Publications by authors named "Erik Swietlicki"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Extending the scope of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for trace analysis of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid in atmospheric aerosols leading to the discovery of iron(III) complexes.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 May 1;411(13):2937-2944. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry, Center for Analysis and Synthesis, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 221 00, Lund, Sweden.

3-Methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) is a secondary organic aerosol and can be used as a unique emission marker of biogenic emissions of monoterpenes. Seasonal variations and differences in vegetation cover around the world may lead to low atmospheric MBTCA concentrations, in many cases too low to be measured. Hence, an important tool to quantify the contribution of terrestrial vegetation to the loading of secondary organic aerosol may be compromised. To meet this challenge, a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method, known for the extraction of hydrophobic compounds, was extended to the extraction of polar organic compounds like MBTCA without compromising the efficiency of the method. The extraction solvent was fine-tuned using tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide as additive. A multivariate experimental design was applied for deeper understanding of significant variables and interactions between them. The optimum extraction conditions included 1-octanol with 15% tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (w/w) as extraction solvent, methanol as dispersive solvent, 25% NaCl dissolved in 5 mL sample (w/w) acidified to pH 2 using HNO, and extraction time of 15 min. A limit of detection of 0.12 pg/m in air was achieved. Furthermore, unique complexation behavior of MBTCA with iron(III) was found when analyzed with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QToF). A comprehensive overview of this complexation behavior of MBTCA was examined with systematically designed experiments. This newly discovered behavior of MBTCA will be of interest for further research on organometallic photooxidation chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Graphical abstract a) Additive assisted DLLME and MBTCA complexes with Fe(III), b) A good quality figure is attached in ppt format to facilitate editable objects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-01741-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522453PMC
May 2019

Comparison of PM chemical composition and sources at a rural background site in Central Europe between 1993/1994/1995 and 2009/2010: Effect of legislative regulations and economic transformation on the air quality.

Environ Pollut 2018 Oct 14;241:841-851. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Aerosol Chemistry and Physics, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Rozvojová 1/135, 165 02 Prague 6, Czech Republic.

From December 1993 to January 1995 and from October 2009 to October 2010, a total of 320 and 365 daily samples of the PM were collected at a rural background site (National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice) in Central Europe. The PM samples were analyzed for 29 and 26 elements respectively by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and water-soluble inorganic ions by Ion Chromatography (IC) in 2009/2010. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to the chemical composition of PM to determine its sources. The decreasing trends of almost all elements concentrations, especially the metals regulated by the EU Directive (2004/107/EC) are evident. The annual median ratios indicate a decrease in concentrations of the PM elements. The slight increase of K concentrations and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r 0.09 K/Se points to a rise in residential wood combustion. The S concentrations are nearly comparable (higher mean in 2009/2010, while the annual median ratio is under 1). The five major source types in the mid-1990s were ascribed to brown coal combustion, oil combustion, sea salt and dust - long-range transport, re-suspended dust and black coal combustion. The industrial combustion of brown and/or black coal (r 0.75 Se/As, r 0.57 Ga/Ge and r 0.20 As/Zn) and oil (r 0.72 V/Ni) of the regional origin dominated. In the 1990s, the potential source regions were the border area of Czech Republic, German and Poland (brown coal), the Moravia-Silesia region at the Czech-Polish border (black coal), and Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans (oil). In 2009/2010, the apportioned sources were sulfate, residential heating, nitrate, industry, re-suspended dust, and sea salt and dust - long-range transport. The secondary sulfate from coal combustion and residential biomass burning (r 0.96, K/K) of local origin dominated. The declining trend of the elemental concentrations and change in the source pattern of the regional background PM2.5 in Central Europe between the mid-1990s and 2009/10 reflects the economic transformation and impact of stricter legislation in Central Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.06.015DOI Listing
October 2018

Towards the isolation and estimation of elemental carbon in atmospheric aerosols using supercritical fluid extraction and thermo-optical analysis.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Jul 8;409(17):4293-4300. Epub 2017 May 8.

Centre for Analysis and Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Naturvetarvägen 14/Sölvegatan 39 A-C, 22100, Lund, Sweden.

