Publications by authors named "Erik Rosendahl"

43 Publications

Timed "Up & Go" Dual-Task Tests: Age- and Sex-Specific Reference Values and Test-Retest Reliability in Cognitively Healthy Controls.

Phys Ther 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Objective: To establish reference values for the Uppsala-Dalarna Dementia and Gait (UDDGait) Timed "Up & Go" dual-task (TUGdt) test variables in cognitively healthy adults and to assess these variables' test-retest reliability.

Methods: For reference values, 166 participants were recruited with approximately equal numbers and proportions of women and men in the age groups 50 to 59, 60 to 69, 70 to 79, and 80+ (mean age = 70 years, age range = 50-91 years, 51% women). For reliability testing, 43 individuals (mean age = 69 years, age range = 50-89 years, 51% women) were recruited. Two dual-task tests were carried out: TUGdt naming animals and TUGdt months backward, representing 8 test variables: time scores, costs (the relative difference between single- and dual-task time scores), "number of animals", "number of months", "animals/10 s", and "months/10 s". Reference ranges for the variables were established by quantile regression in age- and sex-specific groups. For reliability, ICCs, standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, and Bland-Altman plots were used.

Results: Reference values for the TUGdt test variables are presented for the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile. The reliability of TUGdt time scores was excellent (ICCs between 0.85 and 0.86). "Number of animals" and "animals/10 s" as well as "months/10 s" showed fair to good levels of reliability (ICCs between 0.45 and 0.58), whereas the reliability for both cost measures and "number of months" was poor (ICCs between 0.34 and 0.39).

Conclusions: Normative reference values, potentially useful for clinical and research purposes, were presented in 4 age- and sex-specific groups from 50 years and above. Reliability for the test variables varied between poor and excellent, the lower estimates partly explained by some variables being the ratio of 2 other variables. In UDDGait, TUGdt tests are intended for diagnostic and predictive purposes, for which these tests are promising and require further investigations.

Impact: We present normative reference values and test-retest reliability results for the UDDGait TUGdt test variables. These results should be useful for both clinical and research purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptj/pzab179DOI Listing
July 2021

Measurement error of the Mini-Mental State Examination among individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes.

Eur J Ageing 2021 Mar 3;18(1):109-115. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Few studies have investigated the measurement error of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the same unit of measurement, also known as absolute reliability. This measurement can help determine whether an observed score change for an individual is likely to represent true change. The aim of this study was to investigate the absolute reliability of the MMSE among individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes. Among 88 participants, 19 (21.6%) were men, 35 (39.8%) had Alzheimer's disease, 35 (39.8%) had vascular dementia, and the mean age was 84.0 years (range 65-98). The participants were tested and retested with the MMSE within 1-6 days. Both tests were administered by the same assessor at the same time of day. The mean MMSE score was 13.7 (range 0-28). The absolute difference between MMSE scores varied from 0 to 6 points, and the differences did not correlate with the corresponding score means ( = 0.874). The smallest detectable change (SDC) between two measurements was 4.00. The SDC was independent of depression, impaired vision and hearing, delirium within the last week, dementia type and age. However, the SDC was 5.56 among men and 3.50 among women ( = 0.003). In conclusion, for individuals with dementia that reside in nursing homes, it seems like their MMSE score needs to change by four or more points between two measurements in order for their score change to be reliably higher than the measurement error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10433-020-00572-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7925761PMC
March 2021

Exercise effects on backward walking speed in people with dementia: A randomized controlled trial.

Gait Posture 2021 03 13;85:65-70. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Multidirectional walking, including backward walking, is integral to daily activities, and seems particularly challenging in older age, and in people with pathology affecting postural control such as dementia.

Research Question: Does exercise influence backward walking speed in people with dementia, when tested using habitual walking aids and without, and do effects differ according to walking aid use?

Methods: This study included 141 women and 45 men (mean age 85 years) with dementia from the Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX), a cluster-randomized controlled trial study set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden. Participants were randomized to a High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) program targeting lower limb strength-, balance and mobility exercise or to a seated attention control activity. Blinded assessors measured 2.4-meter usual backward walking speed, at baseline, 4 - (intervention completion) and 7-month follow-up; tested 1) with habitual walking aids allowed, and 2) without walking aids.

Results: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect in either backward walking speed test at 4 or 7 months; test 1) 0.005 m/s, P = .788 and -0.006 m/s, P = .754 and test 2) 0.030 m/s, P = .231 and 0.015 m/s, P = .569, respectively. In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between participants who habitually walked unaided compared with those that used a walking aid at 7 months (0.094 m/s, P = .027).

Significance: In this study of older people with dementia living in nursing homes, the effects of exercise had no overall effects on backwards walking speed. Nevertheless, some benefit was indicated in participants who habitually walked unaided, which is promising and merits further investigation in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.12.028DOI Listing
March 2021

Exercise effects on falls, fractures, hospitalizations and mortality in older adults with dementia: an individual-level patient data meta-analysis.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2020 Dec 7. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Gerontopole of Toulouse, Institute of Ageing, Toulouse University Hospital (CHU Toulouse), Toulouse, France.

Background: To study the effects of exercise on falls, fractures, hospitalizations and death in people with dementia.

Methods: We conducted an individual-level patient data meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials (RCT). We looked for studies from the reference list of previous systematic reviews and undertook an electronic search for articles published between 2013 and 2019 in Ageline, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and SportsDiscus. Main (binary) outcome measures were the risk of mortality; hospitalization; faller; multiple faller; injurious faller; and fractures. Secondary (count) outcomes were the incident rates of hospitalizations, falls, and injurious falls.

