Publications by authors named "Erin Casey"

46 Publications

Life Course and Socioecological Influences on Gender-Equitable Attitudes Among Men: A Scoping Review.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2020 Dec 3:1524838020977140. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

School of Social Work and Criminal Justice, University of Washington, Tacoma, WA, USA.

Emerging research suggests that holding gender-equitable attitudes (GEA) is associated with decreased risk of gender-based violence perpetration and increased willingness to engage in violence preventative actions among men. GEA, defined here as support for political, economic, and social equity across gender in both public and private spheres, may therefore constitute a protective factor against perpetration and a promotive factor in fostering healthy relationships and communities. Forces that shape GEA throughout boys' and young men's lives are less well articulated. The purpose of this exploratory, scoping review was to synthesize cross-disciplinary research to distill life-course influences on the development of GEA among men. Three databases and Google Scholar were searched to locate peer-reviewed studies that empirically examined GEA as an outcome of childhood, adolescent, or young adulthood factors. Sixty-nine articles were located that, collectively, used data from 97 different countries and identified 22 potential life-course influences on men's GEA. Across studies, facilitators of equitable attitudes included higher levels of education, exposure to gender transformative prevention programming, and having parents who held, modeled, and communicated gender-equitable beliefs. Hindrances to equitable attitudes included but were not limited to religiosity, the transition to fatherhood, and having mostly male peer groups. Findings suggest that opportunities to foster equitable attitudes exist across the life course and both inside and outside of formal prevention or education interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838020977140DOI Listing
December 2020

Gender Matters: Infusing a Gender Analysis into the "Healthy Development of All Youth" Grand Challenge.

Soc Work 2020 Oct;65(4):325-334

School of Social Welfare, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

The social work grand challenge to ensure healthy youth development necessarily involves a focus on violence prevention, including the prevention of sexual and dating violence during adolescence. The experience of sexual and dating violence is associated with numerous and often long-lasting detrimental mental, physical, and social outcomes, many of which this grand challenge seeks to prevent. Although evidence shows that gender is a critical axis of identity to consider in violence prevention research and practice efforts, gender is not a central lens applied in the field's approach to such issues within this grand challenge. First, this article articulates a rationale for infusing a gender analysis into understanding sexual and dating violence and conceptualizing effective violence prevention strategies. Second, authors describe gender-transformative (GT) approaches to sexual and dating violence prevention, a promising practice for both ensuring the healthy development of youths and reducing violence perpetration by focusing on engaging boys and young men. Third, authors discuss the potential for GT strategies to be used in prevention efforts targeting adolescent social issues more broadly. Last, authors call for practitioners and researchers focused on healthy youth development to apply a gender analysis in their efforts and articulate concrete ways to do so.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/swaa035DOI Listing
October 2020

Sexual and Relationship Violence Prevention and Response: What Drives the Commuter Campus Student Experience?

J Interpers Violence 2019 Nov 25:886260519888188. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

California State University, Fullerton, USA.

This exploratory study brings together two lines of inquiry on (a) college campus-based responses to sexual and intimate partner violence among students, and (b) the characteristics, experiences, and challenges unique to commuter students and commuter institutions of higher education. Using qualitative analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with campus personnel and focus groups with a total of 71 students on three commuter campuses in the Pacific Northwest, we offer a detailed description of the experiences and characteristics of commuter students as they pertain to sexual and relationship violence programming and prevention, the associated nature of commuter campus communities, and the resulting lack of visibility of the issue of sexual and relationship violence on commuter campuses. We conclude that creative, tailored approaches to prevention and response services on commuter campuses are needed to address the unique circumstances and challenges facing commuter campus students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519888188DOI Listing
November 2019

Examining Men's Perceptions of GBV Prevention Programming Content.

