Publications by authors named "Erin E Mosley"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression, relative protein abundance, and its fatty acid products in bovine tissues.

J Dairy Res 2014 Aug 6;81(3):333-9. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Department of Animal & Veterinary Science,University of Idaho,Moscow Idaho 83844.

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) greatly contributes to the unsaturated fatty acids present in milk and meat of cattle. The SCD1 enzyme introduces a double bond into certain saturated fatty acyl-CoAs producing monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The SCD1 enzyme also has been shown to be active in the bovine mammary gland converting t11 18:1 (vaccenic acid) to c9 t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The objective of this study was to determine any association between the gene expression of SCD1 and occurrence of its products (c9 14:1, c9 16:1, c9 18:1, and c9 t11 18:2) in various bovine tissues. Tissue samples were obtained from lactating Holstein cows (n=28) at slaughter, frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Total RNA was extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the SCD1 gene. Extracted lipid was converted to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed by GC. Tissues varied in expression of SCD1 gene with mammary, cardiac, intestinal adipose, and skeletal muscle expressing greater copy number as compared with lung, large intestine, small intestine and liver (371, 369, 328, 286, 257, 145, 73, and 21 copies/ng RNA, respectively). Tissues with high mRNA expression of SCD1 contained greater SCD1 protein whereas detection of SCD1 protein in tissues with low SCD1 mRNA expression was very faint or absent. Across tissues, the desaturase indices for c9 18:1 (r=0.24) and sum of SCD products (r=0.20) were positively correlated with SCD1 gene expression (P<0.01 for both). Within each tissue, the relationship between SCD1 gene expression and the desaturase indices varied. No correlation was detected between SCD1 expression and desaturase indices in the liver, large and small intestines, lung, cardiac or skeletal muscles. Positive correlations, however, were detected between SCD1 expression and the desaturase indices in intestinal adipose tissue (P<0.02 for all) except 14:1, whereas only c9 18:1, c9 t11 18:2 and sum of all desaturase indices were positively correlated with SCD1 expression in mammary tissue (P < or = 0.03). Overall, the relationship between SCD1 gene expression and occurrence of its products seems to be tissue specific.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022029914000181DOI Listing
August 2014

Epithelial Cell Gene Expression Induced by Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus.

Int J Microbiol 2009 3;2009:753278. Epub 2009 Feb 3.

Department of Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA.

HEp-2 cell monolayers were cocultured with intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, and changes in gene expression were profiled using DNA microarrays. Intracellular S. aureus affected genes involved in cellular stress responses, signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Transcription of stress response and signal transduction-related genes including atf3, sgk, map2k1, map2k3, arhb, and arhe was increased. In addition, elevated transcription of proinflammatory genes was observed for tnfa, il1b, il6, il8, cxcl1, ccl20, cox2, and pai1. Genes involved in proapoptosis and fibrosis were also affected at transcriptional level by intracellular S. aureus. Notably, intracellular S. aureus induced strong transcriptional down-regulation of several cholesterol biosynthesis genes. These results suggest that epithelial cells respond to intracellular S. aureus by inducing genes affecting immunity and in repairing damage caused by the organism, and are consistent with the possibility that the organism exploits an intracellular environment to subvert host immunity and promote colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2009/753278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775199PMC
July 2011

Methodology for the in vivo measurement of the delta9-desaturation of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids in lactating dairy cattle.

Lipids 2007 Oct 6;42(10):939-45. Epub 2007 Jul 6.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, PO Box 442330, Moscow, ID 83844-2330, USA.