Results: From the 1,314 participants, 771 were allocated to the exercise group and 543 to the control group. The number of cases regarding the main outcome measures in exercisers and controls were, respectively: 45 (5.8%) and 31 (5.7%) deaths; 102 (14.4%) and 65 (13.4%) participants hospitalized; 221 (34.4%) and 175 (41.3%) had at least one fall; 128 (20.2%) and 92 (21.7%) had multiple falls; 78 (24.8%) and 92 (29.3%) had injurious falls; and 19 (2.9%) and 15 (3.5%) had suffered a fracture. Two-step meta-analysis found no effects of exercise on any outcome. One-step meta-analysis found exercise reduced the risk of falls (OR 0.75; 95%CI 0.57-0.99). Exploratory analysis showed exercise decreased the rate of incident falls in participants with the lowest functional ability (IRR 0.48; 95%CI 0.30-0.79).

Conclusions: Although the two-step meta-analysis suggests exercise does not have an effect on the outcomes, one-step meta-analysis suggested that exercise may reduce fall risk. Data from further high-quality RCTs is still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glaa307DOI Listing
December 2020

Dual-Task Tests Predict Conversion to Dementia-A Prospective Memory-Clinic-Based Cohort Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 3;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, SE-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden.

The aim of this study was to investigate whether Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) dual-task (TUGdt) tests predict dementia incidence among patients with subjective or mild cognitive impairment (SCI; MCI). Other study objectives were to determine whether TUGdt improves dementia prediction compared to a) demographic characteristics and standard cognitive tests alone; and b) TUG and Verbal Fluency performed separately. Patients (n = 172, age range 39-91 years, 78 women) with SCI or MCI performed TUGdt tests, including 1) naming animals and 2) reciting months backwards, and clinical cognitive tests at baseline. Diagnoses were identified at follow-up after 2.5 years. Logistic regression was used to predict dementia incidence, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and c-statistics for predictive capacity. Analyses were stratified by age and gender. At follow-up, 51 patients had developed dementia. The TUGdt result "animals/10 s" was associated with dementia incidence (standardized odds ratio (OR) = 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.28-7.23, < 0.001), more so among patients under the median age of 72 years (standardized OR = 19.4, 95% CI 3.53-106.17, p < 0.001). TUGdt "animals/10 s" improved dementia prediction compared to demographic characteristics and standard tests alone (c-statistics 0.88 to 0.94) and single-task tests (c-statistics 0.86 to 0.89), but only in the younger patient group. TUGdt has the potential to become a useful tool for dementia prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662628PMC
November 2020

Dual-task tests discriminate between dementia, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls - a cross-sectional cohort study.

BMC Geriatr 2020 07 29;20(1):258. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Box 564, SE-751 22, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Discrimination between early-stage dementia and other cognitive impairment diagnoses is central to enable appropriate interventions. Previous studies indicate that dual-task testing may be useful in such differentiation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dual-task test outcomes discriminate between groups of individuals with dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls.

Methods: A total of 464 individuals (mean age 71 years, 47% women) were included in the study, of which 298 were patients undergoing memory assessment and 166 were cognitively healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to the diagnosis received: dementia disorder, mild cognitive impairment, or subjective cognitive impairment. Data collection included participants' demographic characteristics. The patients' cognitive test results and diagnoses were collected from their medical records. Healthy controls underwent the same cognitive tests as the patients. The mobility test Timed Up-and-Go (TUG single-task) and two dual-task tests including TUG (TUGdt) were carried out: TUGdt naming animals and TUGdt months backwards. The outcomes registered were: time scores for TUG single-task and both TUGdt tests, TUGdt costs (relative time difference between TUG single-task and TUGdt), number of different animals named, number of months recited in correct order, number of animals per 10 s, and number of months per 10 s. Logistic regression models examined associations between TUG outcomes pairwise between groups.

Results: The TUGdt outcomes "animals/10 s" and "months/10 s" discriminated significantly (p < 0.001) between individuals with an early-stage dementia diagnosis, mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. The TUGdt outcome "animals/10 s" showed an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval 2.0-5.4) for the groups dementia disorders vs. mild cognitive impairment. TUGdt cost outcomes, however, did not discriminate between any of the groups.

Conclusions: The novel TUGdt outcomes "words per time unit", i.e. "animals/10 s" and "months/10 s", demonstrate high levels of discrimination between all investigated groups. Thus, the TUGdt tests in the current study could be useful as complementary tools in diagnostic assessments. Future studies will be focused on the predictive value of TUGdt outcomes concerning dementia risk for individuals with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01645-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392684PMC
July 2020

Predictive Performance of the FIF Screening Tool in 2 Cohorts of Community-Living Older Adults.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2020 12 18;21(12):1900-1905.e1. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Allied Health Professionals, Function Area Occupational Therapy & Physiotherapy, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: The First-time Injurious Fall (FIF) screening tool was created to identify fall risk in community-living older adults who may benefit from primary preventive interventions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of the FIF tool in 2 cohorts of older adults.

Design: Longitudinal cohort study.

Setting And Participants: The Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Skåne (SNAC-S) and Blekinge (SNAC-B), Sweden. Community-living people aged ≥60 years (n = 2766).

Methods: Nurses and physicians collected data in the 2 cohorts through interviews and testing. Data on injurious falls were collected from register data and were defined as receipt of care after a fall. The FIF tool, consisting of 3 questions and 1 balance test, was examined in relation to injurious falls for up to 5 years of follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models. The predictive performance of the FIF tool was further explored using Harrell C statistic and Youden cut-off for sensitivity and specificity.

Results: The hazard ratios (HRs) of an injurious fall in the high-risk group for women and men were 3.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.53, 5.73) and 5.10 (95% CI 2.57, 10.12) in SNAC-S and 4.45 (95% CI 1.86, 10.61) and 32.58 (95% CI 4.30, 247.05) in SNAC-B compared with those in the low risk group. The sensitivity and specificity of the Youden cut-off point (3 or higher for high-risk) were 0.64 and 0.69 for women and 0.68 and 0.69 for men in SNAC-S, and 0.64 and 0.74 for women and 0.94 and 0.68 for men in SNAC-B. The predictive values (Harrell C statistic) for the scores for women and men were 0.73 and 0.74 in SNAC-S and 0.72 and 0.89 in SNAC-B.

