Publications by authors named "Erika Austhof"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Scoping Review of Postinfectious Sequelae.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Jul 22:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

Previous economic estimates of infection with and chronic sequelae following infection lack sufficient data to establish the true burden of disease and its chronic sequelae. This scoping review aims to fill this gap by updating existing literature regarding the development of postinfectious sequelae following infection. Literature published between January 1, 2000, and November 6, 2018, in PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus was searched for a wide range of postinfectious sequelae and economic estimate terms. This scoping review includes summaries from the 108 articles covering 5 main groupings of outcomes (categories are not exclusive) including vision disorders ( = 58), psychological and mental health disorders ( = 27), neurological disorders ( = 17), fetal death and infection ( = 15), and hearing loss ( = 6), as well as a description of other outcomes reported. While the majority of the included studies assessed the incidence of these outcomes postinfection, very few followed participants long-term. These prospective studies are needed to understand the true burden of postinfectious sequelae over the life course, particularly because congenital infection with can lead to severe outcomes for newborns. This scoping review can be used as an important resource for other researchers wishing to conduct future systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as well as for policy makers interested in developing guidance for public and health care partners.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2021.0015DOI Listing
July 2021

Enteric Pathogens and Reactive Arthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Pathogen-Associated Reactive Arthritis.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Sep 13;18(9):627-639. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of postinfectious reactive arthritis (ReA) after bacterial enteric infection from one of four selected pathogens. We collected studies from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, which assessed the proportion of postinfectious ReA published from January 1, 2000 to April 1, 2018. Papers were screened independently by title, abstract, and full text; papers in English, Spanish, and Portuguese utilizing a case-control (CC) or cohort study design, with a laboratory confirmed or probable acute bacterial enteric infection and subsequent ReA, were included. The proportion of ReA cases was pooled between and across pathogens. Factors that can induce study heterogeneity were explored using univariate meta-regression, including region, sample size, study design, and ReA case ascertainment. Twenty-four articles were included in the final review. The estimated percentage of cases across studies describing -associated ReA ( = 11) was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-5.84%); ( = 17) was 3.9 (95% CI 1.6-9.1%); ( = 6) was 1.0 (95% CI 0.2-4.9%); and ( = 7) was 3.4 (95% CI 0.8-13.7%). Combining all four pathogens, the estimated percentage of cases that developed ReA was 2.6 (95% CI 1.5-4.7%). Due to high heterogeneity reflected by high values, results should be interpreted with caution. However, the pooled proportion developing ReA from studies with sample sizes () <1000 were higher compared with  > 1000 (6% vs. 0.3%), retrospective cohort studies were lower (1.1%) compared with CC or prospective cohorts (6.8% and 5.9%, respectively), and those where ReA cases are identified through medical record review were lower (0.3%) than those identified by a specialist (3.9%) or self-report (12%). The estimated percentage of people who developed ReA after infection with , , , or is relatively low (2.6). In the United States, this estimate would result in 84,480 new cases of ReA annually.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2020.2910DOI Listing
September 2021

Knowledge of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus Among Women Who Are Pregnant or Intend to Become Pregnant, Arizona, 2017.

Public Health Rep 2021 Apr 2:333549211006986. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Objectives: Levels of knowledge about the sexual transmission of Zika virus are consistently low in populations at risk of a mosquito-borne outbreak, including among women of childbearing age and women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant. We investigated the effectiveness of sources of public health messaging about sexual transmission to women who are pregnant or intend to become pregnant in Arizona.

Methods: In 2017, we conducted an Arizona-statewide survey 15 months after the initial release of US guidelines on sexual transmission of Zika virus. We used Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic factors, to estimate the likelihood among women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant of knowing that Zika virus is sexually transmitted relative to other women of childbearing age. We used multinomial logistic regression models to explore associations with most used health information sources, either in person (eg, medical providers) or online (eg, Facebook), categorized by extent of dependability.

Results: Women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant had similarly poor knowledge of the sexual transmission of Zika virus as compared with other women of childbearing age (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.83-1.55]). Only about one-third of all respondents reported knowledge of sexual transmission. Reliance on high- vs low-dependability information sources, whether in person or online, did not predict the extent of Zika virus knowledge among women who were pregnant or intended to become pregnant.

Conclusion: As late as the second year of local Zika virus transmission in the United States, in 2017, women in Arizona were not receiving sufficient information about sexual transmission, even though it was available. To prepare for possible future outbreaks, research should explore which aspects of Zika information campaigns were ineffective or inefficient.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00333549211006986DOI Listing
April 2021

Design of the Arizona CoVHORT: A Population-Based COVID-19 Cohort.

Front Public Health 2021 10;9:620060. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States.

This study is a prospective, population-based cohort of individuals with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection and those without past infection through multiple recruitment sources. The main study goal is to track health status over time, within the diverse populations of Arizona and to identify the long-term consequences of COVID-19 on health and well-being. A total of 2,881 study participants (16.2% with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection) have been enrolled as of December 22, 2020, with a target enrollment of 10,000 participants and a planned follow-up of at least 2 years. This manuscript describes a scalable study design that utilizes a wide range of recruitment sources, leveraging electronic data collection to capture and link longitudinal participant data on the current and emerging issues associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The cohort is built within a collaborative infrastructure that includes new and established partnerships with multiple stakeholders, including the state's public universities, local health departments, tribes, and tribal organizations. Challenges remain for ensuring recruitment of diverse participants and participant retention, although the electronic data management system and timing of participant contact can help to mitigate these problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.620060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902773PMC
March 2021

Training and Incorporating Students in SARS-CoV-2 Case Investigations and Contact Tracing.