Air-starved combustion of biomass and fossil fuels releases aerosols, including airborne carbonaceous particles, causing negative climatic and health effects. Radiocarbon analysis of the elemental carbon (EC) fraction can help apportion sources of its emission, which is greatly constrained by the challenges in isolation of EC from organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols. The isolation of EC using thermo-optical analysis is however biased by the presence of interfering compounds that undergo pyrolysis during the analysis. EC is considered insoluble in all acidic, basic, and organic solvents. Based on the property of insolubility, a sample preparation method using supercritical CO and methanol as co-solvent was developed to remove interfering organic compounds. The efficiency of the method was studied by varying the density of supercritical carbon dioxide by means of temperature and pressure and by varying the methanol content. Supercritical CO with 10% methanol by volume at a temperature of 60 °C, a pressure of 350 bar and 20 min static mode extraction were found to be the most suitable conditions for the removal of 59 ± 3% organic carbon, including compounds responsible for pyrolysis with 78 ± 16% EC recovery. The results indicate that the method has potential for the estimation and isolation of EC from OC for subsequent analysis methods and source apportionment studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-017-0380-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486914PMC
July 2017

Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: an experimental study in healthy children and adults.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2017 04 8;14(1):10. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Lund University, Box 118, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood.

Method: In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition.

Results: A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry).

Conclusions: To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-017-0190-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5385003PMC
April 2017

Collocated observations of cloud condensation nuclei, particle size distributions, and chemical composition.

Sci Data 2017 03 14;4:170003. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen 5232, Switzerland.

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations alongside with submicrometer particle number size distributions and particle chemical composition have been measured at atmospheric observatories of the Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure (ACTRIS) as well as other international sites over multiple years. Here, harmonized data records from 11 observatories are summarized, spanning 98,677 instrument hours for CCN data, 157,880 for particle number size distributions, and 70,817 for chemical composition data. The observatories represent nine different environments, e.g., Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific and Mediterranean maritime, boreal forest, or high alpine atmospheric conditions. This is a unique collection of aerosol particle properties most relevant for studying aerosol-cloud interactions which constitute the largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing of the climate. The dataset is appropriate for comprehensive aerosol characterization (e.g., closure studies of CCN), model-measurement intercomparison and satellite retrieval method evaluation, among others. Data have been acquired and processed following international recommendations for quality assurance and have undergone multiple stages of quality assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5349251PMC
March 2017

Maternal exposure to air pollution and type 1 diabetes--Accounting for genetic factors.

Environ Res 2015 Jul 13;140:268-74. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.

Background: Genetic and non-genetic factors probably act together to initiate and accelerate development of type 1 diabetes [T1D]. One suggested risk factor contributing to development of T1D is air pollution.

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to air pollution, measured as nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ozone, in a low-dose exposure area was associated with the child developing T1D.

Method: In Scania (Skåne), the most southern county in Sweden, 84,039 infants were born during the period 1999-2005. By the end of April 2013, 324 of those children had been diagnosed with T1D. For each of those T1D children three control children were randomly selected and matched for HLA genotype and birth year. Individually modelled exposure data at residence during pregnancy were assessed for nitrogen oxides [NOx], traffic density and ozone.

Results: Ozone as well as NOx exposures were associated with T1D. When the highest exposure group was compared to the lowest group an odds ratios of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.65) was observed for ozone in the second trimester and 1.58 (95% CI 1.06-2.35) for NOx in the third trimester.

Conclusion: This study indicates that living in an area with elevated levels of air pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for offspring T1D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.03.024DOI Listing
July 2015

Respiratory Tract Deposition of Inhaled Wood Smoke Particles in Healthy Volunteers.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2015 Aug 13;28(4):237-46. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

2 Department of Design Sciences, Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (EAT), Lund University , Lund, Sweden .

Background: Respiratory tract deposition of air pollution particles is a key to their adverse health effects. This study was aimed to determine the size-resolved deposition fraction (DF) of sooty wood smoke particles in the lungs of healthy subjects. The type of wood smoke investigated is typical for household air pollution from solid fuels, which is among the largest environmental health problems globally.

Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers inhaled diluted wood smoke from incomplete soot-rich combustion in a common wood stove. The DF of smoke particles (10-500 nm) was measured during three 15-min exposures in each subject during spontaneous breathing. Lung function was measured using standard spirometry.

Results: The total DFs by particle number concentration were 0.34±0.08. This can be compared with DFs of 0.21-0.23 in healthy subjects during previous experiments with wood pellet combustion. For particle mass, the total DFs found in this study were 0.22±0.06. DF and breathing frequency were negatively correlated as expected from model calculations (p<0.01).

Conclusions: The DF of the investigated sooty wood smoke particles was higher than for previously investigated particles generated during more efficient combustion of biomass. Together with toxicological studies, which have indicated that incomplete biomass combustion particles rich in soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are especially harmful, these data highlight the health risks of inadequate wood combustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2014.1122DOI Listing
August 2015

Effective density and mixing state of aerosol particles in a near-traffic urban environment.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Jun 14;48(11):6300-8. Epub 2014 May 14.

Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, ‡Division of Nuclear Physics, and §Solid State Physics, Lund University , P.O. Box 118, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

In urban environments, airborne particles are continuously emitted, followed by atmospheric aging. Also, particles emitted elsewhere, transported by winds, contribute to the urban aerosol. We studied the effective density (mass-mobility relationship) and mixing state with respect to the density of particles in central Copenhagen, in wintertime. The results are related to particle origin, morphology, and aging. Using a differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM), we determined that particles in the diameter range of 50-400 nm were of two groups: porous soot aggregates and more dense particles. Both groups were present at each size in varying proportions. Two types of temporal variability in the relative number fraction of the two groups were found: soot correlated with intense traffic in a diel pattern and dense particles increased during episodes with long-range transport from polluted continental areas. The effective density of each group was relatively stable over time, especially of the soot aggregates, which had effective densities similar to those observed in laboratory studies of fresh diesel exhaust emissions. When heated to 300 °C, the soot aggregate volatile mass fraction was ∼10%. For the dense particles, the volatile mass fraction varied from ∼80% to nearly 100%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es5000353DOI Listing
June 2014

Measurement techniques for respiratory tract deposition of airborne nanoparticles: a critical review.

J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2014 Aug 23;27(4):229-54. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

1 Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology (EAT), Lund University , SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden .

Determination of the respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is critical for risk assessment of air pollution, inhaled drug delivery, and understanding of respiratory disease. With the advent of nanotechnology, there has been an increasing interest in the measurement of pulmonary deposition of nanoparticles because of their unique properties in inhalation toxicology and medicine. Over the last century, around 50 studies have presented experimental data on lung deposition of nanoparticles (typical diameter≤100 nm, but here≤300 nm). These data show a considerable variability, partly due to differences in the applied methodologies. In this study, we review the experimental techniques for measuring respiratory tract deposition of nano-sized particles, analyze critical experimental design aspects causing measurement uncertainties, and suggest methodologies for future studies. It is shown that, although particle detection techniques have developed with time, the overall methodology in respiratory tract deposition experiments has not seen similar progress. Available experience from previous research has often not been incorporated, and some methodological design aspects that were overlooked in 30-70% of all studies may have biased the experimental data. This has contributed to a significant uncertainty on the absolute value of the lung deposition fraction of nanoparticles. We estimate the impact of the design aspects on obtained data, discuss solutions to minimize errors, and highlight gaps in the available experimental set of data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2013.1044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120654PMC
August 2014

Volatility of organic aerosol: evaporation of ammonium sulfate/succinic acid aqueous solution droplets.

Environ Sci Technol 2013 9;47(21):12123-30. Epub 2013 Oct 9.