Conclusions And Implications: Our results suggest that the FIF tool is a valid tool to use for prediction of first-time injurious falls in community-living older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.04.037DOI Listing
December 2020

Older adults' preferences for, adherence to and experiences of two self-management falls prevention home exercise programmes: a comparison between a digital programme and a paper booklet.

BMC Geriatr 2020 06 15;20(1):209. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Fall prevention exercise programmes are known to be effective, but access to these programmes is not always possible. The use of eHealth solutions might be a way forward to increase access and reach a wider population. In this feasibility study the aim was to explore the choice of programme, adherence, and self-reported experiences comparing two exercise programmes - a digital programme and a paper booklet.

Methods: A participant preference trial of two self-managed fall prevention exercise interventions. Community-dwelling adults aged 70 years and older exercised independently for four months after one introduction meeting. Baseline information was collected at study start, including a short introduction of the exercise programme, a short physical assessment, and completion of questionnaires. During the four months intervention period, participants self-reported their performed exercises in an exercise diary. At a final meeting, questionnaires about their experiences, and post-assessments, were completed. For adherence analyses data from diaries were used and four subgroups for different levels of participation were compared. Exercise maintenance was followed up with a survey 12 months after study start.

Results: Sixty-seven participants, with mean age 77 ± 4 years were included, 72% were women. Forty-three percent chose the digital programme. Attrition rate was 17% in the digital programme group and 37% in the paper booklet group (p = .078). In both groups 50-59% reported exercise at least 75% of the intervention period. The only significant difference for adherence was in the subgroup that completed ≥75% of exercise duration, the digital programme users exercised more minutes per week (p = .001). Participants in both groups were content with their programme but digital programme users reported a significantly higher (p = .026) degree of being content, and feeling supported by the programme (p = .044). At 12 months follow-up 67% of participants using the digital programme continued to exercise regularly compared with 35% for the paper booklet (p = .036).

Conclusions: Exercise interventions based on either a digital programme or a paper booklet can be used as a self-managed, independent fall prevention programme. There is a similar adherence in both programmes during a 4-month intervention, but the digital programme seems to facilitate long-term maintenance in regular exercise.

Trial Registration: ClinTrial: NCT02916849.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01592-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294667PMC
June 2020

Effectiveness of a self-managed digital exercise programme to prevent falls in older community-dwelling adults: study protocol for the Safe Step randomised controlled trial.

BMJ Open 2020 05 17;10(5):e036194. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Introduction: Exercise interventions have a strong evidence base for falls prevention. However, exercise can be challenging to implement and often has limited reach and poor adherence. Digital technology provides opportunities for both increased access to the intervention and support over time. Further knowledge needs to be gained regarding the effectiveness of completely self-managed digital exercise interventions. The main objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of a self-managed digital exercise programme, Safe Step, in combination with monthly educational videos with educational videos alone, on falls over 1 year in older community-dwelling adults.

Methods And Analysis: A two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial will be conducted with at least 1400 community-living older adults (70+ years) who experience impaired balance. Participants will be recruited throughout Sweden with enrolment through the project website. They will be randomly allocated to either the Safe Step exercise programme with additional monthly educational videos about healthy ageing and fall prevention, or the monthly education videos alone. Participants receiving the exercise intervention will be asked to exercise at home for at least 30 min, 3 times/week with support of the Safe Step application. The primary outcome will be rate of falls (fall per person year). Participants will keep a fall calendar and report falls at the end of each month through a digital questionnaire. Further assessments of secondary outcomes will be made through self-reported questionnaires and a self-test of 30 s chair stand test at baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after study start. Data will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval was obtained by The Regional Ethical Review Board in Umeå (Dnr 2018/433-31). Findings will be disseminated through the project web-site, peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences and through senior citizen organisations' newsletters.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03963570.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239551PMC
May 2020

Timed Up-and-Go Dual-Task Testing in the Assessment of Cognitive Function: A Mixed Methods Observational Study for Development of the UDDGait Protocol.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 5;17(5). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, SE-75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

New methods to screen for and identify early-stage dementia disorders are highly sought after. The purpose of this pilot study is to develop a study protocol for a dual-task test aimed at aiding the early detection of dementia disorders. We used the Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test, which is a mobility task involving starting in a sitting position, standing up, walking three meters to cross a line on the floor, turning around, walking back and sitting down again. We combined TUG with the verbal task of naming different animals. Pilot study participants were 43 individuals with and without established dementia diagnoses who attended a clinic for memory assessment. Video-recorded test performances were systematically analysed. Deviant test performances concerning the interplay between test administration and participants' responses to the assessment instructions were revealed and led to refinements being made to the final study protocol. Exploration of the dual-task test outcome measures in a sub-sample of 22 persons, ten with and twelve without dementia, indicated that step-length and number of named animals after the turning point of the dual-task test might constitute appropriate measures for examining this kind of sample. We concluded that the refined study protocol is feasible for testing individuals undergoing initial memory assessments and healthy controls. Follow-up studies with larger samples are being carried out and will bring new knowledge to this area of research. It may also provide an opportunity for further studies exploring possibilities for broad clinical implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084863PMC
March 2020

Development and Feasibility of a Regulated, Supramaximal High-Intensity Training Program Adapted for Older Individuals.

