Publications by authors named "Erin Cravez"

3 Publications

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Modification and application of the proximal humerus ossification system to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

Spine Deform 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Orthopedics, Texas Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that proximal humeral ossification patterns are reliable for assessing peak height velocity in growing patients. Here, we sought to modify the system by including medial physeal closure and evaluate whether this system combined with the Cobb angle correlates with progression to surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

Methods: We reviewed 616 radiographs from 79 children in a historical collection to integrate closure of the medial physis into novel stages 3A and 3B. We then analyzed radiographs from the initial presentation of 202 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had either undergone surgery or completed monitoring at skeletal maturity. Summary statistics for the percentage of patients who progressed to the surgical range were calculated for each category of humerus and Cobb angle.

Results: The intra-observer and inter-observer ICC for assessment of the medial physis was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Only 3.4% of radiographs were unable to be assessed for medial humerus closure. The medial humerus physis begins to close about 1 year prior to the lateral physis and patients with a closing medial physis, but an open lateral physis were found to be the closest to PHV (0.7 years). Stratifying patients by Cobb angle and modified humerus stage yield categories with low and high risks of progression to the surgical range.

Conclusion: The medial humerus can be accurately evaluated and integrated into a new modified proximal humerus ossification system. Patients with humerus stage 3A or below have a higher rate of progression to the surgical range than those with humerus stage 3B or above.
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May 2021

Motorcycle crashes and upper extremity trauma.

SICOT J 2021 8;7. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Objectives: Upper extremity injuries following motorcycle crashes (MCC) incur increased healthcare costs and rehabilitation needs. We aim to characterize the epidemiology of MCC upper extremity injuries and identify factors that influence the severity of and cost of care for upper extremity injuries.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 571 patients with upper extremity injuries after MCC at a level 1 trauma center from 2002 to 2013. We collected data pertaining to demographics, helmet use, toxicology, bony injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hospital length of stay (LOS), and cost. Continuous variables were compared using t-test or Wilcoxon rank test, depending on data distribution, and dichotomous variables were compared using Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests. Regression models were used to evaluate the effect of intoxication or helmets on injury location, severity, cost of care, and LOS.

Results: The incidence of MCC upper extremity injury was 47.5%, with hand and forearm fractures the most common injuries (25.5% and 24.7% of total injuries). Intoxicated patients were more likely to have a high cost of care (p = 0.012), extended LOS (p = 0.038), plastic surgery involvement in their care (p = 0.038), but fewer upper extremity bony injuries (p = 0.019). Non-helmeted patients sustained less upper extremity bony injuries (p < 0.001) and upper extremity soft tissue injuries (p = 0.001), yet more severe injuries (ISS ≥ 30, p = 0.006 and GCS < 9, p < 0.01) than helmeted patients.

Conclusion: Upper extremity injuries are common in motorcyclists. Despite vital protection for the brain and maxillofacial injury, helmeted MCC patients have an increased incidence of upper extremity injuries compared to non-helmeted patients, but overall have less severe injuries. Intoxicated patients have fewer upper extremity bony injuries, but the higher cost of care, and extended LOS. Therefore, even with the increased risk of injury helmets may expose to the upper extremity, helmets reduced overall morbidity and mortality. In addition to mandatory helmet laws, we advocate for further development of safety equipment focusing specifically on the prevention of upper extremity injuries.
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March 2021

Persistent infection of the forearm following blunt trauma.

Case Reports Plast Surg Hand Surg 2020 Dec 12;7(1):139-144. Epub 2020 Dec 12.

Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Necrotizing soft tissue infections are aggressive manifestations of , often described after minor skin trauma. However, a subset of infections may present without cutaneous findings. We report a case of toxic shock syndrome and recalcitrant streptococcal infection of the forearm in a healthy teenager following blunt trauma.
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December 2020