Publications by authors named "Erin Betters"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Electroporation and in vitro culture of early rabbit embryos.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 4;21:316-320. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

School of Medicine Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

The functional interrogation of factors underlying early mammalian development is necessary for the understanding and amelioration of human health conditions. The associated article [1] reports on the molecular characterization of markers of neural crest cells in gastrula and neurula stage rabbit embryos. This article presents survival data of rabbit embryos cultured in vitro, as well as immunofluorescence data for molecular markers of neural crest cells following approximately 24-h of culture. Lastly, towards the functional analysis of early neural crest and other developmental genes, this article provides data on the introduction of exogenous DNA into early stage rabbit embryos using electroporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.09.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197720PMC
December 2018

Early specification and development of rabbit neural crest cells.

Dev Biol 2018 12 20;444 Suppl 1:S181-S192. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

School of Medicine Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA. Electronic address:

The phenomenal migratory and differentiation capacity of neural crest cells has been well established across model organisms. While the earliest stages of neural crest development have been investigated in non-mammalian model systems such as Xenopus and Aves, the early specification of this cell population has not been evaluated in mammalian embryos, of which the murine model is the most prevalent. Towards a more comprehensive understanding of mammalian neural crest formation and human comparative studies, we have used the rabbit as a mammalian system for the study of early neural crest specification and development. We examine the expression profile of well-characterized neural crest markers in rabbit embryos across developmental time from early gastrula to later neurula stages, and provide a comparison to markers of migratory neural crest in the chick. Importantly, we apply explant specification assays to address the pivotal question of mammalian neural crest ontogeny, and provide the first evidence that a specified population of neural crest cells exists in the rabbit gastrula prior to the overt expression of neural crest markers. Finally, we demonstrate that FGF signaling is necessary for early rabbit neural crest formation, as SU5402 treatment strongly represses neural crest marker expression in explant assays. This study pioneers the rabbit as a model for neural crest development, and provides the first demonstration of mammalian neural crest specification and the requirement of FGF signaling in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2018.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685428PMC
December 2018

Late-emigrating trunk neural crest cells in turtle embryos generate an osteogenic ectomesenchyme in the plastron.

Dev Dyn 2013 Nov 6;242(11):1223-35. Epub 2013 Sep 6.

Biology Department, Millersville University, Millersville, Pennsylvania.

Background: The turtle plastron is composed of a keratinized epidermis overlying nine dermal bones. Its developmental origin has been controversial; recent evidence suggests that the plastral bones derive from trunk neural crest cells (NCCs).

Results: This study extends the observations that there is a turtle-specific, second wave of trunk NCC delamination and migration, after the original NCCs have reached their destination and differentiated. This second wave was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in whole-mounts and serial sections, by injecting DiI (1,1', di-octadecyl-3,3,3',3',-tetramethylindo-carbocyanine perchlorate) into the lumen of the neural tube and tracing labeled cells into the plastron, and by isolating neural tubes from older turtle embryos and observing delaminating NCCs. This later migration gives rise to a plastral ectomesenchyme that expresses NCC markers and can be induced to initiate bone formation.

Conclusions: The NCCs of this second migration have properties similar to those of the earlier NCCs, but also express markers characteristic of cranial NCCs. The majority of the cells of the plastron mesenchyme express neural crest markers, and have osteogenic differentiation capabilities that are similar or identical to craniofacial ectomesenchyme. Our evidence supports the contention that turtle plastron bones are derived from a late emigrating population of cells derived from the trunk neural crest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.24018DOI Listing
November 2013

Analysis of early human neural crest development.

Dev Biol 2010 Aug 15;344(2):578-92. Epub 2010 May 15.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8103, USA.

The outstanding migration and differentiation capacities of neural crest cells (NCCs) have fascinated scientists since Wilhelm His described this cell population in 1868. Today, after intense research using vertebrate model organisms, we have gained considerable knowledge regarding the origin, migration and differentiation of NCCs. However, our understanding of NCC development in human embryos remains largely uncharacterized, despite the role the neural crest plays in several human pathologies. Here, we report for the first time the expression of a battery of molecular markers before, during, or following NCC migration in human embryos from Carnegie Stages (CS) 12 to 18. Our work demonstrates the expression of Sox9, Sox10 and Pax3 transcription factors in premigratory NCCs, while actively migrating NCCs display the additional transcription factors Pax7 and AP-2alpha. Importantly, while HNK-1 labels few migrating NCCs, p75(NTR) labels a large proportion of this population. However, the broad expression of p75(NTR) - and other markers - beyond the neural crest stresses the need for the identification of additional markers to improve our capacity to investigate human NCC development, and to enable the generation of better diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2927129PMC
August 2010

The contribution of neural crest cells to the nuchal bone and plastron of the turtle shell.

Integr Comp Biol 2007 Sep 1;47(3):401-8. Epub 2007 Jun 1.

*Department of Biology, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081 USA; Swarthmore College, presently at Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706; Science Division, Friends Central School, 1101 City Avenue, Wynnewood, PA 19096 USA; Biology Department, Millersville University, PO Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551 USA.

The origin of the turtle plastron is not well understood, and these nine bones have been homologized to the exoskeletal components of the clavicles, the interclavicular bone, and gastralia. Earlier data from our laboratory showed that the plastral bone-forming cells stained positively for HNK-1 and PDGFRα, two markers of skeletogenic neural crest cells. We have now shown that the HNK-1(+) cells are also positive for p75 and FoxD3, affirming their neural crest identity. These cells originate from the dorsal neural tube of stage-17 turtle embryos, several days after the original wave of neural crest cells have migrated and differentiated. Moreover, we have demonstrated the existence of a staging area, above the neural tube and vertebrae, where these late-emigrating neural crest cells collect. After residing in the carapacial staging area, these cells migrate to form the plastral bones. We also demonstrate that one bone of the carapace, the nuchal bone, also stains with HNK-1 and with antibodies to PDGFRα. The nuchal bone shares several other properties with the plastral bones, suggesting that it, too, is derived from neural crest cells. Alligator gastralia stain for HNK-1, while their ribs do not, thus suggesting that the gastralial precursor may also be derived from neural crest cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/icm020DOI Listing
September 2007

Evidence that a late-emerging population of trunk neural crest cells forms the plastron bones in the turtle Trachemys scripta.

Evol Dev 2007 May-Jun;9(3):267-77

Biology Department, Swarthmore College, 500 College Avenue, Swarthmore, PA 19081, USA.

The origin of the turtle plastron is not known, but these nine bones have been homologized to the exoskeletal components of the clavicles, the interclavicular bone, and gastralia. Earlier evidence from our laboratory showed that the bone-forming cells of the plastron were positive for HNK-1 and PDGFRalpha, two markers of the skeletogenic neural crest. This study looks at the embryonic origin of these plastron-forming cells. We show that the HNK-1+ cells are also positive for p75 and FoxD3, confirming their neural crest identity, and that they originate from the dorsal neural tube of stage 17 turtle embryos, several days after the original wave of neural crest cells have migrated and differentiated. DiI studies show that these are migratory cells, and they can be observed in the lateral regions of the embryo and can be seen forming intramembranous bone in the ventral (plastron) regions. Before migrating ventrally, these late-emerging neural crest cells reside for over a week in a carapacial staging area above the neural tube and vertebrae. It is speculated that this staging area is where they lose the inability to form skeletal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00159.xDOI Listing
July 2007