Violence Against Women 2019 04 24;25(5):614-632. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

5 University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA.

As global efforts to engage men in preventing gender-based violence (GBV) continue to grow, understanding male participants' perceptions of prevention events is needed. Data from a global sample of 319 men who had attended GBV prevention events were used to (a) assess men's perceptions of what topics were covered, (b) determine whether profiles of these perceptions could be identified, and (c) describe the degree to which content prerception profiles are associated with levels of men's motivation and confidence related to antiviolence action. Latent class analysis identified four perception profiles of prevention topics. Implications for GBV prevention programming are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801218796324DOI Listing
April 2019

Disjunctures in Experiences of Support During the Transition to Fatherhood of Men Who Have Used Intimate Partner Violence.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Apr 1:886260518769364. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

2 University of Washington, Tacoma, USA.

The transition to fatherhood has been shown to be a stressful time for men, and their experiences of identifying and accessing formal and informal support are mixed. However, research on the experience of men who use intimate partner violence (IPV) during the transition to fatherhood is limited. The evidence documenting the prevalence and short- and long-term impact of violence perpetrated by men against women during pregnancy and postpartum demonstrates the seriousness of this public health issue. To understand the mechanisms of interrupting IPV by engaging men, the gap between what is known about experiences of identifying the need for and access to support during the transition to fatherhood of men with past and current histories of using IPV must be bridged. The study described explores experiences of support during the transition to fatherhood of men who have used IPV. Descriptive findings revealed that men had a range of types of supports from multiple sources; however, most also identified crucial unmet instrumental and socioemotional needs. Four themes surfaced disjunctures in how participants described resources they needed, accessed, and desired. Specifically, these disjunctures were related to men's adherence to a self-reliant identity, a lack of male-specific peer or role model support, the tendency for childbirth classes to be geared toward mothers and not seen by fathers as sources of support, and a gap between men's goals for themselves as fathers, and the actual tools, resources, and modeling that were accessible and "acceptable." The implications include suggestions for group-based programmatic efforts, and three initial steps for organizations to assess and build current capacity to engage-with safety and accountability at the forefront-fathers who use IPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260518769364DOI Listing
April 2018

Quality Improvement Initiative to Increase the Use of Nasogastric Hydration in Infants With Bronchiolitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2017 08 5;7(8):436-443. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Washington University, St Louis, Missouri.

Background And Objectives: Intravenous (IV) hydration is used primarily in children with bronchiolitis at our institution. Because nasogastric (NG) hydration can provide better nutrition, the goal of our quality improvement (QI) initiative was to increase the rate of NG hydration in eligible children 1 to 23 months old with bronchiolitis by 20% over 6 months.

Methods: We used Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles to increase the use of NG hydration in eligible children. Interventions included educational and system-based changes and sharing parental feedback with providers. Chart reviews were performed to identify the rates of NG hydration, which were plotted over time in a statistical process control p chart. The balancing measure was the rate of complications in children with NG versus IV hydration.

Results: Two hundred and ninety-three children who were hospitalized with bronchiolitis needed supplemental hydration during the QI initiative (January 2016-April 2016). Ninety-one children were candidates for NG hydration, and 53 (58%) received NG hydration. The rates of NG hydration increased from a baseline of 0% pre-QI bronchiolitis season (January 2015-April 2015) to 58% during the initiative. There was no aspiration and no accidental placement of the NG tube into a child's airway. Nine patients (17%) in the NG group had a progression of disease requiring nil per os status, and 6 of these were transferred to the PICU whereas none of those in the IV group were transferred to the PICU. Post-QI initiative, the majority of nurses (63%) and physicians (95%) stated that they are more likely to consider NG hydration in children with bronchiolitis.

Conclusions: We successfully increased the rates of NG hydration in eligible children with bronchiolitis by using educational and system-based interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2016-0160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5525377PMC
August 2017

Getting men in the room: perceptions of effective strategies to initiate men's involvement in gender-based violence prevention in a global sample.

Cult Health Sex 2017 Sep 21;19(9):979-995. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

e School of Social Welfare , University of Kansas , Lawrence , KS , USA.