Front Physiol 2019 21;10:590. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

High-intensity training (HIT) with extremely short intervals (designated here as supramaximal HIT) is a time-efficient training method for health and performance. However, a protocol for regulation and control of intensity is missing, impeding implementation in various groups, such as older individuals. This study presents the development and characteristics of a novel training protocol with regulated and controlled supramaximal intervals adapted for older people. Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we explored the feasibility of the program, performed in a group training setting, with physically active older individuals (aged 65-75, = 7; five women). The developed supramaximal HIT program consisted of 10 × 6 s cycle sprint intervals with ∼1 min of active recovery with the following key characteristics: (1) an individual target power output was reached and maintained during all intervals and regulated and expressed as the percentage of the estimated maximum mean power output for the duration of the interval (i.e., 6 s); (2) pedaling cadence was standardized for all participants, while resistance was individualized; and (3) the protocol enabled controlled and systematic adjustments of training intensity following standardized escalation criteria. Our aim was to test the feasibility of a novel training regimen with regulated and controlled supramaximal HIT, adapted for older people. The feasibility criteria for the program were to support participants in reaching a supramaximal intensity (i.e., power output > 100% of estimated VO max), avoid inducing a negative affective response, and have participants perceive it as feasible and acceptable. All feasibility criteria were met. The standardized escalation procedure provided safe escalation of training load up to a supramaximal intensity (around three times the power output at estimated VO max). The participants never reported negative affective responses, and they perceived the program as fun and feasible. This novel program offers a usable methodology for further studies on supramaximal HIT among older individuals with different levels of physical capacity. Future research should explore the effects of the program in various populations of older people and their experiences and long-term adherence compared with other forms of training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536694PMC
May 2019

Dual-Task Performance and Neurodegeneration: Correlations Between Timed Up-and-Go Dual-Task Test Outcomes and Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;71(s1):S75-S83

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Sweden.

Background: Tools to identify individuals at preclinical stages of dementia disorders are needed to enable early interventions. Alterations in dual-task performance have been detected early in progressive neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, dual-task testing may have the potential to screen for cognitive impairment caused by neurodegeneration. Exploring correlations between dual-task performance and biomarkers of neurodegeneration is therefore of interest.

Objective: To investigate correlations between Timed Up-and-Go dual-task (TUGdt) outcomes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau).

Methods: This cross-sectional cohort study included 90 participants (age range 49-84 years) undergoing memory assessment, who were subsequently diagnosed with AD, other dementia disorders, mild cognitive impairment, or subjective cognitive impairment. TUG combined with "Naming Animals" (TUGdt NA) and "Months Backwards" (TUGdt MB), respectively, were used to assess dual-task performance. The number of correct words and time taken to complete the tests were measured. The CSF biomarkers were analysed by ELISA. Spearman's rank correlation was used for analyses between TUGdt outcomes (TUGdt NA and TUGdt MB), and CSF biomarkers, adjusted for age, gender, and educational level.

Results: The number of correct words, as well as the number of correct words/10 s during TUGdt NA correlated negatively to CSF t-tau and p-tau. No correlations were found between any time scores and CSF biomarkers.

Conclusion: The correlations between TUGdt NA and t-tau and p-tau may indicate that neurodegeneration affects dual-task performance. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore dual-task testing in screening for cognitive impairment due to neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-181265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839487PMC
October 2020

The Effects of Exercise on Falls in Older People With Dementia Living in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2019 Jul 28;20(7):835-842.e1. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate exercise effects on falls in people with dementia living in nursing homes, and whether effects were dependent on sex, dementia type, or improvement in balance. A further aim was to describe the occurrence of fall-related injuries.

Design: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Setting And Participants: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise study was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden and included 141 women and 45 men, a mean age of 85 years, and with a mean Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15.

Intervention: Participants were randomized to the high-intensity functional exercise program or a seated attention control activity; each conducted 2-3 times per week for 4 months.

Measures: Falls and fall-related injuries were followed for 12 months (after intervention completion) by blinded review of medical records. Injuries were classified according to severity.

Results: During follow-up, 118 (67%) of the participants fell 473 times in total. At the interim 6-month follow-up, the incidence rate was 2.7 and 2.8 falls per person-year in exercise and control group, respectively, and at 12-month follow-up 3.0 and 3.2 falls per person-year, respectively. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated no difference in fall rate between groups at 6 or 12 months (incidence rate ratio 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.7, P = .838 and incidence rate ratio 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6, P = .782, respectively). No differences in exercise effects were found according to sex, dementia type, or improvement in balance. Participants in the exercise group were less likely to sustain moderate/serious fall-related injuries at 12-month follow-up (odds ratio 0.31, 95% CI 0.10-0.94, P = .039).

Conclusions/implications: In older people with dementia living in nursing homes, a high-intensity functional exercise program alone did not prevent falls when compared with an attention control group. In high-risk populations, in which multimorbidity and polypharmacy are common, a multifactorial fall-prevention approach may be required. Encouraging effects on fall-related injuries were observed, which merits future investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2018.10.009DOI Listing
July 2019

Motivation to participate in high-intensity functional exercise compared with a social activity in older people with dementia in nursing homes.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(11):e0206899. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Motivation to participate in exercise among people with dementia has not been well studied. The symptoms of dementia, including apathy, may lead to low motivation to participate in exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the motivation of older people with dementia to participate in a high-intensity exercise program compared with motivation of those participating in a social group activity.

Methods: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise Study (UMDEX) was a cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial including 186 people (mean age; 85, 75% female) with dementia in nursing homes. Participants were randomized to participate in the High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) Program (n = 93) or a seated social group activity (n = 93). The activities were conducted in groups of 3-8 participants for 45 minutes, five times per two-week period, for 4 months (40 sessions in total). Participants' motivation to go to and during activity sessions were assessed by the activity leaders and nursing homes staff using a five-point Likert scale. Data were analyzed using cumulative link mixed models.

Results: Motivation was high or very high during 61.0% of attended sessions in the exercise group and 62.6% in the social activity group. No overall significant difference between groups was observed, but motivation increased over time in the exercise group and decreased in the social activity group (p < 0.05). Motivation during the sessions was significantly higher than motivation to go to the sessions, especially in the exercise group [OR 2.39 (95% CI 2.38-2.40) and 1.50 (95% CI 1.32-1.70), respectively].

