kg/wk; P=.02) and overall (13.2±8.20 vs 10.3±7.41 kg; P=.03). Nevertheless, arms did not differ in rates of exceeding gestational weight gain guidelines at any time point. Spontaneous pregnancy loss was less common in the intervention arm than in the control arm (8 [4.9%] vs 19 [11.8%]; odds ratio, 0.39 [0.16-0.92]), but we found no other differences in the secondary or exploratory outcomes.

Conclusion: Participation in the prepregnancy weight loss intervention had no effect on women's likelihood of exceeding gestational weight gain guidelines. Although the intervention group successfully lost weight before conception, the intervention group was associated with greater weight gain in late pregnancy. To effectively reduce weight throughout pregnancy and improve maternal and child outcomes, prepregnancy weight loss interventions may need to be combined with intensive weight management that continues throughout delivery.
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January 2021

Dietary Patterns with Healthy and Unhealthy Traits Among Overweight/Obese Hispanic Women with or at High Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2021 04 3;8(2):293-303. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA.

Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), with obesity and unhealthy eating being important contributing factors. A cross-sectional design was used in this study to identify dietary patterns and their associations with diabetes risk factors. Participants completed a culturally adapted Food Frequency Questionnaire capturing intake over the prior 3 months. Overweight/obese Hispanic women (n = 191) with or at risk for T2D were recruited from a community clinic into a weight loss intervention. Only baseline data was used for this analysis. Dietary patterns and their association with diabetes risk factors (age, body mass index, abdominal obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose [FBG], and hemoglobin A1c). An exploratory factor analysis of dietary data adjusted for energy intake was used to identify eating patterns, and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) to assess the association of the eating patterns with the diabetes risk factors. Six meaningful patterns with healthful and unhealthful traits emerged: (1) sugar and fat-laden, (2) plant foods and fish, (3) soups and starchy dishes, (4) meats and snacks, (5) beans and grains, and (6) eggs and dairy. Scores for the "sugar and fat-laden" and "meats and snacks" patterns were negatively associated with age (r = - 0.230, p = 0.001 and r = - 0.298, p < 0.001, respectively). Scores for "plant foods and fish" were positively associated with FBG (r = 0.152, p = 0.037). Being younger may be an important risk factor for a diet rich in sugar and fat; this highlights the need to assess dietary patterns among younger Hispanic women to identify traits potentially detrimental for their health.
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April 2021

Implications of the Hemoglobin Glycation Index on the Diagnosis of Prediabetes and Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 03;105(3)

Omaha VA Medical Center, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska.

Objective: Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour plasma glucose (2hPG) from a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can lead to different results when diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes. The Hemoglobin Glycation Index (HGI) quantifies the interindividual variation in glycation resulting in discrepancies between FPG and HbA1c. We used data from the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study to calculate HGI, to identify HGI-associated variables, and to determine how HGI affects prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis.

Measurements: A linear regression equation [HbA1c (%) = 0.0164 × FPG (mg/dL) + 4.2] was derived using the screening cohort (n = 6829) and applied to calculate predicted HbA1c. This was subtracted from the observed HbA1c to determine HGI in the baseline cohort with 2hPG data (n = 3945). Baseline variables plus prediabetes and diabetes diagnosis by FPG, HbA1c, and 2hPG were compared among low, moderate, and high HGI subgroups.

Results: The proportion of women and Black/African American individuals increased from low to high HGI subgroups. Mean FPG decreased and mean HbA1c increased from low to high HGI subgroups, consistent with the HGI calculation; however, mean 2hPG was not significantly different among HGI subgroups.

Conclusions: High HGI was associated with Black race and female sex as reported previously. The observation that 2hPG was not different across HGI subgroups suggests that variation in postprandial glucose is not a significant source of population variation in HGI. Exclusive use of HbA1c for diagnosis will classify more Black individuals and women as having prediabetes compared with using FPG or 2hPG.
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March 2020

Association of anthropometry and weight change with risk of dementia and its major subtypes: A meta-analysis consisting 2.8 million adults with 57 294 cases of dementia.