Department of Physics, University of Helsinki , P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Condensation and evaporation modify the properties and effects of atmospheric aerosol particles. We studied the evaporation of aqueous succinic acid and succinic acid/ammonium sulfate droplets to obtain insights on the effect of ammonium sulfate on the gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric organic acids. Droplet evaporation in a laminar flow tube was measured in a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. A wide range of droplet compositions was investigated, and for some of the experiments the composition was tracked using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The measured evaporation was compared to model predictions where the ammonium sulfate was assumed not to directly affect succinic acid evaporation. The model captured the evaporation rates for droplets with large organic content but overestimated the droplet size change when the molar concentration of succinic acid was similar to or lower than that of ammonium sulfate, suggesting that ammonium sulfate enhances the partitioning of dicarboxylic acids to aqueous particles more than currently expected from simple mixture thermodynamics. If extrapolated to the real atmosphere, these results imply enhanced partitioning of secondary organic compounds to particulate phase in environments dominated by inorganic aerosol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es401233cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3971733PMC
June 2015

Experimental determination of the respiratory tract deposition of diesel combustion particles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2012 Jul 28;9:30. Epub 2012 Jul 28.

Department of Physics, Division of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Air pollution, mainly from combustion, is one of the leading global health risk factors. A susceptible group is the more than 200 million people worldwide suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are few data on lung deposition of airborne particles in patients with COPD and none for combustion particles.

Objectives: To determine respiratory tract deposition of diesel combustion particles in patients with COPD during spontaneous breathing.

Methods: Ten COPD patients and seven healthy subjects inhaled diesel exhaust particles generated during idling and transient driving in an exposure chamber. The respiratory tract deposition of the particles was measured in the size range 10-500 nm during spontaneous breathing.

Results: The deposited dose rate increased with increasing severity of the disease. However, the deposition probability of the ultrafine combustion particles (< 100 nm) was decreased in COPD patients. The deposition probability was associated with both breathing parameters and lung function, but could be predicted only based on lung function.

Conclusions: The higher deposited dose rate of inhaled air pollution particles in COPD patients may be one of the factors contributing to their increased vulnerability. The strong correlations between lung function and particle deposition, especially in the size range of 20-30 nm, suggest that altered particle deposition could be used as an indicator respiratory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-9-30DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3464711PMC
July 2012

Antioxidant airway responses following experimental exposure to wood smoke in man.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2010 Aug 20;7:21. Epub 2010 Aug 20.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Biomass combustion contributes to the production of ambient particulate matter (PM) in rural environments as well as urban settings, but relatively little is known about the health effects of these emissions. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize airway responses in humans exposed to wood smoke PM under controlled conditions. Nineteen healthy volunteers were exposed to both wood smoke, at a particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration of 224 ± 22 μg/m3, and filtered air for three hours with intermittent exercise. The wood smoke was generated employing an experimental set-up with an adjustable wood pellet boiler system under incomplete combustion. Symptoms, lung function, and exhaled NO were measured over exposures, with bronchoscopy performed 24 h post-exposure for characterisation of airway inflammatory and antioxidant responses in airway lavages.

Results: Glutathione (GSH) concentrations were enhanced in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after wood smoke exposure vs. air (p = 0.025), together with an increase in upper airway symptoms. Neither lung function, exhaled NO nor systemic nor airway inflammatory parameters in BAL and bronchial mucosal biopsies were significantly affected.

Conclusions: Exposure of healthy subjects to wood smoke, derived from an experimental wood pellet boiler operating under incomplete combustion conditions with PM emissions dominated by organic matter, caused an increase in mucosal symptoms and GSH in the alveolar respiratory tract lining fluids but no acute airway inflammatory responses. We contend that this response reflects a mobilisation of GSH to the air-lung interface, consistent with a protective adaptation to the investigated wood smoke exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-7-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936868PMC
August 2010

Experimentally determined human respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles at a busy street.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Jul;43(13):4659-64

Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

Traffic is one of the major sources of harmful airborne particles worldwide. To relate exposure to adverse health effects it is important to determine the deposition probability of the inhaled particles in the human respiratory tract. The size-dependent deposition of 12-580 nm particles was measured with a novel setup in 9 healthy subjects breathing by mouth on the windward side of a busy street in Copenhagen, Denmark. The aerosol was characterized both at the curbside and, to obtain the background concentration, at rooftop level. Particle hygroscopicity, a key parameter affecting respiratory tract deposition, was also measured at the same time of exposure. The total deposition fraction of the curbside particles in the range 12-580 nm was 0.60 by number, 0.29 by surface area, and 0.23 by mass. The deposition fractions of the "traffic exhaust" contribution, calculated as the hydrophobic fraction of the curbside particles, was 0.68, 0.35, and 0.28 by number, surface area, and mass, respectively. The deposited amount of traffic exhaust particles was 16 times higher by number and 3 times higher by surface area compared to the deposition of residential biofuel combustion particles investigated previously (equal inhaled mass concentrations). This was because the traffic exhaust particles had both a higher deposition probability and a higher number and surface area concentration per unit mass. To validate the results, the respiratory tract deposition was estimated by using the well-established ICRP model. Predictions were in agreement with experimental results when the effects of particle hygroscopicity were considered in the model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es803029bDOI Listing
July 2009

Derivation of the density and refractive index of organic matter and elemental carbon from closure between physical and chemical aerosol properties.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Feb;43(4):1166-72

Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute for Inhalation Biology, German Research Center for Environmental Health, D-85758 Neuherberg, Germany.

Information on the density (rho) and refractive index m (=n-ik) of elemental carbon (ECa) and organic matter (OMa), the main carbon components of atmospheric aerosols, has frequently been obtained from closure calculations between physical and chemical aerosol properties. However, this approach has suffered from large uncertainties since there were more unknown (or poorly known) parameters than defining equations. In this study, we propose a method that avoids this ambiguity mainly by considering both optical and mass closure and by expressing the three ECa parameters (rho(ECa), n(ECa), k(ECa)) by a single (unknown) parameter. This allows mathematically rigorous determination of rho(Eca), m(ECa), rho(OMa) and m(OMa) from standard physico-chemical aerosol data and rigorous error analysis. The results are unambiguous and self-consistent, i.e., there is no difference between the chemically and physically derived p and m values of the atmospheric aerosol. Application of this method to our previously published data on biomass burning particles from Amazonia yields rho(ECa) = 1.8(+/-0.2) g/cm3, m(ECa) = 1.9(+/-0.1)-i0.20(-0.04/+0.02), rho(OMa) = 1.39(+/-0.13) g/cm3 and m(OMa) = 1.46(+/-0.02), where the launcertainty limits given in parenthesis are based on the principles of error propagation. The relatively low imaginary part of m(ECa) indicates the presence of only partially graphitized elemental carbon, which is consistentwith biomass burning aerosol dominated by smoldering combustion conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es800570pDOI Listing
February 2009

Deposition of biomass combustion aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract.

Inhal Toxicol 2008 Aug;20(10):923-33

Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Smoke from biomass combustion has been identified as a major environmental risk factor associated with adverse health effects globally. Deposition of the smoke particles in the lungs is a crucial factor for toxicological effects, but has not previously been studied experimentally. We investigated the size-dependent respiratory-tract deposition of aerosol particles from wood combustion in humans. Two combustion conditions were studied in a wood pellet burner: efficient ("complete") combustion and low-temperature (incomplete) combustion simulating "wood smoke." The size-dependent deposition fraction of 15-to 680-nm particles was measured for 10 healthy subjects with a novel setup. Both aerosols were extensively characterized with regard to chemical and physical particle properties. The deposition was additionally estimated with the ICRP model, modified for the determined aerosol properties, in order to validate the experiments and allow a generalization of the results. The measured total deposited fraction of particles from both efficient combustion and low-temperature combustion was 0.21-0.24 by number, surface, and mass. The deposition behavior can be explained by the size distributions of the particles and by their ability to grow by water uptake in the lungs, where the relative humidity is close to saturation. The experiments were in basic agreement with the model calculations. Our findings illustrate: (1) that particles from biomass combustion obtain a size in the respiratory tract at which the deposition probability is close to its minimum, (2) that particle water absorption has substantial impact on deposition, and (3) that deposition is markedly influenced by individual factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370802087124DOI Listing
August 2008

Properties and toxicological effects of particles from the interaction between tyres, road pavement and winter traction material.