As engaging men in gender-based violence prevention efforts becomes an increasingly institutionalised component of gender equity work globally, clarity is needed about the strategies that best initiate male-identified individuals' involvement in these efforts. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived relevance and effectiveness of men's engagement strategies from the perspective of men around the world who have organised or attended gender-based violence prevention events. Participants responded to an online survey (available in English, French and Spanish) and rated the effectiveness of 15 discrete engagement strategies derived from earlier qualitative work. Participants also provided suggestions regarding strategies in open-ended comments. Listed strategies cut across the social ecological spectrum and represented both venues in which to reach men, and the content of violence prevention messaging. Results suggest that all strategies, on average, were perceived as effective across regions of the world, with strategies that tailor messaging to topics of particular concern to men (such as fatherhood and healthy relationships) rated most highly. Open-ended comments also surfaced tensions, particularly related to the role of a gender analysis in initial men's engagement efforts. Findings suggest the promise of cross-regional adaptation and information sharing regarding successful approaches to initiating men's anti-violence involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691058.2017.1281438DOI Listing
September 2017

Mapping a continuum of adolescent helping and bystander behavior within the context of dating violence and bullying.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2018;88(3):335-345. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Social Work Program, University of Washington.

Although research has identified factors that support and hinder proactive bystander behaviors among adolescents, less is known about the more specific bystander responses viewed by youth as feasible, or whether these responses are likely to be ultimately helpful in the context of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV). Goals of this exploratory study were to describe specific bystander behaviors that adolescents perceive as possible for addressing bullying and TDV among peers, to assess the potential impact of these behaviors, and to examine similarities and differences in bystander behaviors across these forms of aggression. In focus groups with 113 14- to 18-year-old youth, participants identified more possible responses to bullying than to TDV, and more options for supporting victims of aggression than for interrupting perpetrators. Although many bystander responses identified by youth are promising for lessening the impact of bullying and TDV, some, such as "advising" victims of TDV and physically confronting perpetrators are likely not safe or helpful and may cause more harm than good. Findings point to the importance of better understanding how youth perceive their options as bystanders, and providing coaching to respond to peer aggression in specific ways that maximize their own and others' safety and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ort0000245DOI Listing
February 2019

Emerging adults in substance misuse intervention: preintervention characteristics and responses to a motivation-enhancing program.

Addict Sci Clin Pract 2016 11 9;11(1):16. Epub 2016 Nov 9.

Social Work Program, University of Washington (Tacoma), 1900 Commerce Street, Box 358425, Tacoma, WA, 98402, USA.

Background: Emerging adulthood is an age of particularly risky behavior. Substance misuse during this phase of life can be the beginning of longer-term problems, making intervention programs particularly important. This study's purposes were to identify alcohol use profile subgroups, describe the preintervention characteristics of each, and assess how many participants transitioned to lower-risk profiles during the course of the intervention.

Methods: We used latent transition analyses to categorize 1183 people court ordered to attend Prime For Life (PFL), a motivation-enhancing program, into preintervention and postintervention profiles. We then assessed how many made transitions between these profiles during the course of the intervention.

Results: Profiles included two low-risk statuses (abstinence and light drinking) and two high-risk statuses (occasional heavy drinking and frequent heavy drinking). We found that people in profile subgroups that reflected heavier 90-day preintervention drinking were likely to transition to profiles reflecting postintervention intentions for lower-risk drinking in the subsequent 90 days. In contrast, the likelihood of transitioning from a lower-risk to a higher-risk profile was extremely low. These positive changes were found for people of both sexes and for those above versus below the legal drinking age, albeit for more women than men in the heaviest drinking group.

Conclusions: Findings showed positive changes during intervention for many emerging adult participants attending PFL. Further research is needed that include comparison conditions, as well as examine longer-term outcomes in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13722-016-0064-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5103591PMC
November 2016

Correlates of Young Men's Intention to Discuss Birth Control with Female Partners.