Obes Rev 2020 04 3;21(4):e12989. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Uncertainty exists regarding the relation of body size and weight change with dementia risk. As populations continue to age and the global obesity epidemic shows no sign of waning, reliable quantification of such associations is important. We examined the relationship of body mass index, waist circumference, and annual percent weight change with risk of dementia and its subtypes by pooling data from 19 prospective cohort studies and four clinical trials using meta-analysis. Compared with body mass index-defined lower-normal weight (18.5-22.4 kg/m ), the risk of all-cause dementia was higher among underweight individuals but lower among those with upper-normal (22.5-24.9 kg/m ) levels. Obesity was associated with higher risk in vascular dementia. Similarly, relative to the lowest fifth of waist circumference, those in the highest fifth had nonsignificant higher vascular dementia risk. Weight loss was associated with higher all-cause dementia risk relative to weight maintenance. Weight gain was weakly associated with higher vascular dementia risk. The relationship between body size, weight change, and dementia is complex and exhibits non-linear associations depending on dementia subtype under scrutiny. Weight loss was associated with an elevated risk most likely due to reverse causality and/or pathophysiological changes in the brain, although the latter remains speculative.
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April 2020

High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women's Health Initiative.

Am J Clin Nutr 2020 02;111(2):429-439

Department of Family, Population, and Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Background: Previous studies have shown mixed results on the association between carbohydrate intake and insomnia. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates have on risk of insomnia is likely commensurate with their relative contribution to the overall diet, so studies are needed that measure overall dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load, and intakes of specific types of carbohydrates.

Objective: We hypothesized that higher GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of insomnia prevalence and incidence.

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study with postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, investigating the relations of GI, glycemic load, other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, starch, total carbohydrate), dietary fiber, and specific carbohydrate-containing foods (whole grains, nonwhole/refined grains, nonjuice fruits, vegetables, dairy products) with odds of insomnia at baseline (between 1994 and 1998; n = 77,860) and after 3 y of follow-up (between 1997 and 2001; n = 53,069).

Results: In cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, higher dietary GI was associated with increasing odds of prevalent (fifth compared with first quintile OR: 1.11; CI: 1.05, 1.16; P-trend = 0.0014) and incident (fifth compared with first quintile OR: 1.16; CI: 1.08, 1.25; P-trend < 0.0001) insomnia in fully adjusted models. Higher intakes of dietary added sugars, starch, and nonwhole/refined grains were each associated with higher odds of incident insomnia. By contrast, higher nonjuice fruit and vegetable intakes were significantly associated with lower odds of incident insomnia. Also, higher intakes of dietary fiber, whole grains, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables were significantly associated with lower odds of prevalent insomnia.

Conclusions: The results suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for insomnia in postmenopausal women. Substitution of high-GI foods with minimally processed, whole, fiber-rich carbohydrates should be evaluated as potential treatments of, and primary preventive measures for, insomnia in postmenopausal women.
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February 2020

Intentional Weight Loss and Obesity-Related Cancer Risk.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2019 Dec 9;3(4):pkz054. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, Torrance, CA.

Background: Epidemiologic studies regarding weight loss and subsequent cancer risk are sparse. The study aim was to evaluate the association between weight change by intentionality and obesity-related cancer incidence in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Eleven cancers were considered obesity related: breast, ovary, endometrium, colon and rectum, esophagus, kidney, liver, multiple myeloma, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid.

Methods: Postmenopausal women (n = 58 667) aged 50-79 years had body weight and waist circumference (WC) measured at baseline and year 3. Weight or WC change was categorized as stable (change < ±5%), loss (≥5%), and gain (≥5%). Self-report at year 3 characterized weight loss as intentional or unintentional. During the subsequent 12 years (mean) of follow-up, 6033 incident obesity-related cancers were identified. Relationships were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: Compared to women with stable weight, women with intentional weight loss had lower obesity-related cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80 to 0.98). A similar result was observed for intentional WC reduction (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80 to 0.96). Among all cancers, intentional weight loss was most strongly associated with endometrial cancer (HR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.88). Intentional WC loss was also associated with lower colorectal cancer risk (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63 to 0.99). Unintentional weight loss or weight gain was not associated with overall obesity-related cancer risk.