Sci Total Environ 2008 Apr 6;393(2-3):226-40. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.

In regions where studded tyres and traction material are used during winter, e.g. the Nordic countries, northern part of USA, Canada, and Japan, mechanically generated particles from traffic are the main reason for high particle mass concentrations in busy street and road environments. In many Nordic municipalities the European environmental quality standard for inhalable particles (PM(10)) is exceeded due to these particles. In this study, particles from the wear of studded and studless friction tyres on two pavements and traction sanding were generated using a road simulator. The particles were characterized using particle sizers, Particle Induced X-Ray Emission Analysis and electron microscopy. Cell studies were conducted on particles sampled from the tests with studded tyres and compared with street environment, diesel exhaust and subway PM(10), respectively. The results show that in the road simulator, where resuspension is minimized, studded tyres produce tens of times more particles than friction tyres. Chemical analysis of the sampled particles shows that the generated wear particles consist almost entirely of minerals from the pavement stone material, but also that Sulfur is enriched for the submicron particles and that Zink is enriched for friction tyres for all particles sizes. The chemical data can be used for source identification and apportionment in urban aerosol studies. A mode of ultra-fine particles was also present and is hypothesised to originate in the tyres. Further, traction material properties affect PM(10) emission. The inflammatory potential of the particles from wear of pavements seems to depend on type of pavement and can be at least as potent as diesel exhaust particles. The results imply that there is a need and a good potential to reduce particle emission from pavement wear and winter time road and street operation by adjusting both studded tyre use as well as pavement and traction material properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.12.030DOI Listing
April 2008

Wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory reactions in mouse macrophage cells.

Chem Res Toxicol 2007 Jun 22;20(6):937-46. Epub 2007 May 22.

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. These health risks are of increasing concern in society, and to protect public health, a clarification of the toxic properties of particles from different sources is of importance. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized as a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries where studded tires are used. The aim of this study was to further investigate and compare the ability to induce inflammatory mediators of different traffic-related wear particles collected from an urban street, a subway station, and studded tire-pavement wear. Inflammatory effects were measured as induction of nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, TNF-alpha, arachidonic acid (AA), and lipid peroxidation after exposure of the murine macrophage like cell line RAW 264.7. In addition, the redox potential of the particles was measured in a cell-free system. The results show that all particles tested induce IL-6, TNF-alpha, and NO, and those from the urban street were the most potent ones. In contrast, particles collected from a subway station were most potent to induce lipid peroxidation, AA release, and formation of ROS. Particles from studded tire-pavement wear, generated using a road simulator, were able to induce inflammatory cytokines, NO, lipid peroxidation, and ROS formation. Interestingly, particles generated from pavement containing granite as the main stone material were more potent than those generated from pavement containing quartzite as the main stone material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx700018zDOI Listing
June 2007

Is levoglucosan a suitable quantitative tracer for wood burning? Comparison with receptor modeling on trace elements in Lycksele, Sweden.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2006 Dec;56(12):1669-78

Department of Applied Environmental Science, Atmospheric Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.

Particle emissions from residential wood combustion in small communities in Northern Sweden can sometimes increase the ambient particle concentrations to levels comparable to densely trafficked streets in the center of large cities. The reason for this is the combination of increased need for domestic heating during periods of low temperatures, leading to higher emission rates, and stable meteorological conditions. In this work, the authors compare two different approaches to quantify the wood combustion contribution to fine particles in Northern Sweden: a multivariate source-receptor analysis on inorganic compounds followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) of fine particle concentrations and levoglucosan used as a tracer. From the receptor model, it can be seen that residential wood combustion corresponds with 70% of modeled particle mass. Smaller contributions are also seen from local nonexhaust traffic particles, road dust, and brake wear (each contributing 14%). Of the mass, 1.5% is explained by long-distance transported particles, and 2% derives from a regional source deriving from either oil combustion or smelter activities. In samples collected in ambient air, a significant linear correlation was found between wood burning particles and levoglucosan. The levoglucosan fraction in the ambient fine particulate matter attributed to wood burning according to the multivariate analysis ranged from < 2% to 50%. This is much higher than the fraction found in the emission from the boilers expected to be responsible for most emissions at this site (between 3% and 6%). A laboratory emission study of wood and pellet boilers gave 0.3% wt to 22% wt levoglucosan to particle mass, indicating that the levoglucosan fraction may be highly dependent on combustion conditions, making it uncertain to use it as a quantitative tracer under real-world burning conditions. Thus, quantitative estimates of wood burning contributions will be very uncertain using solely levoglucosan as a tracer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10473289.2006.10464572DOI Listing
December 2006