Perspect Sex Reprod Health 2017 03 1;49(1):37-43. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

Research and evaluation consultant, Evaluation Specialists, Seattle.

Context: Heterosexually active men who wish to prevent conception, but are not willing to use condoms consistently, need to discuss birth control with female partners. Improving the understanding of correlates of men's intention to have such discussions is one step toward supporting this health-facilitating behavior.

Methods: A sample of 372 heterosexually active men aged 18-25 were recruited and surveyed online between December 2010 and June 2011. Men answered questions on attitudes toward, norms regarding and self-efficacy about discussing birth control, and about endorsement of two sexual scripts. Multiple regression analyses tested these measures' associations with intention to discuss birth control, controlling for age and relationship status.

Results: Attitudes, norms and self-efficacy were each positively associated with men's intention to discuss birth control, accounting for 34% of variance. The more strongly men endorsed a traditional masculinity sexual script, the less likely they were to intend to discuss birth control (coefficient, -0.2). Endorsement of an alternative, gender-equitable "sex-positive woman" script, which emphasizes sexual pleasure and emotional connection as goals for both partners, had no association with intention.

Conclusion: Strategies that merit further exploration as potential supports for men's intention to discuss birth control include improving men's self-efficacy and positive attitudes and norms pertaining to such discussions, and reducing belief in traditionally masculine sexual scripts or transforming them to include discussing birth control. Future research should work both experimentally and longitudinally to document each element of the process that ends with men's full participation in effective contraceptive use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1363/psrh.12005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5357170PMC
March 2017

A Global Exploratory Analysis of Men Participating in Gender-Based Violence Prevention.

J Interpers Violence 2019 08 28;34(16):3438-3465. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

6 Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Organizations addressing gender-based violence (GBV) increasingly include men as partners in prevention efforts. However, little is known about men who get involved in those efforts and what specific actions they take. We present analyses of data from an international sample of men involved in gender-based prevention work that aimed to describe (a) the nature of participants' involvement in prevention efforts, in both formal programming and in their daily lives; (b) characteristics of engaged men, including gender and bystander-related attitudes and beliefs, and social networks; and (c) factors that sustain men's involvement in GBV movements over time. Comparisons across global regions for these variables were also conducted. A total of 379 male-identified participants above 18 who had attended a GBV event in the past year completed an online survey (available in English, French, and Spanish). Respondents represented all continents except Antarctica, although North America was over-represented in the sample. Overall, respondents scored well above North American norms for men on support for gender equality and recognition of male privilege, and this was true across all geographic regions. Men in all regions reported moderate support from friends and somewhat less support from male relatives for their involvement in GBV prevention. Respondents in all regions reported high levels of active bystander and violence-preventive behavior. The most commonly reported motivations for involvement in GBV prevention included concern for related social justice issues, exposure to the issue of violence through work, hearing a moving story, or disclosures about domestic or sexual violence. Results were mainly similar across regions, but when regional differences emerge, they tended to be contrasts between the global north and global south, highlighting the importance of cross-fertilization across regions and a willingness to adapt critical learnings in new geographic settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260516670181DOI Listing
August 2019

Gender Transformative Approaches to Engaging Men in Gender-Based Violence Prevention: A Review and Conceptual Model.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2018 04 18;19(2):231-246. Epub 2016 May 18.