Conclusion: Intentional weight or WC loss in postmenopausal women was associated with lower risk of obesity-related cancer. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women who intentionally lose weight can reduce their obesity-related cancer risk.
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December 2019

Pubertal timing and breast density in young women: a prospective cohort study.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 11 14;21(1):122. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Earlier age at onset of pubertal events and longer intervals between them (tempo) have been associated with increased breast cancer risk. It is unknown whether the timing and tempo of puberty are associated with adult breast density, which could mediate the increased risk.

Methods: From 1988 to 1997, girls participating in the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) were clinically assessed annually between ages 8 and 17 years for Tanner stages of breast development (thelarche) and pubic hair (pubarche), and onset of menses (menarche) was self-reported. In 2006-2008, 182 participants then aged 25-29 years had their percent dense breast volume (%DBV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Multivariable, linear mixed-effects regression models adjusted for reproductive factors, demographics, and body size were used to evaluate associations of age and tempo of puberty events with %DBV.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) and range of %DBV were 27.6 (20.5) and 0.2-86.1. Age at thelarche was negatively associated with %DBV (p trend = 0.04), while pubertal tempo between thelarche and menarche was positively associated with %DBV (p trend = 0.007). %DBV was 40% higher in women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was 2.9 years or longer (geometric mean (95%CI) = 21.8% (18.2-26.2%)) compared to women whose thelarche-to-menarche tempo was less than 1.6 years (geometric mean (95%CI) = 15.6% (13.9-17.5%)).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that a slower pubertal tempo, i.e., greater number of months between thelarche and menarche, is associated with higher percent breast density in young women. Future research should examine whether breast density mediates the association between slower tempo and increased breast cancer risk.
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November 2019

Associations Between Parity, Breastfeeding, and Risk of Maternal Type 2 Diabetes Among Postmenopausal Women.

Obstet Gynecol 2019 09;134(3):591-599

Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana; the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research NW, Portland, Oregon; the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, California; the Department of Public Health Science, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California; the College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; and the Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective: To examine associations among parity, breastfeeding history, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes among postmenopausal women.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred thirty-six thousand six hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative recruited from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States between 1993 and 1998, without baseline cancer or diabetes were followed for 14.2 years. Parity and breastfeeding data were collected by questionnaires administrated to all participants at baseline. Incident diabetes was assessed via validated self-report of physician-diagnosed diabetes treated with insulin or other hypoglycemic medications. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between parity, breastfeeding and diabetes incidence, and racial-ethnic differences in the associations.

Results: During follow-up, 18,812 cases of incident diabetes were identified. Overall, a greater number of term pregnancies was associated with increased risk of diabetes (P for trend=.002), and longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with lower risk of diabetes (P for trend <.01). After further adjusting for adult weight gain among a subset of the cohort (n=75,558) with 9,110 cases, the association between parity and risk of diabetes were attenuated and became nonsignificant. Also, parous women with fewer than five term pregnancies did not have increased diabetes risk when breastfeeding for 3 months or more per child, which was associated with less weight gain.

Conclusion: The results of this large, prospective study showed that the association between parity and risk of type 2 diabetes was most likely confounded by adult weight gain among postmenopausal women.
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September 2019

Vitamin D Supplementation and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

N Engl J Med 2019 08 7;381(6):520-530. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

From Tufts Medical Center (A.G.P., L.C., P.F., J.N., E.M.V.), the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University (B.D.-H.), Brigham and Women's Hospital (V.R.A.), and Harvard School of Public Health (J.H.W.), Boston, and the Spaulding Rehabilitation Network, Charlestown (P.S.) - all in Massachusetts; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Phoenix, AZ (W.C.K.); the Maine Medical Center (I.B.) and the Maine Medical Center Research Institute (C.R.) - both in Scarborough; HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis (C.C.); Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (R.C., R.D.); the University of Nebraska Medical Center and Omaha Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Omaha (C.D.); Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (J.F.), and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas (P.R.) - both in Texas; MedStar Good Samaritan Hospital, Baltimore (A.G.), MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville (J.P.), and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda (M.S.) - all in Maryland; Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA (D.S.H.); the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis (K.C.J.); Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (S.R.K.); Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford (S.K.), and the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles (A.P.) - both in California; Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research-Northwest, Portland, OR (E.S.L.); the University of Vermont, Burlington (M.R.L.); Northwell Health Lenox Hill Hospital, New York (E.L.); Northwestern University, Chicago (L.M.N.); the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (P.O.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, and the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur - both in Georgia (L.S.P.); AdventHealth Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Orlando, FL (R.P.); the University of Colorado Denver and the Veterans Affairs Eastern Colorado Health Care System, Denver (N.R.); and the University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (D.R.).

