Publications by authors named "Erika Bruni"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of analytical approaches for identifying airborne microorganisms in a livestock facility.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;783:147044. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

An intensive study, applied to a site characterized by multiple sources of microorganisms, was aimed at understanding the best approach to study bioaerosol. Culture-based, molecular biological, and chemical methods were applied to Particulate Matter (PM) samples collected in a livestock facility, during spring and autumn seasons, in two different outdoor areas. The first one was close to a place where feed was stored and handled and the second next to an open cowshed. Qualitative analysis of bacteria was performed by sequencing techniques applied to DNA extracted from both isolated culturable bacteria and particulate matter samples. Quantification of microorganisms was achieved through three distinct approaches. Microorganism colonies were counted, after incubation at 28 °C, and expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per m. Chemical method consisted in the identification of individual biomarkers, and their conversion to number of microorganisms per m, using proper conversion factors. Finally, qPCR was applied to DNA extracted from PM samples, and the results were expressed as total amount of bacteria present in the bioaerosol (UG/m). The presence of airborne sterols was also studied to broaden the knowledge of bioaerosol components in atmosphere. Small seasonal differences and major sampling site differences occurred. Obviously, culture-dependent method identified less and different bacteria, than culture-independent approach. The chemical approach and the culture independent metagenomic method were in good agreement. As expected, CFU/m accounted for not more than 0.3% of bacteria calculated as the average of chemical and culture independent metagenomic methods. The complexity of the obtained results shows that the different approaches are complementary to obtain an exhaustive description of bioaresol in terms of concentration, speciation, viability, pathogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147044DOI Listing
August 2021

Biocompatibility and Antibiofilm Properties of Calcium Silicate-Based Cements: An In Vitro Evaluation and Report of Two Clinical Cases.

Biology (Basel) 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Science, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Caserta 6, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Calcium silicate-based cements have reached excellent levels of performance in endodontics, providing predictable and successful results. To better assess the properties of these bioactive materials, the present study aimed to compare the biocompatibility and antibiofilm properties of ProRoot MTA and Biodentine. Human osteogenic sarcoma (Saos-2) cells were cultured on ProRoot MTA and Biodentine samples or in the presence of both cement extracts. Cell viability assay, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), immunofluorescence analysis, as well as morphological evaluations were conducted. Moreover, was used to assess the biofilm forming ability on ProRoot MTA and Biodentine disks. Finally, both cements were applied in vivo to treat immature permanent teeth affected by reversible pulpitis. Results: Cell viability assay demonstrated that Saos-2 cells had a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to both analyzed cements, although cells exposed to ProRoot MTA showed a better cell vitality than those exposed to Biodentine ( < 0.001). Both cements demonstrated ROS production while this was greater in the case of Biodentine than ProRoot MTA ( < 0.001). Immunofluorescence images of the cytoskeleton and focal adhesions showed no differences in Saos-2 cells grown in the presence of ProRoot MTA eluate; whereas in the Biodentine groups, cells showed a morphology and focal adhesions more similar to that of the control sample, as the eluate concentration decreased. Morphological analysis revealed that Saos-2 cells were more flattened and exhibited better spreading when attached to ProRoot MTA disks than to Biodentine ones. The antibiofilm properties showed a time-dependent powerful inhibition of superficial colonization and an antibiofilm effect of both cements. Clinically, complete root formation of the treated elements was achieved using the two studied cements, showing stable results over time. ProRoot MTA and Biodentine was demonstrated to be biocompatible and to possess antibiofilm properties. Their clinical application in vital pulp therapy provided successful outcomes after 2 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10060470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226987PMC
May 2021

Antibacterial Activity against of Titanium Surfaces Coated with Graphene Nanoplatelets to Prevent Peri-Implant Diseases. An In-Vitro Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 29;17(5). Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Dental implants are one of the most commonly used ways to replace missing teeth. Nevertheless, the close contact with hard and soft oral tissues expose these devices to infectious peri-implant diseases. To prevent such infection, several surface treatments have been developed in the last few years to improve the antimicrobial properties of titanium dental implants. In this in-vitro pilot study, the antimicrobial activity of titanium surfaces coated with different types of graphene nanoplatelets are investigated. Six different colloidal suspensions of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were produced from graphite intercalated compounds, setting the temperature and duration of the thermal shock and varying the number of the exfoliation cycles. Titanium disks with sand-blasted and acid-etched surfaces were sprayed with 2 mL of colloidal GNPs suspensions. The size of the GNPs and the percentage of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were evaluated through a field emission-scanning electron microscope. The antibacterial activity of the specimens against was estimated using a crystal violet assay. The dimension of GNPs decreased progressively after each sonication cycle. The two best mean percentages of titanium disk surfaces coated by GNPs were GNPs and GNPs. The reduction of biofilm development was 14.4% in GNPs, 20.1% in GNPs, 30.3% in GNPs, and 39.2% in GNPs. The results of the study suggested that the surface treatment of titanium disks with GNPs represents a promising solution to improve the antibacterial activity of titanium implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084449PMC
February 2020