Conclusions: Among older people with dementia in nursing homes, motivation to participate in a high-intensity functional exercise program seems to be high, comparable to motivation to participate in a social activity, and increase over time. Since motivation during activity sessions was higher than motivation to go to sessions the promotion of strategies to encourage people with dementia to join exercise groups is of great importance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206899PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235314PMC
April 2019

The Applicability of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program Among Older People With Dementia Living in Nursing Homes.

J Geriatr Phys Ther 2019 Oct/Dec;42(4):E16-E24

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background And Purpose: Exercise programs for people with dementia need to be optimized. We therefore evaluated the applicability of a high-intensity functional exercise program among people with dementia in nursing homes with regard to attendance, achieved exercise intensity, adverse events, a focus on dementia type, and whether symptoms of dementia or other medical conditions common in this population were associated with program applicability.

Methods: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden. Ninety-three people with dementia (mean [SD] Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15.4 [3.4]) were randomized to the exercise intervention. Thirty-four participants had Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 59 non-Alzheimer's dementia (non-AD). High-Intensity Functional Exercise (HIFE) program was conducted in groups of 3 to 8 participants. Two physiotherapists led 5 sessions (45 minutes each) per fortnight for 4 months (total 40 sessions).

Results: Median attendance rate was 82.5%. Lower limb strength exercises were performed at high or medium intensity at a median interquartile range of 94.7% (77.8%-100%) of attended sessions. Participants with non-AD performed more sessions with high intensity in strength exercises than participants with AD (median interquartile range, 53.8% [25.7%-80%] vs 34.9% [2.02%-62.9%]; P = .035). Balance exercises were performed at high intensity at a median interquartile range of 75% (33.3%-88.6%). Adverse events (all minor and temporary, mostly musculoskeletal) occurred during the exercise sessions in 16% of attended sessions. Low motivation was the most common barrier for attendance. Buildup period, low motivation, and pain were common barriers for achieving high intensity in balance and strength exercises, and fear was a barrier in balance exercises. Of medical conditions, only behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, including apathy, were negatively associated with applicability.

Conclusion: A group-based, supervised, and individualized high-intensity functional exercise program seems to be applicable with regard to attendance, achieved intensity, and adverse events during the exercise sessions, in people with mild to moderate dementia in nursing homes. Effective strategies to enhance motivation to participate in exercise, as well as prevention and treatment of pain and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, are important when promoting exercise participation in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JPT.0000000000000199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791515PMC
July 2020

Experiences of older people with dementia participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program in nursing homes: "While it's tough, it's useful".

PLoS One 2017 17;12(11):e0188225. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

The objective of the study was to describe the views and experiences of participation in a high-intensity functional exercise (HIFE) program among older people with dementia in nursing homes. The study design was a qualitative interview study with 21 participants (15 women), aged 74-96, and with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10-23 at study start. The HIFE-program comprises exercises performed in functional weight-bearing positions and including movements used in everyday tasks. The exercise was individually designed, supervised in small groups in the nursing homes and performed during four months. Interviews were performed directly after exercise sessions and field notes about the sessions were recorded. Qualitative content analysis was used for analyses. The analysis revealed four themes: Exercise is challenging but achievable; Exercise gives pleasure and strength; Exercise evokes body memories; and Togetherness gives comfort, joy, and encouragement. The intense and tailored exercise, adapted to each participant, was perceived as challenging but achievable, and gave pleasure and improvements in mental and bodily strength. Memories of previous physical activities aroused and participants rediscovered bodily capabilities. Importance of individualized and supervised exercise in small groups was emphasized and created feelings of encouragement, safety, and coherence. The findings from the interviews reinforces the positive meaning of intense exercise to older people with moderate to severe dementia in nursing homes. The participants were able to safely adhere to and understand the necessity of the exercise. Providers of exercise should consider the aspects valued by participants, e.g. supervision, individualization, small groups, encouragement, and that exercise involved joy and rediscovery of body competencies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0188225PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693409PMC
December 2017

Cognitive function and walking velocity in people with dementia; a comparison of backward and forward walking.

Gait Posture 2017 10 9;58:481-486. Epub 2017 Sep 9.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address:

How forward and backward walking, both central to everyday life, relate to cognition are relatively unexplored in people with dementia. This study aimed to investigate if forward and backward walking velocity respectively, associated with global cognition and executive function in people with dementia, and whether the association differed according to walking aid use or dementia type. Using a cross-sectional design, 161 participants (77% women), a mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, and mean age of 85.5years and living in nursing homes were included. Self-paced forward walking (FW) and backward walking (BW) velocity over 2.4m was measured. Global cognitive outcome measurements included MMSE and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog). Executive function was measured using Verbal Fluency (VF). In comprehensively adjusted multivariate linear regression analyses, FW was independently associated with VF (p=0.001), but not MMSE (p=0.126) or ADAS-Cog (p=0.818). BW was independently associated with VF (p=0.043) and MMSE (p=0.022), but not ADAS-Cog (p=0.519). Interaction analyses showed that the association between BW velocity and executive function were stronger in participants who walked without a walking aid. No associations differed according to dementia type. In conclusion, executive function appears important to walking velocity, both forward and backward, in people with dementia with mild to moderately severe cognitive impairment. Global cognitive function was associated with backward walking only, perhaps due to it being more challenging. The association between BW velocity and executive function differed according to use of walking aids, which appeared to attenuate the association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.009DOI Listing
October 2017

Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Function in Older People with Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Alzheimers Dis 2017 ;60(1):323-332

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Although physical exercise has been suggested to influence cognitive function, previous exercise studies show inconsistent results in people with dementia.

Objectives: To investigate effects of exercise on cognitive function in people with dementia.

Method: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial, was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden. One hundred-and-forty-one women and 45 men with dementia; mean age of 85 y and mean Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15, were randomized to a High-Intensity Functional Exercise program or a seated attention control activity. Blinded assessors measured global cognitive function using the MMSE and the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale - Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), and executive function using Verbal fluency (VF) at baseline and 4 months (directly after intervention completion), and MMSE and VF at 7 months.