Background: Observational studies support an association between a low blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, whether vitamin D supplementation lowers the risk of diabetes is unknown.

Methods: We randomly assigned adults who met at least two of three glycemic criteria for prediabetes (fasting plasma glucose level, 100 to 125 mg per deciliter; plasma glucose level 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose load, 140 to 199 mg per deciliter; and glycated hemoglobin level, 5.7 to 6.4%) and no diagnostic criteria for diabetes to receive 4000 IU per day of vitamin D or placebo, regardless of the baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. The primary outcome in this time-to-event analysis was new-onset diabetes, and the trial design was event-driven, with a target number of diabetes events of 508.

Results: A total of 2423 participants underwent randomization (1211 to the vitamin D group and 1212 to the placebo group). By month 24, the mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the vitamin D group was 54.3 ng per milliliter (from 27.7 ng per milliliter at baseline), as compared with 28.8 ng per milliliter in the placebo group (from 28.2 ng per milliliter at baseline). After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the primary outcome of diabetes occurred in 293 participants in the vitamin D group and 323 in the placebo group (9.39 and 10.66 events per 100 person-years, respectively). The hazard ratio for vitamin D as compared with placebo was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P = 0.12). The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusions: Among persons at high risk for type 2 diabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D supplementation at a dose of 4000 IU per day did not result in a significantly lower risk of diabetes than placebo. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; D2d number, NCT01942694.).
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August 2019

Women's Health Initiative clinical trials: potential interactive effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation with hormonal therapy on cardiovascular disease.

Menopause 2019 08;26(8):841-849

Department of ObGyn, Reading Hospital, Reading, PA.

Objective: Data in humans and nonhuman primates have suggested a possible synergistic effect of vitamin D and calcium (CaD) and estrogen on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Using randomized trial data we explored whether the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) on CVD events is modified by CaD supplementation.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was implemented among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative. A total of 27,347 women were randomized to the HT trials (0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogens [CEE] alone for women without a uterus vs placebo; or 0.625 mg of CEE in addition to 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate daily [CEE + MPA] for women with a uterus vs placebo). After 1 year, 16,089 women in the HT trial were randomized to the CaD trial and received either 1,000 mg of elemental calcium carbonate and 400 IU of vitamin D3 daily or placebo. The mean (SD) duration of follow-up after CaD randomization was 6.2 (1.3) years for the CEE trial and 4.6 (1.1) years for the CEE + MPA trial. CVD and venous thromboembolism events evaluated in this subgroup analysis included coronary heart disease, stroke, pulmonary embolism, all-cause mortality, plus select secondary endpoints (total myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, deep venous thrombosis, cardiovascular death, and all CVD events). Time-to-event methods were used and models were fit with a Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results: In the CEE trial, CaD significantly modified the effect of CEE on stroke (P interaction = 0.04). In the CaD-placebo group, CEE's effect on stroke was harmful (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.19[1.34-3.58]); however, it was neutral in the CaD-supplement group (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.07[0.66-1.73]). We did not observe significant CEE-CaD interactions for coronary heart disease, total CVD events, or any of the remaining endpoints. In the CEE + MPA trial, there was no evidence that the effect of CEE + MPA on any of CVD endpoints was modified by CaD supplementation.

Conclusions: CaD did not consistently modify the effect of CEE therapy or CEE + MPA therapy on CVD events. However, the increased risk of stroke due to CEE therapy appears to be mitigated by CaD supplementation. In contrast, CaD supplementation did not influence the risk of stroke due to CEE + MPA.
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August 2019

Establishing an electronic health record-supported approach for outreach to and recruitment of persons at high risk of type 2 diabetes in clinical trials: The vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study experience.

Clin Trials 2019 06 22;16(3):306-315. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

3 Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims: To establish recruitment approaches that leverage electronic health records in multicenter prediabetes/diabetes clinical trials and compare recruitment outcomes between electronic health record-supported and conventional recruitment methods.