3 School of Public Affairs and Administration, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Engaging men and boys as participants and stakeholders in gender-based violence (GBV) prevention initiatives is an increasingly institutionalized component of global efforts to end GBV. Accordingly, evidence of the impact of men's engagement endeavors is beginning to emerge, particularly regarding interventions aimed at fostering gender equitable and nonviolent attitudes and behaviors among men. This developing evidence base suggests that prevention programs with a "gender transformative" approach, or an explicit focus on questioning gender norms and expectations, show particular promise in achieving GBV prevention outcomes. Interventions targeting attitude and behavior change, however, represent just one kind of approach within a heterogeneous collection of prevention efforts around the globe, which can also include community mobilization, policy change, and social activism. The degree to which gender transformative principles inform this broader spectrum of men's engagement work is unclear. The goals of this article are twofold. First, we offer a conceptual model that captures and organizes a broader array of men's antiviolence activities in three distinct but interrelated domains: (1) initial outreach and recruitment of previously unengaged males, (2) interventions intended to promote gender-equitable attitudes and behavior among men, and (3) gender equity-related social action aimed at eradicating GBV, inclusive of all genders' contributions. Second, we review empirical literature in each of these domains. Across these two goals, we critically assess the degree to which gender transformative principles inform efforts within each domain, and we offer implications for the continuing conceptualization and assessment of efforts to increase men's participation in ending GBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838016650191DOI Listing
April 2018

A comparison of a behavioral weight loss program to a stress management program: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

Nutrition 2016 Jul-Aug;32(7-8):904-9. Epub 2016 Jan 21.

Department of Family and Community Medicine and Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Anselmo, CA, USA.

Objectives: This study compared a behavioral weight loss program (BWL) with a stress management-based program, Emotional Brain Training (EBT), on weight loss, blood pressure, depression, perceived stress, diet, and physical activity.

Methods: Subjects with a body mass index (BMI) of >28 and <45 kg/m(2) were recruited in Lexington, Kentucky in January 2014 and randomized to BWL or EBT for a 20-week intervention. Of those recruited, 49 participants were randomized to EBT or BWL. Randomization and allocation to group were performed using SPSS software. Weight, blood pressure, depression, perceived stress, dietary intake, and physical activity were measured at baseline, 10 week, and 20 week. Linear models for change over time were fit to calculate 95% confidence intervals of intervention effects.

Results: BWL produced greater changes in BMI than EBT at both 10 (P = 0.02) and 20 wk (P = 0.03). At 10 wk, both EBT and BWL improved BMI, systolic blood pressure, depression and perceived stress (P < 0.05). BWL also improved diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.005). At 20 wk, EBT maintained improvements in BMI, systolic blood pressure, depression, and perceived stress while BWL maintained improvements only in BMI and depression (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: BWL produced greater weight loss than EBT; however, EBT produced sustained improvements in stress, depression, and systolic blood pressure. A combination of the two approaches should be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2016.01.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877253PMC
March 2017

Predicting Sexual Assault Perpetration Among Heterosexually Active Young Men.

Violence Against Women 2017 01 6;23(1):3-27. Epub 2016 Mar 6.

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Data from an online community sample of young men were analyzed to test predictors of sexual assault perpetration. We used structural equation modeling to test the relative contributions of specific sub-types of childhood adversity to subsequent sexual aggression. Mediators included hostile masculinity, impersonal sexual behavior and attitudes, and substance use variables. Findings suggested that childhood sexual abuse had direct and mediated effects on sexual assault perpetration, but hostile masculinity was the only proximal factor significantly related to aggression. Childhood polytrauma was also associated with increased perpetration risk, suggesting that prevention efforts may be aided by increased attention to childhood maltreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801216634467DOI Listing
January 2017

Methods for Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Change During Intervention Program Participation.

Eval Health Prof 2016 12 14;39(4):435-459. Epub 2016 Feb 14.

Prevention Research Institute, Lexington, KY, USA.

Assessing the practical or clinical significance (CS) of an intervention program's outcomes is useful in determining its effectiveness. The CS approach gives information beyond traditional analyses by quantifying the proportions of people who meaningfully improve and deteriorate. We link latent transition analyses (LTA) to the CS literature and use a case study to contrast it with the long-standing Jacobson and Truax (JT) approach. Data came from 2,717 individuals convicted of a substance-related offense who participated in an indicated prevention program Prime For Life (PFL). We selected outcomes describing drinking beliefs and behavior. Both CS approaches categorized a majority of participants as improved (i.e., transitioning from baseline subgroups with risky behaviors and cognitions into posttest subgroups showing lower risk). Results demonstrate how the JT approach allows the assessment of improvements on individual outcomes, while the LTA provides more nuanced information about risk groupings. Selecting a CS approach depends on research goals, availability of normative data, and data considerations. JT is an appropriate method when evaluating single outcomes. In contrast, LTA is better when a multivariate description is desired, advanced missing data handling methods are needed, or outcomes are not normally distributed. Although infrequently done, evaluating CS provides useful information about program effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163278715622663DOI Listing
December 2016