Results: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effects in mean difference from baseline (95% confidence intervals, CI) at 4 months in MMSE (-0.27; 95% CI -1.4 to 0.87, p = 0.644), ADAS-Cog (-1.04, 95% CI -4 to 1.92, p = 0.491), or VF (-0.53, 95% CI -1.42 to 0.35, p = 0.241) or at 7 months in MMSE (-1.15, 95% CI -2.32 to 0.03, p = 0.056) or VF (-0.18, 95% CI -1.09 to 0.74, p = 0.707).

Conclusion: A 4-month, high-intensity functional exercise program had no superior effects on global cognition or executive function in people with dementia living in nursing homes when compared with an attention control activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611799PMC
May 2018

Psychotropic drug use and mortality in old people with dementia: investigating sex differences.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2017 05 25;18(1):36. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Psychotropic drugs are common among old people with dementia, and have been associated with increased mortality. Previous studies have not investigated sex differences in this risk. This study was conducted to analyse associations between the use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, and benzodiazepines and 2-year mortality in old people with dementia, and to investigate sex differences therein.

Methods: In total, 1037 participants (74% women; mean age, 89 years) with dementia were included from four cohort studies and followed for 2 years. Data were collected through home visits and medical records. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse associations between ongoing baseline drug use and mortality. Multiple possible confounders were evaluated and adjusted for.

Results: In fully adjusted models including data from the whole population, no association between baseline psychotropic drug use and increased 2-year mortality was seen. Significant sex differences were found in mortality associated with antidepressant use, which was protective in men, but not in women (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.92 and HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.87-1.38, respectively). The interaction term for sex was significant in analyses of benzodiazepine use, with a higher mortality risk among men than among women.

Conclusions: Among old people with dementia, ongoing psychotropic drug use at baseline was not associated with increased mortality in analyses adjusted for multiple confounders. Sex differences in mortality risk associated with antidepressant and benzodiazepine use were seen, highlighting the need for further investigation of the impact of sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-017-0142-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445267PMC
May 2017

Walking Aids Moderate Exercise Effects on Gait Speed in People With Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2017 Mar 31;18(3):227-233. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of exercise on gait speed, when tested using walking aids and without, and whether effects differed according to amount of support in the test.

Design: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Setting: The Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study was set in 16 nursing homes in Umeå, Sweden.

Participants: One hundred forty-one women and 45 men (mean age 85 years) with dementia, of whom 145 (78%) habitually used walking aids.

Intervention: Participants were randomized to the high-intensity functional exercise program or a seated attention control activity.

Measurements: Blinded assessors measured 4-m usual gait speed with walking aids if any gait speed (GS), and without walking aids and with minimum amount of support, at baseline, 4 months (on intervention completion), and 7 months.

Results: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect in either gait speed test at 4 or 7 months. In interaction analyses exercise effects differed significantly between participants who walked unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. Positive between-group exercise effects on gait speed (m/s) were found in subgroups that walked unsupported at 4 and 7 months (GS: 0.07, P = .009 and 0.13, P < .001; and GS test without walking aids: 0.05, P = .011 and 0.07, P = .029, respectively).

Conclusions: In people with dementia living in nursing homes exercise had positive effects on gait when tested unsupported compared with when walking aids or minimum support was used. The study suggests that the use of walking aids in gait speed tests may conceal exercise effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.09.003DOI Listing
March 2017

Recommendations on Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Taskforce Report.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2016 05 21;17(5):381-92. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Gerontopole of Toulouse, University Hospital of Toulouse (CHU-Toulouse), Toulouse, France; UMR INSERM 1027, University of Toulouse III, Toulouse, France.

A taskforce, under the auspices of The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-Global Aging Research Network (IAGG-GARN) and the IAGG European Region Clinical Section, composed of experts from the fields of exercise science and geriatrics, met in Toulouse, in December 2015, with the aim of establishing recommendations of physical activity and exercise for older adults living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to the high heterogeneity in terms of functional ability and cognitive function that characterizes older adults living in LTCFs, taskforce members established 2 sets of recommendations: recommendations for reducing sedentary behaviors for all LTCF residents and recommendations for defining specific, evidence-based guidelines for exercise training for subgroups of LTCF residents. To promote a successful implementation of recommendations, taskforce experts highlighted the importance of promoting residents' motivation and pleasure, the key factors that can be increased when taking into account residents' desires, preferences, beliefs, and attitudes toward physical activity and exercise. The importance of organizational factors related to LTCFs and health care systems were recognized by the experts. In conclusion, this taskforce report proposes standards for the elaboration of strategies to increase physical activity as well as to prescribe exercise programs for older adults living in LTCFs. This report should be used as a guide for professionals working in LTCF settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2016.01.021DOI Listing
May 2016

Effects of a High-Intensity Functional Exercise Program on Dependence in Activities of Daily Living and Balance in Older Adults with Dementia.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2016 Jan;64(1):55-64

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) and balance in older people with dementia and whether exercise effects differed between dementia types.

Design: Cluster-randomized controlled trial: Umeå Dementia and Exercise (UMDEX) study.

Setting: Residential care facilities, Umeå, Sweden.

Participants: Individuals aged 65 and older with a dementia diagnosis, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 10 or greater, and dependence in ADLs (N=186).

Intervention: Ninety-three participants each were allocated to the high-intensity functional exercise program, comprising lower limb strength and balance exercises, and 93 to a seated control activity.

Measurements: Blinded assessors measured ADL independence using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Barthel Index (BI) and balance using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline and 4 (directly after intervention completion) and 7 months.

Results: Linear mixed models showed no between-group effect on ADL independence at 4 (FIM=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-1.6-4.3; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.2-1.4) or 7 (FIM=0.8, 95% CI=-2.2-3.8; BI=0.6, 95% CI=-0.3-1.4) months. A significant between-group effect on balance favoring exercise was observed at 4 months (BBS=4.2, 95% CI=1.8-6.6). In interaction analyses, exercise effects differed significantly between dementia types. Positive between-group exercise effects were found in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia according to the FIM at 7 months and BI and BBS at 4 and 7 months.