Methods: Observational analysis of recruitment approaches in the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study, a multicenter trial in participants with prediabetes. Outcomes were adoption of electronic health record-supported recruitment approaches by sites, number of participants screened, recruitment performance (proportion screened who were randomized), and characteristics of participants from electronic health record-supported versus non-electronic health record methods.

Results: In total, 2423 participants were randomized: 1920 from electronic health record (mean age of 60 years, 41% women, 68% White) and 503 from non-electronic health record sources (mean age of 56.9 years, 58% women, 61% White). Electronic health record-supported recruitment was adopted by 21 of 22 sites. Electronic health record-supported recruitment was associated with more participants screened versus non-electronic health record methods (4969 vs 2166 participants screened), higher performance (38.6% vs 22.7%), and more randomizations (1918 vs 505). Participants recruited via electronic health record were older, included fewer women and minorities, and reported higher use of dietary supplements. Electronic health record-supported recruitment was incorporated in diverse clinical environments, engaging clinicians either at the individual or the healthcare system level.

Conclusion: Establishing electronic health record-supported recruitment approaches across a multicenter prediabetes/diabetes trial is feasible and can be adopted by diverse clinical environments.
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June 2019

High Prevalence of Undiagnosed Hyperglycemia in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Hispanic Women in Oregon.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2019 08 11;6(4):799-805. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Virginia Garcia Memorial Health Center, Cornelius, OR, USA.

Background: Overweight Hispanic women are at high risk for type 2 diabetes. A clinical diagnosis of hyperglycemia is often necessary to access interventions. We examined the prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a group of low-income overweight or obese Hispanic women, who were receiving care at a Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC).

Methods: Among 196 overweight or obese Hispanic women (mean age 44 ± 10 years, mean weight 86.8 ± 16.5 kg, mean body mass index [BMI] 36.5 ± 6.4 kg/m) enrolled in a randomized clinical weight-loss trial, we compared A1C and fasting blood glucose (FBG) obtained at baseline with women's existing diabetes and prediabetes diagnoses in the medical record.

Results: According to the information in participants' medical records, 36% (70/196) had diagnosed diabetes, 20% (39/196) had a diagnosis of prediabetes, and the remaining 44% (87/196) had neither diagnosis. Among participants without a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes during the baseline screening for our study, 63% (55/87) had at least one test in the prediabetes range (baseline A1C and FBG were in prediabetes range for 39 and 55 participants, respectively), and 13% (11/87) had at least one test in the diabetic range (baseline A1C and FBG values in diabetes range for 3 and 11 participants, respectively).

Discussion: We found substantial prevalence of undiagnosed hyperglycemia among a sample of overweight and obese Hispanic women. It is possible that limited awareness of diabetes risk may be a barrier to patient compliance with screening recommendations.
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August 2019

Insomnia is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the clinical setting.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2018 26;6(1):e000604. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Science Program Department, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research NW, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Objective: To determine the possible association between insomnia and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the naturalistic clinical setting.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine the risk of developing T2DM among patients with pre-diabetes with and without insomnia. Participants with pre-diabetes (identified by a physician or via two laboratory tests) between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015 and without sleep apnea were followed until December 31, 2016. Patients were determined to have T2DM when two of the following occurred within a 2-year window: physician-entered outpatient T2DM diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-9 250.00; ICD-10 E11), dispensing of an antihyperglycemia agent, and hemoglobin A1c (A1c) >6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >125 mg/dL. One hospital inpatient stay with an associated T2DM diagnosis was also sufficient for classification of T2DM.

Results: Our cohort consisted of 81 233 persons with pre-diabetes, 24 146 (29.7%) of whom had insomnia at some point during the 4.3-year average observation period. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, those with insomnia were 28% more likely to develop T2DM than those without insomnia (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.33). The estimate was essentially unchanged after adjusting for baseline A1c level (HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.40) or FPG (HR 1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33).

Conclusions: Insomnia imparts an increased risk of T2DM comparable with that conferred by traditional risk factors (eg, overweight, non-white race, cardiovascular risk factors). This association could have clinical importance because it suggests a new potentially modifiable risk factor that could be targeted to prevent diabetes.
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December 2018

Characteristics of Self-Reported Sleep and the Risk of Falls and Fractures: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI).

