Publications by authors named "Erin Gruley"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rapid Treatment with Intramuscular Magnesium Sulfate During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Does Not Provide Neuroprotection Following Cardiac Arrest.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 14. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Brain injury is the most common cause of death for patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Magnesium is an attractive neuroprotective compound which protects neurons from ischemic injury by reducing neuronal calcium overload via NMDA receptor modulation and preventing calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. Intramuscular (IM) delivery of MgSO during CPR has the potential to target these mechanisms within an early therapeutic window. We hypothesize that IM MgSO administrated during CPR could achieve therapeutic serum magnesium levels within 15 min after ROSC and improve neurologic outcomes in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Male Long Evans rats were subjected to 8-min asphyxial cardiac arrest and block randomized to receive placebo, 107 mg/kg, 215 mg/kg, or 430 mg/kg MgSO IM at the onset of CPR. Serum magnesium concentrations increased rapidly with IM delivery during CPR, achieving twofold to fourfold increase by 15 min after ROSC in all magnesium dose groups. Rats subjected to cardiac arrest or sham surgery were block randomized to treatment groups for assessment of neurological outcomes. We found that IM MgSO during CPR had no effect on ROSC rate (p > 0.05). IM MgSO treatment had no statistically significant effect on 10-day survival with good neurologic function or hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron survival compared to placebo treatment. In conclusion, a single dose IM MgSO during CPR achieves up to fourfold baseline serum magnesium levels within 15 min after ROSC; however, this treatment strategy did not improve survival, recovery of neurologic function, or neuron survival. Future studies with repeated dosing or in combination with hypothermic targeted temperature management may be indicated.
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January 2022

Roles of μ-opioid receptors and nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptors in buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2012 Oct 28;343(1):72-81. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5632, USA.

Buprenorphine is known as a μ-opioid peptide (MOP) receptor agonist, but its antinociception is compromised by the activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptors in rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of MOP and NOP receptors in regulating buprenorphine-induced physiological responses in primates (rhesus monkeys). The effects of MOP antagonist (naltrexone), NOP antagonist [(±)-1-[(3R*,4R*)-1-(cyclooctylmethyl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-4-piperidinyl]-3-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one (J-113397)], and NOP agonists [(1S,3aS)-8-(2,3,3a,4,5,6-hexahydro-1H-phenalen-1-yl)-1-phenyl-1,3,8-triaza-spiro[4.5] decan-4-one (Ro 64-6198) and 3-endo-8-[bis(2-methylphenyl)methyl]-3-phenyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-ol (SCH 221510)] on buprenorphine were studied in three functional assays for measuring analgesia, respiratory depression, and itch in primates. Over the dose range of 0.01 to 0.1 mg/kg, buprenorphine dose-dependently produced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching responses, and there was a ceiling effect at higher doses (0.1-1 mg/kg). Naltrexone (0.03 mg/kg) produced similar degrees of rightward shifts of buprenorphine's dose-response curves for all three endpoints. Mean pK(B) values of naltrexone (8.1-8.3) confirmed that MOP receptors mediated mainly buprenorphine-induced antinociception, respiratory depression, and itch/scratching. In contrast, J-113397 (0.1 mg/kg) did not change buprenorphine-induced physiological responses, indicating that there were no functional NOP receptors in buprenorphine-induced effects. More importantly, both NOP agonists, Ro 64-6198 and SCH 221510, enhanced buprenorphine-induced antinociception without respiratory depression and itch/ scratching. The dose-addition analysis revealed that buprenorphine in combination with the NOP agonist synergistically produced antinociceptive effects. These findings provided functional evidence that the activation of NOP receptors did not attenuate buprenorphine-induced antinociception in primates; instead, the coactivation of MOP and NOP receptors produced synergistic antinociception without other side effects. This study strongly supports the therapeutic potential of mixed MOP/NOP agonists as innovative analgesics.
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October 2012