Conclusion: In older people with mild to moderate dementia living in residential care facilities, a 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program appears to slow decline in ADL independence and improve balance, albeit only in participants with non-Alzheimer's dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.13880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4722852PMC
January 2016

Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2016 Aug 7;31(8):868-78. Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia.

Methods: Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high-intensity functional exercise program or a non-exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months.

Results: No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (-1.58, P = 0.001 and -1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (-1.25, P = 0.01 and -1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (-2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (-3.17, P = 0.003 and -3.34, P = 0.002).

Conclusions: A 4-month high-intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non-exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.4401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215547PMC
August 2016

Functional capacity and dependency in transfer and dressing are associated with depressive symptoms in older people.

Clin Interv Aging 2014 4;9:249-56. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden ; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: This study examined associations between depressive symptoms and functional capacity, overall dependency in personal activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency in individual ADL tasks, respectively, in people with a high mean age, large range of functional capacity, and wide spectrum of dependency in ADLs.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from three studies were used. A total of 392 individuals living in community and residential care facilities were included. Mean age was 86.2 years, 72% were women, 75% were dependent in ADLs, 42% had depression, and 39% had dementia. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), functional capacity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and ADLs with the Barthel ADL Index. Multiple linear regression analyses with comprehensive adjustments were performed between GDS-15 and BBS, GDS-15 and Barthel ADL Index, and GDS-15 and each individual ADL task, separately.

Results: GDS-15 score was associated with BBS score (unstandardized b =-0.03, P=0.008), but not with Barthel ADL Index score (unstandardized b =-0.07, P=0.068). No significant interaction effects of sex, dementia, or living conditions were found in these associations. Among individual ADL tasks, dependency in transfer (unstandardized b =-1.03, P=0.007) and dressing (unstandardized b =-0.70, P=0.035) were associated with depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Functional capacity seems to be independently associated with depressive symptoms in older people living in community and residential care facilities, whereas overall ADL performance may not be associated. Dependency in the individual ADL tasks of transfer and dressing appear to be independently associated with depressive symptoms and may be an important focus of future interdisciplinary multifactorial intervention studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S57535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3921096PMC
September 2014

Is a change in functional capacity or dependency in activities of daily living associated with a change in mental health among older people living in residential care facilities?

Clin Interv Aging 2013 25;8:1561-8. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden ; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Aim: Functional capacity and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) could be important mediators for an association between physical exercise and mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL is associated with a change in depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities, and whether dementia can be a moderating factor for this association.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was undertaken. Participants were 206 older people, dependent in ADL, living in residential care facilities, 115 (56%) of whom had diagnosed dementia. Multivariate linear regression, with comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, was used to investigate associations between differences over 3 months in Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) scores, and in BBS and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) scores. Associations were also investigated between differences in Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 scores, and in Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS scores.

Results: There were no significant associations between changes in scores over 3 months; the unstandardized β for associations between BBS and GDS-15 was 0.026 (P=0.31), BBS and PGCMS 0.045 (P=0.14), Barthel ADL Index and GDS-15 0.123 (P=0.06), and Barthel ADL Index and PGCMS -0.013 (P=0.86). There were no interaction effects for dementia.

Conclusion: A change in functional capacity or dependency in ADL does not appear to be associated with a change in depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities. These results may offer one possible explanation as to why studies of physical exercise to influence these aspects of mental health have not shown effects in this group of older people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S53270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843606PMC
August 2014

Usual gait speed independently predicts mortality in very old people: a population-based study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2013 Jul 23;14(7):529.e1-6. Epub 2013 May 23.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: In older people, usual gait speed has been shown to independently predict mortality; however, less is known about whether usual gait speed is as informative in very old populations, in which prevalence of multimorbidity and disability is high. The aim of this study was to investigate if usual gait speed can independently predict all-cause mortality in very old people, and whether the prediction is influenced by dementia disorder, dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), or use of walking aids in the gait speed test.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Population-based study in northern Sweden and Finland (the Umeå 85+/GERDA Study).

Participants: A total of 772 participants with a mean age of 89.6 years, 70% women, 33% with dementia disorders, 54% with ADL dependency, and 39% living in residential care facilities.

Measurements: Usual gait speed assessed over 2.4 meters and mortality followed-up for 5 years.

Results: The mean ± SD gait speed was 0.52 ± 0.21 m/s for the 620 (80%) participants able to complete the gait speed test. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for potential confounders were performed. Compared with the fastest gait speed group (≥ 0.64 m/s), the hazard ratio for mortality was for the following groups: unable = 2.27 (P < .001), ≤ 0.36 m/s = 1.97 (P = .001), 0.37 to 0.49 m/s = 1.99 (P < .001), 0.50 to 0.63 m/s = 1.11 (P = .604). No interaction effects were found between gait speed and age, sex, dementia disorder, dependency in ADLs, or use of walking aids.

Conclusion: Among people aged 85 or older, including people dependent in ADLs and with dementia disorders, usual gait speed was an independent predictor of 5-year all-cause mortality. Inability to complete the gait test or gait speeds slower than 0.5 m/s appears to be associated with higher mortality risk. Gait speed might be a useful clinical indicator of health status among very old people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.04.006DOI Listing
July 2013

Usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version among very old people with and without cognitive impairment.

Aging Ment Health 2013 23;17(5):638-45. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the usefulness of the Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item version (GDS-15) to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with differing levels of cognitive function.