J Bone Miner Res 2019 03 21;34(3):464-474. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Sleep disturbances are common and may influence falls and fracture directly by influencing bone turnover and muscle strength or indirectly through high comorbidity or poor physical function. To investigate the association between self-reported sleep and falls and fractures, we prospectively studied 157,306 women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using information on sleep quality, sleep duration, and insomnia from questionnaires. Annual self-report of falling two or more times (ie, "recurrent falling") during each year of follow-up was modeled with repeated measures logistic regression models fit by generalized estimating equations. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate sleep disturbance and time to first fracture. We examined the risks of recurrent falls and fracture by sleep duration with 7 hours as referent. We examined the risks across categories of sleep disturbance, insomnia status, and sleep quality. The average follow-up time was 7.6 years for falls and 12.0 years for fractures. In multivariable adjusted models, including adjustment for comorbidity, medications, and physical function, women who were short (≤5 hours) and long (≥10 hours) sleepers had increased odds of recurrent falls (odds ratio [OR] 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 1.34 and OR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.43, respectively). Poor sleep quality, insomnia, and more sleep disturbances were also associated with an increased odds of recurrent falls. Short sleep was associated with an increased risk of all fractures, and upper limb, lower limb, and central body fractures, but not hip fractures, with hazard ratios ranging from 1.10 to 1.13 (p < 0.05). There was little association between other sleep characteristics and fracture. In conclusion, short and long sleep duration and poor sleep quality were independently associated with increased odds of recurrent falls. Short sleep was associated with modest increase in fractures. Future long-term trials of sleep interventions should include falls and fractures as endpoints. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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March 2019

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Anthropometric Measures as Risk Factors for Diabetes.

Diabetes Care 2019 01 23;42(1):126-133. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objective: The study objective was to examine the impact of race/ethnicity on associations between anthropometric measures and diabetes risk.

Research Design And Methods: A total of 136,112 postmenopausal women aged 50-79 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative without baseline cancer or diabetes were followed for 14.6 years. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured in all participants, and a subset of 9,695 had assessment of whole-body fat mass, whole-body percent fat, trunk fat mass, and leg fat mass by DXA. Incident diabetes was assessed via self-report. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess associations between anthropometrics and diabetes incidence.

Results: During follow-up, 18,706 cases of incident diabetes were identified. BMI, WC, and WHR were all positively associated with diabetes risk in each racial and ethnic group. WC had the strongest association with risk of diabetes across all racial and ethnic groups. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, associations with WC were weaker in black women ( < 0.0001) and stronger in Asian women ( < 0.0001). Among women with DXA determinations, black women had a weaker association with whole-body fat ( = 0.02) but a stronger association with trunk-to-leg fat ratio ( = 0.03) compared with white women.

Conclusions: In postmenopausal women across all racial/ethnic groups, WC was a better predictor of diabetes risk, especially for Asian women. Better anthropometric measures that reflect trunk-to-leg fat ratio may improve diabetes risk assessment for black women.
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January 2019

Predicting Fracture Risk in Younger Postmenopausal Women: Comparison of the Garvan and FRAX Risk Calculators in the Women's Health Initiative Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2019 02 17;34(2):235-242. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Division of Epidemiology & Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Guidelines recommend fracture risk assessment in postmenopausal women aged 50-64, but the optimal method is unknown.

Objectives: To compare discrimination and calibration of the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and Garvan fracture risk calculator for predicting fractures in postmenopausal women aged 50-64 at baseline.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Participants: Sixty-three thousand seven hundred twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-64 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials.

Main Measures: Incident hip fractures and major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) during 10-year follow-up. Calculated FRAX- and Garvan-predicted hip fracture and MOF fracture probabilities.

