Publications by authors named "Erin E Bessette"

8 Publications

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Genetic and epigenetic regulation of AHR gene expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: role of the proximal promoter GC-rich region.

Biochem Pharmacol 2012 Sep 21;84(5):722-35. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, contributes to carcinogenesis through its role in the regulation of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1)-catalyzed metabolism of carcinogens. Here, we investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that affect AhR expression. Analyses of the human AHR proximal promoter in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed multiple specificity protein (Sp) 1 binding sequences that are transcriptional activators in vitro. The regulation of AhR expression was evaluated in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 cells, which showed increased AhR expression, enhanced CYP1 inducibility, and increased capacity to form DNA adducts when exposed to the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. The increased AhR expression in LTEE cells was found not to result from increased mRNA stability, differential RNA processing, or decreased DNA methylation. Analysis of the AHR proximal promoter region using chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that enhanced expression of AhR in LTEE cells involves changes in histone modifications, notably decreased trimethylation of histone 3, lysine 27. Upon further examination of the GC-rich Sp1-binding region, we confirmed that it contains a polymorphic (GGGGC)(n) repeat. In a population of newborns from New York State, the allele frequency of (GGGGC)(n) was n = 4 > 5 ≫ 6, 2. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed the ability of sequences of this GC-rich region to form guanine-quadruplex structures in vitro. These studies revealed multiple levels at which AhR expression may be controlled, and offer additional insights into mechanisms regulating AhR expression that can ultimately impact carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2012.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965201PMC
September 2012

Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and DNA binding of 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline and its carcinogenic isomer 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline in mice.

Chem Res Toxicol 2012 Feb 28;25(2):410-21. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health , Albany, New York 12201, United States.

2-Amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5-g]quinoxaline (MeIgQx) is a recently discovered heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meats. MeIgQx is an isomer of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a rodent carcinogen and possible human carcinogen that also occurs in cooked meats. MeIgQx is a bacterial mutagen, but knowledge about its metabolism and carcinogenic potential is lacking. Metabolism studies on MeIgQx and MeIQx were conducted with human and mouse liver microsomes, and recombinant human P450s. DNA binding studies were also investigated in mice to ascertain the genotoxic potential of MeIgQx in comparison to MeIQx. Both HAAs underwent comparable rates of N-oxidation to form genotoxic N-hydroxylated metabolites with mouse liver microsomes (0.2-0.3 nmol/min/mg protein). The rate of N-oxidation of MeIQx was 4-fold greater than the rate of N-oxidation of MeIgQx with human liver microsomes (1.7 vs 0.4 nmol/min/mg protein). The rate of N-oxidation, by recombinant human P450 1A2, was comparable for both substrates (6 pmol/min/pmol P450 1A2). MeIgQx also underwent N-oxidation by human P450s 1A1 and 1B1 at appreciable rates, whereas MeIQx was poorly metabolized by these P450s. The potential of MeIgQx and MeIQx to form DNA adducts was assessed in female C57BL/6 mice given [(14)C]-MeIgQx (10 μCi, 9.68 mg/kg body wt) or [(14)C]-MeIQx (10 μCi, 2.13 mg/kg body wt). DNA adduct formation in the liver, pancreas, and colorectum was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at 4, 24, or 48 h post-treatment. Variable levels of adducts were detected in all organs. The adduct levels were similar for both HAAs, when adjusted for dose, and ranged from 1 to 600 adducts per 10(7) nucleotides per mg/kg dose. Thus, MeIgQx undergoes metabolic activation and binds to DNA at levels that are comparable to MeIQx. Given the high amounts of MeIgQx formed in cooked meats, further investigations are warranted to assess the carcinogenic potential of this HAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx2004536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531872PMC
February 2012

DNA adduct formation of 4-aminobiphenyl and heterocyclic aromatic amines in human hepatocytes.

Chem Res Toxicol 2011 Jun 19;24(6):913-25. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

Institut de Recherche en Santé Environnement Travail, EA4427 SeRAIC, Université Rennes 1, IFR 140, 2 Avenue du Pr L Bernard, 35043 Rennes, France.