Erratum to: A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

Arch Sex Behav 2016 Jul;45(5):1051

School of Social Work, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0673-3DOI Listing
July 2016

How Childhood Maltreatment Profiles of Male Victims Predict Adult Perpetration and Psychosocial Functioning.

J Interpers Violence 2018 03 20;33(6):915-937. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

This study used latent class analysis to empirically identify subgroups of men based on their exposure to childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect and abuse, physical neglect and abuse, and sexual abuse). It then examined subgroups' differential perpetration of adult intimate partner violence (IPV; both psychological and physical), violence against peers, and sexual assault. Finally, we compared sociodemographic variables and psychosocial functioning across profiles to characterize the adult experiences of men in different maltreatment groups. The community sample consisted of 626 heterosexually active 21- to 30-year-old men. We identified four subgroups: Low Maltreatment (80% of the sample), Emotional and Physical Maltreatment (12%), Emotional and Sexual Maltreatment (4%), and Poly-Victimized (4%). The Low Maltreatment group had significantly lower IPV perpetration rates than the Emotional and Physical Maltreatment group, but groups did not significantly differ on peer violence or sexual assault perpetration rates. Overall, Poly-Victimized men were significantly worse off than the Low Maltreatment group regarding income, education level, and incarceration history. Their rates of recent anxiety and depression symptoms were also higher than those of Low Maltreatment men. Findings support the use of person-oriented techniques for deriving patterns of childhood maltreatment and how these patterns relate to psychological, behavioral, and social factors in adulthood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260515613345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874905PMC
March 2018

A Latent Class Analysis of Heterosexual Young Men's Masculinities.

Arch Sex Behav 2016 07 23;45(5):1039-50. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

School of Social Work, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

Parallel bodies of research have described the diverse and complex ways that men understand and construct their masculine identities (often termed "masculinities") and, separately, how adherence to traditional notions of masculinity places men at risk for negative sexual and health outcomes. The goal of this analysis was to bring together these two streams of inquiry. Using data from a national, online sample of 555 heterosexually active young men, we employed latent class analysis (LCA) to detect patterns of masculine identities based on men's endorsement of behavioral and attitudinal indicators of "dominant" masculinity, including sexual attitudes and behaviors. LCA identified four conceptually distinct masculine identity profiles. Two groups, termed the Normative and Normative/Male Activities groups, respectively, constituted 88 % of the sample and were characterized by low levels of adherence to attitudes, sexual scripts, and behaviors consistent with "dominant" masculinity, but differed in their levels of engagement in male-oriented activities (e.g., sports teams). Only eight percent of the sample comprised a masculinity profile consistent with "traditional" ideas about masculinity; this group was labeled Misogynistic because of high levels of sexual assault and violence toward female partners. The remaining four percent constituted a Sex-Focused group, characterized by high numbers of sexual partners, but relatively low endorsement of other indicators of traditional masculinity. Follow-up analyses showed a small number of differences across groups on sexual and substance use health indicators. Findings have implications for sexual and behavioral health interventions and suggest that very few young men embody or endorse rigidly traditional forms of masculinity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0616-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4842162PMC
July 2016

Parental Incarceration as a Risk Factor for Children in Homeless Families.

Fam Relat 2015 Oct 4;64(4):490-504. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, 51 E. River Rd., Minneapolis, MN 55455.