Evaluation of Bioaerosol Bacterial Components of a Wastewater Treatment Plant Through an Integrate Approach and In Vivo Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 12 30;17(1). Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Wastewater carries different pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms that can be dispersed in the surrounding environment. Workers who frequent sewage treatment plants can therefore be exposed to aerosols that contain a high concentration of potentially dangerous biological agents, or they can come into direct contact with contaminated material. This can lead to allergies, infections and occupational health-associated diseases. A characterization of biological risk assessment of bioaerosol exposure is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of an interdisciplinary method that combines chemical and biological approaches for the analysis of a bioaerosol derived from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) situated in Italy. Sampled filters were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS spectroscopy that searched for different chemical biomarkers of airborne microorganisms. The analytical quantification was compared to the biological cultural method that revealed an underrated microbial concentration. Furthermore, next generation sequencing analysis was used also to identify the uncultivable species that were not detected by the culture dependent-method. Moreover, the simple animal model was used to evaluate the pathogenicity of two isolates- and that showed multidrug-resistance. This work represents a starting point for the development of a multidisciplinary approach for the validation of bioaerosol exposure on WWTP workplaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981557PMC
December 2019

Enamel remineralization and repair results of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpaste on deciduous teeth: an effective option to fluoride toothpaste.

J Nanobiotechnology 2019 Jan 25;17(1):17. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 287a, 00161, Rome, Italy.

Background: Dental caries is a recognized worldwide public health problem. Despite being one of the most effective strategies against dental caries, the excessive use of fluorine may result in a potential risk of developing dental fluorosis especially in children under age of six. The purpose of this work is to analyze a fluorine-free toothpaste containing Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite to assess enamel re-mineralizing and repairing properties.

Results: The study was performed in vitro and in vivo, comparing the hydroxyapatite toothpaste with two others toothpaste containing different fluorine concentrations. The coating effect of the micro-structured Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles reintegrates the enamel with a biomimetic film reproducing the structure and the morphology of the biologic Hydroxyapatite of the enamel. As demonstrated, the coating is due to the deposit of a new layer of apatite, which presents fewer particles than the natural enamel, not based on the chemical-physical changes occurring in fluorinated toothpastes. Moreover, it shows resistance to brushing as a consequence of chemical bonds between the synthetic and natural crystals of the enamel.

Conclusions: The use of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite toothpastes has proven to be a valuable prevention measure against dental caries in primary dentition since it prevents the risk of fluorosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-019-0454-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346538PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of the antibacterial power and biocompatibility of zinc oxide nanorods decorated graphene nanoplatelets: new perspectives for antibiodeteriorative approaches.

J Nanobiotechnology 2017 Aug 1;15(1):57. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology C. Darwin, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, Rome, Italy.

Background: Nanotechnologies are currently revolutionizing the world around us, improving the quality of our lives thanks to a multitude of applications in several areas including the environmental preservation, with the biodeterioration phenomenon representing one of the major concerns.

Results: In this study, an innovative nanomaterial consisting of graphene nanoplatelets decorated by zinc oxide nanorods (ZNGs) was tested for the ability to inhibit two different pathogens belonging to bacterial genera frequently associated with nosocomial infections as well as biodeterioration phenomenon: the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A time- and dose-dependent bactericidal effect in cell viability was highlighted against both bacteria, demonstrating a strong antimicrobial potential of ZNGs. Furthermore, the analysis of bacterial surfaces through Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed ZNGs mechanical interaction at cell wall level. ZNGs induced in those bacteria deep physical damages not compatible with life as a result of nanoneedle-like action of this nanomaterial together with its nanoblade effect. Cell injuries were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, revealing that ZNGs antimicrobial effect was related to protein and phospholipid changes as well as a decrease in extracellular polymeric substances; this was also supported by a reduction in biofilm formation of both bacteria. The antibacterial properties of ZNGs applied on building-related materials make them a promising tool for the conservation of indoor/outdoor surfaces. Finally, ZNGs nanotoxicity was assessed in vivo by exploiting the soil free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Notably, no harmful effects of ZNGs on larval development, lifespan, fertility as well as neuromuscular functionality were highlighted in this excellent model for environmental nanotoxicology.

Conclusions: Overall, ZNGs represent a promising candidate for developing biocompatible materials that can be exploitable in antimicrobial applications without releasing toxic compounds, harmful to the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-017-0291-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5539890PMC
August 2017
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