Size-resolved respiratory-tract deposition of fine and ultrafine hydrophobic and hygroscopic aerosol particles during rest and exercise.

Inhal Toxicol 2007 Feb;19(2):109-16

Division of Nuclear Physics, Department of Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Airborne ultrafine particles (diameter <100 nm) are ubiquitous in the environment and have been associated with adverse health effects. The respiratory-tract deposition of these particles is fundamentally influenced by their hygroscopicity: their ability to grow by condensation of water in the humid respiratory system. Ambient particles are typically hygroscopic, to varying degrees. This article investigates the influence of hygroscopicity, exercise level, gender, and intersubject variability on size-dependent deposition of fine and ultrafine particles during spontaneous breathing. Using a novel and well-characterized setup, respiratory-tract deposition in the range 12-320 nm has been measured for 29 healthy adults (20 men, 9 women). Each subject completed four sessions: rest and light exercise on an ergometer bicycle while inhaling both hydrophobic (diethylhexylsebacate) and hygroscopic (NaCl) particles. The deposited fraction (DF) based on dry diameters was two to four times higher for the hydrophobic ultrafine particles than for the hygroscopic. The DF of hygroscopic ultrafine particles could be estimated by calculating their equilibrium size at 99.5% relative humidity. The differences in average DF due to exercise level and gender were essentially less than 0.03. However, the minute ventilation increased fourfold during exercise and was 18-46% higher for the men than for the women. Consequently the deposited dose of particles was fourfold higher during exercise and considerably increased for the male subjects. Some individuals consistently had a high DF in all four sessions. As an example, the results show that an average person exposed to 100-nm hydrophobic particles during exercise will receive a 16 times higher dose than a relaxed person exposed to an equal amount of hygroscopic (NaCl) particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958370601051677DOI Listing
February 2007

Exposure to wear particles generated from studded tires and pavement induces inflammatory cytokine release from human macrophages.

Chem Res Toxicol 2006 Apr;19(4):521-30

Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Health risks associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) have been shown epidemiologically as well as experimentally, pointing to both respiratory and cardiovascular effects. Lately, wear particles generated from traffic have been recognized to be a major contributing source to the overall particle load, especially in the Nordic countries were studded tires are used. In this work, we investigated the inflammatory effect of PM10 generated from the wear of studded tires on two different types of pavement. As comparison, we also investigated PM10 from a traffic-intensive street, a subway station, and diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Human monocyte-derived macrophages, nasal epithelial cells (RPMI 2650), and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to the different types of particles, and the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-alpha into the culture medium was measured. The results show a significant release of cytokines from macrophages after exposure for all types of particles. When particles generated from asphalt/granite pavement were compared to asphalt/quartzite pavement, the granite pavement had a significantly higher capacity to induce the release of cytokines. The granite pavement particles induced cytokine release at the same magnitude as the street particles did, which was higher than what particles from both a subway station and DEP did. Exposure of epithelial cells to PM10 resulted in a significant increase of TNF-alpha secreted from BEAS-2B cells for all types of particles used (DEP was not tested), and the highest levels were induced by subway particles. None of the particle types were able to evoke detectable cytokine release from RPMI 2650 cells. The results indicate that PM10 generated by the wear of studded tires on the street surface is a large contributor to the cytokine-releasing ability of particles in traffic-intensive areas and that the type of pavement used is important for the level of this contribution. Furthermore, the airway inflammatory potential of wear particles from tires and pavement might be of a greater magnitude than that of DEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx0503101DOI Listing
April 2006