The current study aimed to describe the prevalence of children of incarcerated parents (COIP) in a sample of homeless/highly mobile children, examine the relationship between parental incarceration and other risk factors, and investigate the effect of parental incarceration on child academic and mental health outcomes. The authors compared COIP (n = 45) to children whose parents were never incarcerated (n = 93) within a sample of 138, 4- to 7-year-old ethnically diverse children residing in emergency homeless shelters. Children's caregivers provided information about children's history of parental incarceration and other family experiences. Children's teachers reported academic and mental health outcomes in the subsequent school year. Compared to children with no history of parental incarceration, COIP experienced more negative life events. Regression models revealed that a history of parental incarceration was a significant predictor of teacher-reported internalizing problems. These results have implications for the identification and treatment of the highest risk homeless/highly mobile children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fare.12155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606874PMC
October 2015

Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

Violence Against Women 2016 Feb 2;22(2):249-68. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801215601247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4690780PMC
February 2016

Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

Violence Against Women 2015 Nov 22;21(11):1406-25. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA.

This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801215594888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4592362PMC
November 2015

Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

J Sex Res 2016 9;53(2):239-50. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

b University of Washington , Seattle.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.1002125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706821PMC
January 2017

A roadmap for research on crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to enhance sustainable food and bioenergy production in a hotter, drier world.

New Phytol 2015 Aug;207(3):491-504

College of Marine and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811, QLD, Australia.

Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that features nocturnal CO2 uptake, facilitates increased water-use efficiency (WUE), and enables CAM plants to inhabit water-limited environments such as semi-arid deserts or seasonally dry forests. Human population growth and global climate change now present challenges for agricultural production systems to increase food, feed, forage, fiber, and fuel production. One approach to meet these challenges is to increase reliance on CAM crops, such as Agave and Opuntia, for biomass production on semi-arid, abandoned, marginal, or degraded agricultural lands. Major research efforts are now underway to assess the productivity of CAM crop species and to harness the WUE of CAM by engineering this pathway into existing food, feed, and bioenergy crops. An improved understanding of CAM has potential for high returns on research investment. To exploit the potential of CAM crops and CAM bioengineering, it will be necessary to elucidate the evolution, genomic features, and regulatory mechanisms of CAM. Field trials and predictive models will be required to assess the productivity of CAM crops, while new synthetic biology approaches need to be developed for CAM engineering. Infrastructure will be needed for CAM model systems, field trials, mutant collections, and data management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13393DOI Listing
August 2015

Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2016 07 6;17(3):256-69. Epub 2015 May 6.

University of Washington School of Social Work, Seattle, WA, USA.

Estimates suggest that between 10% and 25% of adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence within a dating relationship, and one in four college-age women experiences attempted or completed sexual violence on campus. Bystander programs focus on equipping young adults with the skills to safely intervene when they witness behaviors that can result in dating abuse. This approach is promoted for its capacity both to transform community norms that contribute to dating abuse and to foster more positive social interactions among youth, however, there has been limited review of the literature on the outcomes of bystander programs. Therefore, this article provides an in-depth systematic literature review, which describes the content and program components of bystander programs and summarizes what is currently known about the impact of bystander interventions on participants' behaviors and attitudes. Results indicate that bystander programs are promising from the standpoint of increasing young adults' willingness to intervene and confidence in their ability to intervene when they witness dating or sexual violence, however, the utilization of actual bystander behaviors was less straightforward. Implications for prevention practice and for future research are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524838015584361DOI Listing
July 2016

"He enjoys giving her pleasure": diversity and complexity in young men's sexual scripts.