Key Results: The observed 10-year hip fracture probability was 0.3% for women aged 50-54 years (n = 14,768), 0.6% for women aged 55-59 years (n = 22,442), and 1.1% for women aged 60-64 years (n = 25,513). At sensitivity thresholds ≥ 80%, specificity of both tools for detecting incident hip fracture during 10 years of follow-up was low: Garvan 30.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.3-31.0%) and FRAX 43.1% (95% CI 42.7-43.5%). At maximal area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC(c), 0.58 for Garvan, 0.65 for FRAX), sensitivity was 16.0% (95% CI 12.7-19.4%) for Garvan and 59.2% (95% CI 54.7-63.7%) for FRAX. At AUC(c) values, sensitivity was lower in African American and Hispanic women than among white women and lower in women aged 50-54 than those 60-64 years old. Observed hip fracture probabilities were similar to FRAX-predicted probabilities but greater than Garvan-predicted probabilities. At AUC(c) values (0.56 for both tools), sensitivity for identifying MOF was also low (range 26.7-46.8%). At AUC(c) values (0.55 for both tools), sensitivity for identifying any clinical fracture ranged from 18.1 to 34.0%.

Conclusions: In postmenopausal women aged 50-64 years, the FRAX and Garvan fracture risk calculator discriminate poorly between women who do and do not experience fracture during 10-year follow-up. There is no useful threshold for either tool.
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February 2019

Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Weight Loss Interventions to Prevent Obesity-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Adults: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

JAMA 2018 09;320(11):1172-1191

Kaiser Permanente Research Affiliates Evidence-based Practice Center, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente, Portland, Oregon.

Importance: Overweight and obesity have been associated with adverse health effects.

Objective: To systematically review evidence on benefits and harms of behavioral and pharmacotherapy weight loss and weight loss maintenance interventions in adults to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed Publisher-Supplied Records, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for studies published through June 6, 2017; and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials through August 2017; and ongoing surveillance in targeted publications through March 23, 2018. Studies from previous reviews were reevaluated for inclusion.

Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) focusing on weight loss or weight loss maintenance in adults.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Data were abstracted by one reviewer and confirmed by another. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for weight loss outcomes in behavior-based interventions.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Health outcomes, weight loss or weight loss maintenance, reduction in obesity-related conditions, and adverse events.

Results: A total of 122 RCTs (N = 62 533) and 2 observational studies (N = 209 993) were identified. Compared with controls, participants in behavior-based interventions had greater mean weight loss at 12 to 18 months (-2.39 kg [95% CI, -2.86 to -1.93]; 67 studies [n = 22065]) and less weight regain (-1.59 kg [95% CI, -2.38 to -0.79]; 8 studies [n = 1408]). Studies of medication-based weight loss and maintenance interventions also reported greater weight loss or less weight regain in intervention compared with placebo groups at 12 to 18 months (range, -0.6 to -5.8 kg; no meta-analysis). Participants with prediabetes in weight loss interventions had a lower risk of developing diabetes compared with controls (relative risk, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.51 to 0.89]). There was no evidence of other benefits, but most health outcomes such as mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer were infrequently reported. Small improvements in quality of life in some medication trials were noted but were of unclear clinical significance. There was no evidence of harm such as cardiovascular disease from behavior-based interventions; higher rates of adverse events were associated with higher dropout rates in medication groups than in placebo groups.

Conclusions And Relevance: Behavior-based weight loss interventions with or without weight loss medications were associated with more weight loss and a lower risk of developing diabetes than control conditions. Weight loss medications, but not behavior-based interventions, were associated with higher rates of harms. Long-term weight and health outcomes data, as well as data on important subgroups, were limited.
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September 2018

Long-Term Weight Trajectory and Risk of Hip Fracture, Falls, Impaired Physical Function, and Death.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 10 27;66(10):1972-1979. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, Oregon.

Objectives: To determine the association between weight trajectory, health status, and mortality in older women.

Design: Cohort study.

Setting: Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.

Participants: Older community-dwelling women (age: baseline (1986-88), mean 68, range 65-81; Year 20 (2006-08), mean 88, range 83-102 (N = 1,323)).

Measurements: Body weight measured repeatedly over 20 years (mean 8 times). Logistic and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate whether 20-year weight trajectory measures were associated with hip fracture, falls, physical performance, and mortality.