There is limited methodology available to quantitatively assess the activity of the Delta9-desaturase enzyme in vivo without chemically inhibiting the enzyme or using radioactively labeled substrates. The objective of these experiments was to develop methodology to determine the incorporation and desaturation of 13C-labeled fatty acids into milk lipids. In a preliminary experiment, 3.7 g [1-13C]myristic acid ([1-13C]14:0), 19.5 g [1-13C]palmitic acid ([1-13C]16:0), 20.0 g [1-13C]stearic acid ([1-13C]18:0) were combined and infused into the duodenum of a cow over 24 h. In a following experiment, 5.0 g [1-13C]14:0, 40.0 g [1-13C]16:0, and 50.0 g [1-13C]18:0 were infused into the abomasums of separate cows as a bolus over 20 min or continuously over 24 h. Milk fat was extracted using chloroform:methanol. Fatty acids were methylated, and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were converted to dimethyl disulfide derivatives (DMDS). The FAME and DMDS were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. In the preliminary experiment, 13C enrichment in 14:0 but not 16:0 or 18:0 was observed. When dosage amounts were increased in the following experiment, peak enrichments from the bolus infusion were observed at 8 h. Enrichments for continuous infusion peaked at 16 h for 14:0 and 18:0, and at 24 h for 16:0. The Delta9-desaturase products of these fatty acids were estimated to be 90% of cis-9 14:1, 50% of cis-9 16:1, and 59% of cis-9 18:1. This study demonstrates that 13C-labeled fatty acids may be utilized in vivo to measure the activity of the Delta9-desaturase enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-007-3085-xDOI Listing
October 2007

Differential biohydrogenation and isomerization of [U-(13)C]oleic and [1-(13)C]oleic acids by mixed ruminal microbes.

Lipids 2006 May;41(5):513-7

Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-2330, USA.

The additional mass associated with 13C in metabolic tracers may interfere with their metabolism. The comparative isomerization and biohydrogenation of oleic, [1-(13)C]oleic, and [U-13C]oleic acids by mixed ruminal microbes was used to evaluate this effect. The percent of stearic, cis-14 and -15, and trans-9 to -16 18:1 originating from oleic acid was decreased for [U-(13)C]oleic acid compared with [1-(13)C]oleic acid. Conversely, microbial utilization of [U-(13)C]oleic acid resulted in more of the 13C label in cis-9 18:1 compared with [1-(13)C]oleic acid (53.7 vs. 40.1%). The isomerization and biohydrogenation of oleic acid by ruminal microbes is affected by the mass of the labeled tracer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11745-006-5125-3DOI Listing
May 2006

Cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized from vaccenic acid in lactating women.

J Nutr 2006 Sep;136(9):2297-301

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6376, USA.

We studied the incorporation of the trans-11 vaccenic-1-(13)C acid ((13)C-VA) into milk and endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in lactating women. Subjects (n = 4) were 247 +/- 30 d postpartum, weighed 70.8 +/- 3.7 kg, breast-fed at least 6 times/d and consumed self-selected diets. After an overnight fast, they consumed the (13)C-VA (2.5 mg/kg body wt). Milk samples were obtained by complete breast expression at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h post-(13)C-VA ingestion. Lipid was extracted using chloroform:methanol. Fatty acids were methylated and converted to dimethyl disulfide and Diels-Alder derivatives before analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The mean (13)C-enrichment of milk VA was 3.1% at 8 h and reached maximal enrichment of 7.6% at 18 h. The (13)C enrichment of milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA reached a maximum of 0.4% at 18 h, confirming its conversion of VA to the Delta9-desaturase enzyme product. In the subjects examined, a portion (<10%) of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA present in milk was endogenously synthesized from VA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.9.2297DOI Listing
September 2006

cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid is synthesized directly from vaccenic acid in lactating dairy cattle.

J Nutr 2006 Mar;136(3):570-5

Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2330, USA.

The utilization of (13)C-labeled vaccenic acid (VA) by lactating dairy cows to synthesize cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was investigated. Primiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n = 3) were abomasally infused with 1.5 g of VA-1-(13)C. Blood and milk samples were taken frequently before and after VA infusion. Milk and plasma lipid were extracted using chloroform:methanol. Plasma lipid was separated into triacylglycerol (TG), cholesterol ester (CE), phospholipid (PL), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and mono- and diacylglycerol (MDG) fractions. Lipid was methylated, converted to dimethyl disulfide and Diels-Alder adducts, and analyzed by GC-MS. Increased enrichment of (13)C was determined using a 2-sample t test for each sample time compared with -24 h, with significance declared at P < 0.05. Enrichment in milk fat VA was detected at 4 (3.0%), 8 (8.3%), 12 (4.1%), 16 (2.2%), and 20 h (0.8%). Enrichment in VA was also detected in plasma TG, NEFA, PL, and MDG. Enrichment in milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA, the Delta9-desaturase product of VA, was detected at 4 (2.6%), 8 (6.6%), 12 (3.4%), 16 (1.7%), and 24 h (0.7%). Enrichment was not detected in cis-9, trans-11 CLA for any plasma lipid fraction. Modeling of the data showed the exponential decay in (13)C enrichment over time for both VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk fat. Conversion of dietary VA to cis-9, trans-11 CLA endogenously was confirmed with the mammary gland being the primary site of Delta9-desaturase activity; approximately 80% of milk fat cis-9, trans-11 CLA originated from VA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/136.3.570DOI Listing
March 2006

trans Fatty acids in milk produced by women in the United States.

