Publications by authors named "Erica L Twitchell"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enhanced GII.4 human norovirus infection in gnotobiotic pigs transplanted with a human gut microbiota.

J Gen Virol 2019 11;100(11):1530-1540

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

The role of commensal microbiota in enteric viral infections has been explored extensively, but the interaction between human gut microbiota (HGM) and human norovirus (HuNoV) is poorly understood. In this study, we established an HGM-Transplanted gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of HuNoV infection and disease, using an infant stool as HGM transplant and a HuNoV GII.4/2006b strain for virus inoculation. Compared to germ-free Gn pigs, HuNoV inoculation in HGMT Gn pigs resulted in increased HuNoV shedding, characterized by significantly higher shedding titres on post inoculation day (PID) 3, 4, 6, 8 and 9, and significantly longer mean duration of virus shedding. In addition, virus titres were significantly higher in duodenum and distal ileum of HGMT Gn pigs on PID10, while comparable and transient HuNoV viremia was detected in both groups. 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that HuNoV infection dramatically altered intestinal microbiota in HGMT Gn pigs at the phylum (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes) and genus (, , , , , and ) levels. In summary, enhanced GII.4 HuNoV infection was observed in the presence of HGM, and host microbiota was susceptible to disruption upon HuNoV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137776PMC
November 2019

Effects of Racecadotril on Weight Loss and Diarrhea Due to Human Rotavirus in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs ().

Comp Med 2017 Mar;67(2):157-164

Departments of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Blacksburg, Virginia;, Email:

Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in children younger than 5 y, and the most common cause of acute watery diarrhea in young children worldwide is rotaviral infection. Medicines to specifically reduce diarrhea would be a desirable adjunctive treatment to supportive fluid therapy to decrease the mortality rate of diarrheal diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of an antisecretory drug, racecadotril, in treating human rotavirus (HRV)-induced diarrhea in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. In total, 27 gnotobiotic pigs were randomly assigned (n = 9 per group) to receive either racecadotril, chlorpromazine (positive-control drug), or PBS (mock treatment) after inoculation with HRV. Pigs were weighed daily and rectal swabs were collected to determine fecal consistency scores and virus shedding. Rotaviral infection was confirmed by ELISA and cell culture immunofluorescence. Overall, the racecadotril-treated pigs had less severe illness than either the chlorpromazine- or mock-treated groups; this conclusion was supported by the lower fecal-consistency scores, shorter duration of diarrhea, and significant gain in body weight during the course of the study of the racecadotril-treated pigs. Through its influence on decreasing intestinal hypersecretion, racecadotril was better able to control the clinical signs of rotaviral infection in the gnotobiotic pigs. These results lend support for using racecadotril as a treatment for rotaviral diarrhea.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5402735PMC
March 2017

Modeling human enteric dysbiosis and rotavirus immunity in gnotobiotic pigs.

Gut Pathog 2016 8;8:51. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA USA.

Background: Rotavirus vaccines have poor efficacy in infants from low- and middle-income countries. Gut microbiota is thought to influence the immune response to oral vaccines. Thus, we developed a gnotobiotic (Gn) pig model of enteric dysbiosis to study the effects of human gut microbiota (HGM) on immune responses to rotavirus vaccination, and the effects of rotavirus challenge on the HGM by colonizing Gn pigs with healthy HGM (HHGM) or unhealthy HGM (UHGM). The UHGM was from a Nicaraguan infant with a high enteropathy score (ES) and no seroconversion following administration of oral rotavirus vaccine, while the converse was characteristic of the HHGM. Pigs were vaccinated, a subset was challenged, and immune responses and gut microbiota were evaluated.

Results: Significantly more rotavirus-specific IFN-γ producing T cells were in the ileum, spleen, and blood of HHGM than those in UHGM pigs after three vaccine doses, suggesting HHGM induces stronger cell-mediated immunity than UHGM. There were significant correlations between multiple Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and frequencies of IFN-γ producing T cells at the time of challenge. There were significant positive correlations between and CD8+ T cells in blood and ileum, as well as CD4+ T cells in blood, whereas significant negative correlations between and , and ileal CD8+ and CD4+ T cells. Differences in alpha diversity and relative abundances of OTUs were detected between the groups both before and after rotavirus challenge.

Conclusion: Alterations in microbiome diversity and composition along with correlations between certain microbial taxa and T cell responses warrant further investigation into the role of the gut microbiota and certain microbial species on enteric immunity. Our results support the use of HGM transplanted Gn pigs as a model of human dysbiosis during enteric infection, and oral vaccine responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-016-0136-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100090PMC
November 2016

The authors respond.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 Oct;245(7):753

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October 2014

Pathology in practice. Coronary band dystrophy with proliferative pododermatitis.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 Aug;245(4):385-7

Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.245.4.385DOI Listing
August 2014

Pathology in practice. Necrotizing fasciitis, osteomyelitis, and streptococcal septicemia in a dog.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 Jun;244(12):1389-91

Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory and Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.244.12.1389DOI Listing
June 2014

Systemic iridovirus infection in the Banggai cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni Koumans 1933).

J Vet Diagn Invest 2009 May;21(3):306-20

New England Aquarium, Boston, MA, USA.

Iridoviruses infect food and ornamental fish species from a wide range of freshwater to marine habitats across the globe. The objective of the current study was to characterize an iridovirus causing systemic infection of wild-caught Pterapogon kauderni Koumans 1933 (Banggai cardinalfish). Freshly frozen and fixed specimens were processed for histopathologic evaluation, transmission electron microscopic examination, virus culture, molecular virologic testing, microbiology, and in situ hybridization (ISH) using riboprobes. Basophilic granular cytoplasmic inclusions were identified in cytomegalic cells often found beneath endothelium, and hexagonal virus particles typical of iridovirus were identified in the cytoplasm of enlarged cells by transmission electron microscopy. Attempts at virus isolation in cell culture were unsuccessful; however, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular testing resulted in amplification and sequencing of regions of the DNA polymerase and major capsid protein genes, along with the full-length ATPase gene of the putative iridovirus. Virus gene sequences were then used to infer phylogenetic relationships of the P. kauderni agent to other known systemic iridoviruses from fishes. Riboprobes, which were transcribed from a cloned PCR amplification product from the viral genome generated hybridization signals from inclusions within cytomegalic cells in histologic sections tested in ISH experiments. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a systemic iridovirus from P. kauderni. The pathologic changes induced and the genomic sequence data confirm placement of the Banggai cardinalfish iridovirus in the genus Megalocytivirus family Iridoviridae. The ISH provides an additional molecular diagnostic technique for confirmation of presumptive infections detected in histologic sections from infected fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104063870902100302DOI Listing
May 2009
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