Results: In models adjusted for age, clinic, calcium use, Year 20 weight, walking speed, comorbidity score, smoking, self-reported health, and walking for exercise, women with moderate weight loss (>9.0 kg) over 20 years had a 74% greater risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.37-2.20) in the 5 years after the Year 20 visit than those with no weight loss and more than twice the risk of hip fracture (HR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39-4.70). They were 3.6 times (odds ratio (OR) = 3.60, 95% CI = 1.86-6.95) as likely to have poor physical function at the Year 20 visit as women with no weight loss but no greater risk of 2 or more falls in the 1.5 years after the Year 20 visit. Weight variability and abrupt weight decline were not associated with adverse health oucomes (falls, fractures, mortality), but those in the highest quartile of variability were 2.3 times (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.34-3.80) as likely to have poor physical function scores.

Conclusion: In women surviving past 80 years of age, moderate weight loss over 20 years was associated with greater risk of hip fracture, poor physical function, and mortality but not of falls. Future work should separate voluntary from involuntary weight loss.
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October 2018

Baseline Characteristics of the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) Study: A Contemporary Prediabetes Cohort That Will Inform Diabetes Prevention Efforts.

Diabetes Care 2018 08 25;41(8):1590-1599. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Objective: To describe baseline characteristics of the Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes (D2d) study, the first large U.S. diabetes prevention clinical trial to apply current American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for prediabetes.

Research Design And Methods: This is a multicenter ( = 22 sites), randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, primary prevention clinical trial testing effects of oral daily 4,000 IU cholecalciferol (D) compared with placebo on incident diabetes in U.S. adults at risk for diabetes. Eligible participants were at risk for diabetes, defined as not meeting criteria for diabetes but meeting at least two 2010 ADA glycemic criteria for prediabetes: fasting plasma glucose (FPG) 100-125 mg/dL, 2-h postload glucose (2hPG) after a 75-g oral glucose load 140-199 mg/dL, and/or a hemoglobin A (HbA) 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol).

Results: A total of 2,423 participants (45% of whom were women and 33% nonwhite) were randomized to cholecalciferol or placebo. Mean (SD) age was 59 (9.9) years and BMI 32 (4.5) kg/m. Thirty-five percent met all three prediabetes criteria, 49% met the FPG/HbA criteria only, 9.5% met the 2hPG/FPG criteria only, and 6.3% met the 2hPG/HbA criteria only. Black participants had the highest mean HbA and lowest FPG concentration compared with white, Asian, and other races ( < 0.01); 2hPG concentration did not differ among racial groups. When compared with previous prediabetes cohorts, the D2d cohort had lower mean 2hPG concentration but similar HbA and FPG concentrations.

Conclusions: D2d will establish whether vitamin D supplementation lowers risk of diabetes and will inform about the natural history of prediabetes per contemporary ADA criteria.
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August 2018

Stratified Probabilistic Bias Analysis for Body Mass Index-related Exposure Misclassification in Postmenopausal Women.

Epidemiology 2018 09;29(5):604-613

From the Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, NY.

Background: There is widespread concern about the use of body mass index (BMI) to define obesity status in postmenopausal women because it may not accurately represent an individual's true obesity status. The objective of the present study is to examine and adjust for exposure misclassification bias from using an indirect measure of obesity (BMI) compared with a direct measure of obesity (percent body fat).

Methods: We used data from postmenopausal non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white women in the Women's Health Initiative (n=126,459). Within the Women's Health Initiative, a sample of 11,018 women were invited to participate in a sub-study involving dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. We examined indices of validity comparing BMI-defined obesity (≥30 kg/m), with obesity defined by percent body fat. We then used probabilistic bias analysis models stratified by age and race to explore the effect of exposure misclassification on the obesity-mortality relationship.

Results: Validation analyses highlight that using a BMI cutpoint of 30 kg/m to define obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with poor validity. There were notable differences in sensitivity by age and race. Results from the stratified bias analysis demonstrated that failing to adjust for exposure misclassification bias results in attenuated estimates of the obesity-mortality relationship. For example, in non-Hispanic white women 50-59 years of age, the conventional risk difference was 0.017 (95% confidence interval = 0.01, 0.023) and the bias-adjusted risk difference was 0.035 (95% simulation interval = 0.028, 0.043).

Conclusions: These results demonstrate the importance of using quantitative bias analysis techniques to account for nondifferential exposure misclassification of BMI-defined obesity. See video abstract at,
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September 2018