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 Dec;82(6):1292-7

Department of Animal and Veterinary Science, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-2330, USA.

Background: trans Fatty acids (FAs) have been identified as negatively affecting human health. The trans FA composition of human milk fat must be examined to establish its influence on the nutritional quality of milk consumed by infants.

Objective: We sought to ascertain the individual and total trans FA isomers (sum of FAs containing at least one trans double bond) in human milk and to identify relations between individual FAs and milk fat concentration (% by wt).

Design: The FA composition of milk samples (n = 81) from women living in the southwestern United States was ascertained. The individual 18:1t isomers were separated. Correlations between each FA, total trans FAs, groups of similar FAs, and milk fat concentrations were examined.

Results: The mean total trans FA concentration was 7.0 +/- 2.3% (range: 2.5-13.8%). The concentration of total 18:1t was 5.1 +/- 2.0% (range: 1.5-11.6%), and Delta10t (range: Delta9-12t) was the most abundant isomer.

Conclusions: Milk fat from women living in the United States contains concentrations of trans FAs similar to those in milk from Canadian women but greater than those reported in milk from women in other countries. In decreasing order of concentration, the Delta10t, Delta11t, Delta9t, and Delta12t isomers represented 78.9% of the total 18:1t. These FAs generally originate from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and ruminant fat in the diet. No relation was found between the concentration of total trans FAs and milk fat concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/82.6.1292DOI Listing
December 2005

Isomerization of stable isotopically labeled elaidic acid to cis and trans monoenes by ruminal microbes.

J Lipid Res 2002 Dec;43(12):2072-6

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29424, USA.

A previous study showed that oleic acid was converted by mixed ruminal microbes to stearic acid and also converted to a multitude of trans octadecenoic acid isomers. This study traced the metabolism of one of these trans C18:1 isomers upon its incubation with mixed ruminal microbes. Unlabeled and labeled (18-[13C]trans-9 C18:1) elaidic acid were each added to four in vitro batch cultures with three cultures inoculated with mixed ruminal bacteria and one uninoculated culture. Samples were taken at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h and analyzed for 13C enrichment in component fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. At 0 h of incubation, enrichment was detected only in elaidic acid. By 48 h of incubation, 13C enrichment was 18% (P < 0.01) for stearic acid, 7% to 30% (P < 0.01) for all trans C18:1 isomers having double bonds between carbons six through 16, and 5% to 10% for cis-9 and cis-11 monoenes. After 48 h, 13C enrichment in the uninoculated cultures was only detected in the added elaidic acid. This study shows trans fatty acids exposed to active ruminal cultures are converted to stearic acid but also undergo enzymic isomerization yielding a multitude of positional and geometric isomers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.m200284-jlr200DOI Listing
December 2002

Microbial biohydrogenation of oleic acid to trans isomers in vitro.

J Lipid Res 2002 Feb;43(2):290-6

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.

Ruminant products are significant sources of dietary trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids, including various conjugated linoleic acid isomers, have been shown to act as metabolic modifiers of lipid metabolism. Trans fatty acids originate from biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids by gut microbes; however, the exact synthetic pathways are unclear. It was our goal to examine the biohydrogenation pathway for oleic acid, where oleic acid is hydrogenated directly to stearic acid. Our objective in this study was to trace the time course of appearance of 13C in labeled oleic acid to determine if trans monoenes are formed from the 13C-labeled oleic acid or if the 13C appears only in stearic acid as described in reviews of earlier work. Enrichments were calculated from the mass abundance of 13C in major fatty acid fragments and expressed as a percentage of total carbon isotopomers. Significant 13C enrichment was found in stearic acid, oleic acid, trans-6, trans-7, and in all trans C18:1 in positions 9-16. We concluded that the biohydrogenation of oleic acid by mixed ruminal microbes involves the formation of several positional isomers of trans monoenes rather than only direct biohydrogenation to form stearic acid as previously described.
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February 2002
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