Public Health Rep 2021 Mar-Apr;136(2):154-160. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

572170 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Objectives: In June 2020, Arizona had the fastest-growing number of cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. As part of the growing public health response, the University of Arizona Student Aid for Field Epidemiology Response (SAFER) team was able to modify and increase case investigation efforts to assist local health departments. We outline the recommended logistical and management steps to include students in a public health response of this scope.

Methods: From April 1 through September 1, 2020, the SAFER team identified key components of a successful student team response: volunteer training, management that allows more senior students to manage newer students, adoption of case-management software, and use of an online survey platform for students to conduct interviews consistently and allow for data quality control and management.

Results: From April 1 through September 1, 2020, SAFER worked with 3 local health departments to complete 1910 COVID-19 case investigations through a virtual call center. A total of 233 volunteers and 46 hourly student workers and staff members were involved. As of September 2020, students were completing >150 interviews per week, including contact-tracing efforts.

Practice Implications: Developing relationships between applied public health and academic programs can relieve the burden of low-risk, high-volume case investigations at local and state health departments. Furthermore, by establishing a virtual call center, health sciences faculty and students can volunteer remotely during a pandemic with no additional risk of infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0033354920974664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093843PMC
February 2021

Knowledge and practices of primary care physicians or general practitioners treating post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 May 25;20(1):159. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, 1295 N Martin Ave, PO Box 245211, Tucson, 85721, AZ, USA.

Background: Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome (PI-IBS) is a functional bowel disorder which has significant impacts to a patient's quality of life. No IBS-specific biomarker or treatment regimen for PI-IBS currently exists, therefore understanding practice patterns and variance is of interest.

Methods: This online survey of primary care physicians and general practitioners in the USA aimed to understand the knowledge and treatment of PI-IBS within the physician's current practice. Summary statistics are provided with a commentary on implications for practices and treatment of PI-IBS.

Results: Most physician survey respondents (n = 50) were aware of PI-IBS, but less than half discussed this condition as a possible outcome in their patients with a recent gastrointestinal infection. Most physicians indicated that they would treat the patients themselves with a focus on managing IBS through different treatment modalities based on severity. Treatment for PI-IBS followed IBS recommendations, but most physicians also prescribed a probiotic for therapy. Physicians estimated that 4 out of 10 patients who develop PI-IBS will have life-long symptoms and described significant impacts to their patient's quality of life. Additionally, physicians estimated a significant financial burden for PI-IBS patients, ranging from $100-1000 (USD) over the course of their illness. Most physicians agreed that they would use a risk score to predict the probability of their patients developing PI-IBS, if available.

Conclusions: While this survey is limited due to sample size, physician knowledge and treatment of PI-IBS was consistent across respondents. Overall, the physicians identified significant impacts to patient's quality of life due to PI-IBS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-020-01305-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249359PMC
May 2020

Methodology minute: An overview of the case-case study design and its applications in infection prevention.

Am J Infect Control 2020 03 9;48(3):342-344. Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

The case-case study design is a potentially useful tool for infection preventionists during outbreak or cluster investigations. This column clarifies terminology related to case-case, case-control, and case-case-control study designs. Examples of practical applications of the case-case study design include determining risk factors for health care-onset versus community-onset infections, or antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-susceptible infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.11.024DOI Listing
March 2020

Chronic Gastrointestinal and Joint-Related Sequelae Associated with Common Foodborne Illnesses: A Scoping Review.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2020 02 7;17(2):67-86. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, Maryland.

To strengthen the burden estimates for chronic sequelae of foodborne illness, we conducted a scoping review of the current literature for common foodborne pathogens and their associated sequelae. We aim to describe the current literature and gaps in knowledge of chronic sequelae associated with common foodborne illnesses. A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed articles published January 1, 2000 to April 1, 2018. Articles available in English, of any epidemiological study design, for 10 common foodborne pathogens (, , , , , , , , , and norovirus) and their associated gastrointestinal (GI)- and joint-related sequelae were included. Of the 6348 titles screened for inclusion, 380 articles underwent full-text review; of those 380, 129 were included for data extraction. Of the bacterial pathogens included in the search terms, the most commonly reported were ( = 104) and ( = 99); ( = 55), ( = 49), ( = 49), and ( = 15) all had fewer results. Norovirus was the only virus included in our search, with 28 article that reported mostly GI-related sequelae and reactive arthritis (ReA) reported once. For parasitic diseases, ( = 26) and ( = 18) had the most articles, and no results were found for . The most commonly reported GI outcomes were irritable bowel syndrome (IBS;  = 119) and inflammatory bowel disease ( = 29), and ReA ( = 122) or "joint pain" ( = 19) for joint-related sequelae. and were most often associated with a variety of outcomes, with ReA ( = 34 and  = 27) and IBS ( = 17 and  = 20) reported most often. This scoping review shows there are still a relatively small number of studies being conducted to understand specific pathogen/outcome relationships. It also shows where important gaps in the impact of chronic sequelae from common foodborne illnesses still exist and where more focused research would best be implemented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2019.2692DOI Listing
February 2020
-->