DNA adduct formation of the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), a known human carcinogen present in tobacco smoke, and the heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), potential human carcinogens, which are also present in tobacco smoke or formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats, was investigated in freshly cultured human hepatocytes. The carcinogens (10 μM) were incubated with hepatocytes derived from eight different donors for time periods up to 24 h. The DNA adducts were quantified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. The principal DNA adducts formed for all of the carcinogens were N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts. The levels of adducts ranged from 3.4 to 140 adducts per 10(7) DNA bases. The highest level of adduct formation occurred with AαC, followed by 4-ABP, then by PhIP, MeIQx, and IQ. Human hepatocytes formed dG-C8-HAA-adducts at levels that were up to 100-fold greater than the amounts of adducts produced in rat hepatocytes. In contrast to HAA adducts, the levels of dG-C8-4-ABP adduct formation were similar in human and rat hepatocytes. These DNA binding data demonstrate that the rat, an animal model that is used for carcinogenesis bioassays, significantly underestimates the potential hepatic genotoxicity of HAAs in humans. The high level of DNA adducts formed by AαC, a carcinogen produced in tobacco smoke at levels that are up to 100-fold higher than the amounts of 4-ABP, is noteworthy. The possible causal role of AαC in tobacco-associated cancers warrants investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx200091yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118939PMC
June 2011

Identification of carcinogen DNA adducts in human saliva by linear quadrupole ion trap/multistage tandem mass spectrometry.

Chem Res Toxicol 2010 Jul;23(7):1234-44

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

DNA adducts of carcinogens derived from tobacco smoke and cooked meat were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multistage tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS(n)) in saliva samples from 37 human volunteers on unrestricted diets. The N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl) (dG-C8) adducts of the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylmidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and the aromatic amine, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), were characterized and quantified by LC-ESI/MS/MS(n), employing consecutive reaction monitoring at the MS(3) scan stage mode with a linear quadrupole ion trap (LIT) mass spectrometer (MS). DNA adducts of PhIP were found most frequently: dG-C8-PhIP was detected in saliva samples from 13 of 29 ever-smokers and in saliva samples from 2 of 8 never-smokers. dG-C8-AalphaC and dG-C8-MeIQx were identified solely in saliva samples of three current smokers, and dG-C8-4-ABP was detected in saliva from two current smokers. The levels of these different adducts ranged from 1 to 9 adducts per 10(8) DNA bases. These findings demonstrate that PhIP is a significant DNA-damaging agent in humans. Saliva appears to be a promising biological fluid in which to assay DNA adducts of tobacco and dietary carcinogens by selective LIT MS techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx100098fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916027PMC
July 2010

Biomonitoring of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in hair: a validation study.

Chem Res Toxicol 2009 Aug;22(8):1454-63

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

A facile method was established to measure heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) accumulated in human hair and rodent fur. The samples were digested by base hydrolysis, and the liberated HAAs were isolated by tandem solvent/solid-phase extraction. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, using a triple stage quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode. In a pilot study of 12 human volunteers, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was detected in the hair of six meat-eaters at levels ranging from 290 to 890 pg/g hair. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC) were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) (50 pg/g hair) in hair from meat-eaters and six vegetarians. PhIP was detected in the hair from one vegetarian, and at a level just above the LOQ (65 pg/g hair), indicating that PhIP exposure occurs primarily through meat consumption. The levels of PhIP in hair samples from two meat-eaters varied by less than 24% over a 6 month interval, signifying that the exposure to PhIP and its accumulation in hair are relatively constant over time. In a controlled feeding study, female C57BL/6 mice were given these HAAs in their drinking water for 1 month, at six daily dose concentrations ranging from 0 and 0.080 to 800 microg/kg body weight. PhIP was detected in fur of mice at all doses, whereas AalphaC and MeIQx were detected in fur at dosages > or =0.8 mug AalphaC/kg body weight and > or =8 microg MeIQx/kg body weight. There was a strong positive relationship between dosage and each of the HAAs accumulated in fur and their DNA adducts formed in liver and colon (p values < 0.0001); however, the levels of HAA in fur did not correlate to the levels of DNA adducts after adjustment of dose. Thus, hair appears to be a promising tissue with by which we can noninvasively biomonitor the chronic exposure to PhIP, a potential human carcinogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx900155fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2787961PMC
August 2009

Investigations of the posttranslational mechanism of arsenite-mediated downregulation of human cytochrome P4501A1 levels: the role of heme oxygenase-1.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2009 May-Jun;23(3):222-32