Methods: The 834 participants were aged 85 and over. Feasibility of GDS-15 was evaluated as the proportion of people who completed the scale. Concurrent criterion validity was evaluated by calculating correlations between GDS-15 and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). PGCMS measures psychological wellbeing which is closely related with depressive symptoms. Correlations were calculated within groups according to cognitive function assessed with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-27, and 28-30, using Pearson's two-sided correlation and compared using Fisher r-to-z transformation. Internal consistency of the GDS-15 was evaluated by calculating Cronbach's α in each group.

Results: In total, 651 (78%) of the 834 participants completed the GDS-15. For the two MMSE-groups with scores of <10, the proportion who completed GDS-15 were 1% and 42%, respectively, compared to 65-95% in the MMSE-groups with scores of ≥10. Cronbach's α in each MMSE-group ranged from 0.636 (MMSE 28-30) to 0.821 (MMSE 5-9). The level of correlation between GDS-15 and PGCMS did not significantly differ between MMSE-groups with scores of 5-27 compared to the MMSE-group with scores of 28-30.

Conclusions: The GDS-15 seems to have an overall usefulness to assess depressive symptoms among very old people with an MMSE score of 10 or more. More studies are needed to strengthen the validity of GDS-15 among older people with MMSE scores of 10-14. For older people with MMSE scores lower than 10, there is a need to develop and validate other measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2012.758231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3701937PMC
October 2013

Effect of a high-intensity functional exercise program on functional balance: preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial in residential care facilities.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2011 Jul 30;59(7):1274-82. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Objectives: To evaluate whether age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity influences the effect of a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program on functional balance.

Design: Preplanned subgroup analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Nine residential care facilities.

Participants: One hundred ninety-one people aged 65 to 100 dependent in activities of daily living and with Mini-Mental State Examination scores of 10 or greater.

Intervention: A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program or a control activity, each comprising 29 sessions over 3 months.

Measurements: Functional balance capacity was assessed blindly using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The BBS consists of 14 tasks, common in everyday life, such as standing up from sitting and, while standing, reaching forward or turning 360°. Interactions between allocation to activity group and each subgroup were evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle.

Results: The subgroup analyses revealed no statistically significant interaction for age, sex, depression, dementia disorder, nutritional status, or level of functional balance capacity at 3 (P=.65, .65, .51, .78, .09, .67, respectively) or 6 (P=.69, .62, .20, .94, .48, .85, respectively) months. In addition, at 3 and 6 months there was no significant interaction for cognitive level (P=.28, .47, respectively) or number of depressive symptoms (P=.85, .49, respectively).

Conclusion: Older age, female sex, depression, mild to moderate dementia syndrome, malnutrition, and severe physical impairment do not seem to have a negative effect on functional balance from a high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program. Consequently, people with these characteristics in residential care facilities should not be excluded from offers of rehabilitation including high-intensity exercises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03484.xDOI Listing
July 2011

Applicability and effects of physical exercise on physical and cognitive functions and activities of daily living among people with dementia: a systematic review.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2011 Jun;90(6):495-518

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.

Objective: : The aim of this study was to systematically review the applicability (attendance, achieved intensity, adverse events) and effects of physical exercise on physical functions, cognitive functions, and activities of daily living among people with dementia.

Design: : Randomized controlled trials were identified in PubMed, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, and the Cochrane Library on August 30 and September 1, 2010, according to predefined inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted predetermined data and assessed methodologic quality.

Results: : A qualitative analysis was performed, including ten studies. Most participants were people with Alzheimer disease in residential care facilities. Four studies reached "moderate" methodologic quality, and six reached "low." The studies of moderate quality evaluated the effects of combined functional weight-bearing exercise, combined functional and nonfunctional exercise, and walking exercise.

Conclusions: : Among older people with Alzheimer disease in residential care facilities, combined functional weight-bearing exercise seems applicable for use regarding attendance and adverse events, and there is some evidence that exercise improves walking performance and reduces the decline in activities of daily living. Furthermore, there is some evidence that walking exercise performed individually reduces decline in walking performance, but adverse events need to be evaluated. Among older people with various types of dementia disorders who are staying in a hospital, there is some evidence that combined functional and nonfunctional exercise over 2 wks has no effect on mobility. It seems important that the interventions last for at least a few months and that the exercises are task-specific and are intended to challenge the individual's physical capacity. Among older people with unspecified dementia disorders in residential care facilities, there is some evidence that walking exercise performed at a self-selected speed has no effect on cognitive functions. Whether physical exercise can improve cognitive functions among people with dementia remains unclear because studies evaluating this have either been of low methodologic quality or used an intervention of presumably insufficient intensity. There is a need for more studies of high methodologic quality, especially among people with dementia disorders other than Alzheimer disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PHM.0b013e318214de26DOI Listing
June 2011

Effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people living in residential care facilities: A cluster-randomized controlled trial.

Aging Ment Health 2010 Jul;14(5):565-76

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of a high-intensity functional exercise programme on depressive symptoms and psychological well-being among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) and living in residential care facilities.

Method: Cluster-randomized controlled study. Participants were 191 older people, aged 65-100, dependent in ADL and with Mini Mental State Examination scores between 10 and 30. One-hundred (52%) of the participants had a diagnosed dementia disorder. A high-intensity functional weight-bearing exercise programme and a control activity were performed in groups. Sessions were held five times over each two week period for three months, a total of 29 times. The outcome measures, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) were blindly assessed at baseline, three and six months.

Results: At baseline, mean +/- SD (range) for GDS was 4.4 +/- 3.2 (0-14), and for PGCMS 11.0 +/- 3.5 (2-17). There were no significant differences in GDS or PGCMS between the exercise and the control group at the three and six month follow-ups in the total sample. Among people with dementia, there was a between-group difference at three months in PGCMS scores in favour of the exercise group.

Conclusion: A high-intensity functional exercise programme seems generally not to influence depressive symptoms or psychological well-being among older people dependent in ADL and living in residential care facilities. An individualized and multifactorial intervention may be needed in this group. However, an exercise programme as a single intervention may have a short-term effect on well-being among people with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860903483078DOI Listing
July 2010