Publications by authors named "Erik Loewen Friesen"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The impact of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment discontinuation among individuals receiving medications for opioid use disorder.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 11 22;216:108244. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Institute of Health Policy Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; Centre for Addiction & Mental Health, Toronto, Canada; ICES, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Psychiatric illness complicates the clinical course of opioid use disorder (OUD) including treatment using medication for OUD (MOUD). The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between psychiatric comorbidity and MOUD discontinuation, stratified by whether the client dropped out of treatment or whether MOUD was terminated by the addiction facility.

Methods: The study population consisted of individuals with OUD receiving MOUD. Data was derived from the 2015-2017 Treatment Episodes Dataset - Discharges (TEDS-D), which includes discharge records from addiction treatment centers across the United States. The association between psychiatric comorbidity and MOUD discontinuation (including client dropout and facility termination) was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models that included clinically relevant covariates (age, sex, race, education, employment status, living arrangement, prior addiction treatment, intravenous opioid use, primary opioid used at admission, polysubstance use, previous arrests, length of stay, and referral source).

Results: Psychiatric comorbidity decreased the odds of client dropout (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.88, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.86 - 0.89) but increased the odds of MOUD being terminated by the treatment facility (aOR: 1.59, 95 % CI: 1.56-1.63). The association between psychiatric comorbidity and MOUD discontinuation varied considerably between states.

Conclusions: Individuals with psychiatric illness are slightly less likely to drop out of MOUD treatment but are more likely to have their treatment prematurely terminated by the treatment facility. This emphasizes the importance of considering psychiatric illness when providing OUD treatment and suggests that measures to improve MOUD retention for individuals with psychiatric illness are required.
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November 2020

Alcohol use and alcohol-related harm in rural and remote communities: protocol for a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2020 08 16;10(8):e036753. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Institute of Health Policy, Management & Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Alcohol-related harm is a major public health concern and appears to be particularly problematic in rural and remote communities. Evidence from several countries has shown that the prevalence of harmful alcohol use and alcohol-attributable hospitalisations and emergency department visits are higher in rural and remote communities than in urban centres. The extents of this rural-urban disparity in alcohol-related harm as well as the factors that mediate it are poorly understood. The objective of this scoping review is to synthesise the international research on the factors that influence the prevalence or risk of alcohol-related harm in rural and remote communities. This will help to clarify the conceptual landscape of rural and remote alcohol research and identify the gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed.

Methods And Analysis: This scoping review will access published literature through search strategies developed for Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and Sociological Abstracts. There will be no date, country or language restrictions placed on the search. Title and abstract, followed by full-text screening, will be conducted by two independent reviewers to evaluate all identified articles against a set of prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from selected articles will be extracted and compiled into a final manuscript that adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist guidelines.

Ethics And Dissemination: The results of this review will be helpful in guiding future research on rural and remote alcohol use and alcohol-related harm, which will inform more effective, evidence-based public health strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm in rural and remote communities. The results will be disseminated via field-specific conference presentations and peer-reviewed publication.
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August 2020

Utility of the INTERMACS profile at the time of assessment for heart transplant.

Clin Transplant 2020 03 17;34(3):e13796. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Ted Rogers Centre for Heart Research, Multi-Organ Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) profiles are associated with mortality in heart failure patients undergoing ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation and heart transplantation (HTx). We assessed the prognostic value of the INTERMACS profile at the time of assessment for HTx or durable VAD implantation as bridge to candidacy (BTC). A total of 503 consecutive patients considered for HTx or VAD between 2006 and 2016 were included. The associations between INTERMACS profile and (a) waitlist mortality or delisting, (b) probability of HTx, and (c) overall mortality or delisting were evaluated using multivariable analysis. Median follow-up time was 2.9 years (IQR: 0.9-5.5) during which 184 received VAD, 347 received HTx, and 73 died (27 waitlist, 46 post-transplant). INTERMACS I-II profile was associated with higher waitlist mortality or delisting (HR: 3.83, 95% CI: 1.22-12.03), and this risk was reversed by VAD implantation (HR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.03-0.50). INTERMACS III-IV profile was associated with a higher probability of HTx (HR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.37-2.40). INTERMACS profile was not associated with the composite outcome of overall mortality or delisting. These results emphasize the prognostic utility of INTERMACS at time of decision for advanced therapies and its potential value in selecting patients for different interventions.
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March 2020

Risk Factors for 1-Year Graft Loss After Kidney Transplantation: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2019 11 20;14(11):1642-1650. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact and.

Background And Objectives: With expansion of the pool of kidney grafts, through the use of higher-risk donors, and increased attention to donor management strategies, the 1-year graft survival rate is subject to change. It is, therefore, useful to elucidate 1-year graft survival rates by dissecting the characteristics of the low-risk and high-risk kidney transplant cases. The objective of our study was to evaluate factors purported to influence the risk of 1-year graft loss in kidney transplant recipients.

Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements: We searched bibliographic databases from 2000 to 2017 and included observational studies that measured the association between donor, recipient, the transplant operation, or early postoperative complications, and 1-year death-censored graft loss.

Results: We identified 35 eligible primary studies, with 20 risk factors amenable to meta-analysis. Six factors were associated with graft loss, with moderate to high degree of certainty: donor age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 per 10-year increase; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04 to 1.18), extended criteria donors (HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.42), deceased donors (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.82), number of HLA mismatches (HR, 1.08 per one mismatch increase; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.09), recipient age (HR, 1.17 per 10-year increase; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.25), and delayed graft function (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.46 to 2.47) as risk factors for 1-year graft loss. Pooled analyses also excluded, with a high degree of certainty, any associations of cold ischemia time, recipient race, pretransplant body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension with 1-year graft loss.

Conclusions: Recipient age, donor age, standard versus extended criteria donor, living versus deceased donor, HLA mismatch, and delayed graft function all predicted 1-year graft survival. The effect of each risk factor is small.
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November 2019