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Arsenite, an environmental cocontaminant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diminishes the PAH-mediated upregulation of human CYP1A1, the enzyme that bioactivates PAHs to carcinogenic metabolites. Mechanistically, while transcriptional downregulation contributes to these effects, a role for posttranslational regulation has been implicated but not proven. We hypothesize that arsenite induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes CYP1A1 heme or cellular heme pools, thereby downregulating CYP1A1. Arsenite (5 microM), in HepG2 cells, induced HO-1 mRNA 7.4-fold over the 48 h observation period, and it upregulated HO-1 protein expression. Arsenite decreased the induction of CYP1A1 by a PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BKF), by 50%; and transfection of HepG2 cells with siRNA targeting the human HO-1 gene, reduced the arsenite downregulation of BKF-induced CYP1A1 from 54% to 27%, relative to untransfected cells. Reconstituted HO-1 did not significantly catabolize CYP1A1 heme in vitro. Together these findings demonstrate that a posttranslational mechanism involving decreases in the cellular heme pool by arsenite-induced HO-1 may contribute to arsenite-mediated downregulation of CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20283DOI Listing
September 2009

Screening for DNA adducts by data-dependent constant neutral loss-triple stage mass spectrometry with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

Anal Chem 2009 Jan;81(2):809-19

Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

A two-dimensional linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer (LIT/MS) was employed to simultaneously screen for DNA adducts of environmental, dietary, and endogenous genotoxicants, by data-dependent constant neutral loss scanning followed by triple-stage mass spectrometry (CNL-MS3). The loss of the deoxyribose (dR) from the protonated DNA adducts ([M + H - 116]+) in the MS/MS scan mode triggered the acquisition of MS3 product ion spectra of the aglycone adducts [BH2]+. Five DNA adducts of the tobacco carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) were detected in human hepatocytes treated with 4-ABP, and three DNA adducts of the cooked-meat carcinogen 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) were identified in the livers of rats exposed to MeIQx, by the CNL-MS3 scan mode. Buccal cell DNA from tobacco smokers was screened for DNA adducts of various classes of carcinogens in tobacco smoke including 4-ABP, 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AalphaC), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP); the cooked-meat carcinogens MeIQx, AalphaC, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylmidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); and the lipid peroxidation products acrolein (AC) and trans-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). The CNL-MS3 scanning technique can be used to simultaneously screen for multiple DNA adducts derived from different classes of carcinogens, at levels of adduct modification approaching 1 adduct per 108 unmodified DNA bases, when 10 microg of DNA is employed for the assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac802096pDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2646368PMC
January 2009

Mechanisms of arsenite-mediated decreases in benzo[k]fluoranthene-induced human cytochrome P4501A1 levels in HepG2 cells.

Drug Metab Dispos 2005 Mar 2;33(3):312-20. Epub 2004 Dec 2.

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are often environmental cocontaminants that could interact to alter PAH carcinogenicity. The heavy metal, arsenite, and the PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene, were used as prototypes to investigate, in human HepG2 cells, mechanisms whereby the bioactivation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by human CYP1A1 could be diminished by arsenite-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 induction by benzo[k]fluoranthene. To determine whether arsenite down-regulates CYP1A1 transcription, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays and luciferase reporter gene expression assays were used with HepG2 cells treated with benzo[k]fluoranthene and arsenite, separately and as a mixture. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (5 microM) markedly decreased benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA by 45%. Plasmids containing the CYP1A1 promoter region (pHu-1A1-FL) were induced 7.4-fold over vehicle by benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM), whereas arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 46%, 45%, and 61%, respectively. The plasmid, pHu-1A1-Delta100-FL, lacked xenobiotic response element (XRE) sites at -1061 and -981 and showed greater responsiveness relative to pHu-1A1-FL, by 1.7-fold. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 0%, 27%, and 39%, respectively, relative to expression levels produced by benzo[k]fluoranthene alone. Arsenite is stable for at least 48 h in the HepG2 cell medium with respect to its ability to diminish CYP1A1 benzo[k]fluoranthene induction. Arsenite did not affect benzo[k]fluoranthene induction directly through XRE sites, nor did it affect the stability of CYP1A1 mRNA. Thus, arsenite affects the transcriptional regulation of the benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and could diminish PAH carcinogenicity by decreasing bioactivation by CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.104.002212DOI Listing
March 2005