Arch Sex Behav 2015 Apr 7;44(3):655-68. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

School of Social Work, University of Washington, 4101 15th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA, 98105-6299, USA,

Research on heterosexual men's sexual expectations has focused on self-described personal traits and culturally dominant models of masculinity. In a pair of studies, we used a sexual scripts perspective to explore the range and diversity of young men's thoughts about sex and relationships with women and to develop measures for assessing these scripts. In the first study, we conducted semi-structured interviews to elicit young men's accounts of their sexual relationships. We used these narratives to produce brief sexual script scenarios describing typical sexual situations, as well as conventional survey items assessing sexual behavior themes. In the second study, we administered the scenarios and theme items to an ethnically diverse, national sample of 648 heterosexually active young men in an online survey. Using exploratory factor analysis, we delineated sets of sexual scripts and sexual behavior themes. In the scenarios, we found both a traditional masculine "player" script and a script that emphasized mutual sexual pleasure. Analysis of theme items produced scales of Drinking and Courtship, Monogamy and Emotion, and Sexual Focus and Variety. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding heterosexual men's thinking about sexuality and how cultural change in sexual thinking may arise. We also discuss the need for measures of sexual thinking that better integrate perceptions and expectations about the partner as well as the self in relation to the partner, rather than solely self-assessed traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0354-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4359028PMC
April 2015

Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

J Sex Res 2015 25;52(7):781-94. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

a School of Social Work , University of Washington Seattle.

Heterosexual men's sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used latent class analysis with data collected online from 18- to 25-year-old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employed. Indicators were sexual risk-reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors--number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency--predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men's sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2014.953023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4374047PMC
December 2016

Emergency department patient knowledge, opinions, and risk tolerance regarding computed tomography scan radiation.

J Emerg Med 2014 Feb 21;46(2):208-14. Epub 2013 Sep 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) scanning use for emergency department (ED) patients has increased exponentially since its inception.

Study Objectives: This study aimed to determine what patients view as the risk of radiation from CT scans, their risk tolerance and preference for alternative testing, and their opinions about informed consent and malpractice regarding CT scans.

Methods: A 25-question survey was administered to a random convenience sample of ED patients aged ≥ 18 years by trained research associates.

Results: There were 487 patients approached to be surveyed; 78 patients were excluded, leaving 409 patients (84.0%) responding. Mean patient age was 40.5 (standard deviation [SD] 16.8) years, and 51.5% were female. Three hundred ninety of 409 (95.4%) believed doctors should explain the risks and benefits of CT, and 316/409 (77.3%) thought an informed consent form should be signed. One hundred seventy-nine of 409 (43.8%) patients recognized that there was more radiation from a CT scan than a single chest x-ray study. Three hundred twenty-four of 409 (79.2%) preferred CT angiography over lumbar puncture to exclude subarachnoid hemorrhage. To diagnose appendicitis, 199/409 (48.7%) preferred an ultrasound first even if it meant needing a subsequent confirmatory CT, and 193/409 (47.2%) preferred a CT right away. One hundred sixty-nine of 409 (41.3%) patients would still like to have a CT scan of the head after head trauma even if their physician did not believe the test was indicated.

Conclusion: This study elucidates patient preference and knowledge regarding CT scans. Overall, patients have a poor understanding of CT scan radiation, and desire to have risks explained to them as informed consent prior to the scan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2013.07.016DOI Listing
February 2014

Context, Challenges, and Tensions in Global Efforts to Engage Men in the Prevention of Violence against Women: An Ecological Analysis.

Men Masc 2013 Jun;16(2):228-251

School of Social Welfare, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA.

As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men's antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into anti-violence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men's engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men's identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs' experiences in community and national contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X12472336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283930PMC
June 2013

Everyday leadership: make your mark.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012 Aug;241(3):309-12

Blue Cross Animal Hospital, 5328 Lyndale Ave S, Minneapolis, MN 55419, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.241.3.309DOI Listing
August 2012

Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: continuity and change.

J Sex Res 2013 10;50(5):409-20. Epub 2012 Apr 10.

School of Social Work, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA 98105, USA.

Whereas gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding "disjunctures" between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18 to 25, the ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships were delineated. Findings suggest that, although most participants' culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, three styles of working with sexual scripts were found: conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts or interpreted their own nontraditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and well-being, particularly for women, but for men as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2012.661102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515716PMC
May 2014