Publications by authors named "Erica J Chang"

16 Publications

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Intraoperative tumor spill during minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer: A survey study on experience and practice.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Dec 16;267:256-261. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Tumor spill during surgical treatment is associated with adverse oncologic outcomes in many solid tumors. However, in minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer, intraoperative tumor spill has not been well studied. This study examined surgeon experiences and practices related to intraoperative tumor spill during minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to the Society of Gynecologic Oncology. Participants were 220 U.S. gynecologic oncologists practicing minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Interventions were 20 questions regarding surgeon demographics, surgical practice patterns (fallopian tubal ablation/ligation, intra-uterine manipulator use, and colpotomy approach), and tumor spill experience (uterine perforation with intra-uterine manipulator and tumor exposure during colpotomy).

Results: Nearly half of the responding surgeons completed subspeciality training >10 years ago (50.5%), and 74.1% had annual surgical volume of >40 cases. The majority of surgeons used an intra-uterine manipulator during minimally invasive hysterectomies for endometrial cancer (90.1%), and 87.2% of the users have experienced uterine perforation with an intra-uterine manipulator. Almost all surgeons performed colpotomy laparoscopically (95.9%), and nearly 60% had experienced tumor spill while making colpotomy (59.8%). Nearly 10-15% of surgeons have changed their postoperative therapy as a result of intraoperative uterine perforation (11.8%) or tumor spill (14.5%). Surgeons infrequently ablated or ligated fallopian tubes prior to performing the hysterectomy (14.1%).

Conclusion: Our survey study suggests that many surgeons experienced intraoperative tumor spillage during minimally invasive hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. These findings warrant further studies examining its incidence and impact on clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.11.020DOI Listing
December 2021

Minimally Invasive Surgery and Surgical Volume-Specific Survival and Perioperative Outcome: Unmet Need for Evidence in Gynecologic Malignancy.

J Clin Med 2021 Oct 19;10(20). Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

This study examined the effect of hospital surgical volume on oncologic outcomes in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for gynecologic malignancies. The objectives were to assess survival outcomes related to hospital surgical volume and to evaluate perioperative outcomes and examine non-gynecologic malignancies. Literature available from the PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically reviewed. All surgical procedures including gynecologic surgery with hospital surgical volume information were eligible for analysis. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria, and nine gastro-intestinal studies, seven genitourinary studies, four gynecological studies, two hepatobiliary studies, and one thoracic study were reviewed. Of those, 11 showed a positive volume-outcome association for perioperative outcomes. A study on MIS for ovarian cancer reported lower surgical morbidity in high-volume centers. Two studies were on endometrial cancer, of which one showed lower treatment costs in high-volume centers and the other showed no association with perioperative morbidity. Another study examined robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and found no volume-outcome association for surgical morbidity. There were no gynecologic studies examining the association between hospital surgical volume and oncologic outcomes in MIS. The volume-outcome association for oncologic outcome in gynecologic MIS is understudied. This lack of evidence calls for further studies to address this knowledge gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10204787DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8537091PMC
October 2021

Recent changes in demographics and outcomes of cervical cancer in the United States.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 07;304(1):1-3

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, 2020 Zonal Avenue, IRD 520, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06092-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Risk of Upper-body Adverse Events in Robot-assisted Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Disease.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 09 24;28(9):1585-1594.e1. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Drs. Matsuo, Mandelbaum, Chang, Matsuzaki, and Roman), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (Drs. Matsuo and Roman), Los Angeles, California.

Study Objective: Recent studies suggest that prolonged Trendelenburg positioning during robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (RA-TLH) may lead to fluid shifts and pulmonary, airway, head and neck, and cranial complications in the upper body. This study examined the upper-body complications during RA-TLH for benign gynecologic disease.

Design: Population-based retrospective study.

Setting: The National Inpatient Sample.

Patients: A total of 771 412 women who had total hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease from October 2008 to September 2015, including 661 284 women who had total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), 51 544 women who had traditional TLH, and 58 584 women who had RA-TLH.

Interventions: A multiple-group generalized boosted model to balance the measured baseline covariates across the 3 hysterectomy groups and a generalized estimating equation model to assess the effect size of complication risk (overall and upper-body complications).

Measurements And Main Results: Women in the RA-TLH group were more likely to be older, white, and have a higher comorbidity index (all, p <.001). The overall rate of upper-body complications was 4.6% across the 3 groups. RA-TLH was not associated with increased risk of upper-body complications compared with traditional TLH (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-1.26) or TAH (OR 0.98; 95% CI, 0.87-1.11). In contrast, RA-TLH was associated with decreased risk of overall perioperative complications compared with TAH (12.0% vs 18.6%; OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.59-0.70; p <.001). RA-TLH and traditional TLH had similar risk of overall perioperative complications (12.0% vs 13.1%; OR 0.91; 95% CI, 0.8-1.02; p = .099). Women who developed upper-body complications had a higher perioperative mortality rate (0.4% vs <0.01%; OR 79.1; 95% CI, 36.0-174). The highest rates of complications (62.5%) were observed in morbidly obese women aged 70-79 with a comorbidity index of ≥4.

Conclusion: In hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease, RA-TLH was not associated with an increased risk of upper-body complications compared with TAH or traditional TLH. However, older age and higher comorbidity are key risk factors that increase the risk of upper-body complications which carry a disproportionally high mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.01.017DOI Listing
September 2021

Laparoscopic pelvic exenteration and laterally extended endopelvic resection for postradiation recurrent cervical carcinoma: Technical feasibility and short-term oncologic outcome.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 04 8;161(1):34-38. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.

Objective: Surgery is the only treatment for cervical cancer recurrence in a previously irradiated field. Pelvic exenteration (PE) and laterally extended endopelvic resection (LEER) are indicated for select patients; however, morbidity and mortality rates remain high, and new treatment modalities are required. Laparoscopy optimizes visualization and allows meticulous dissection while also reducing intraoperative blood loss and postoperative complications without worsening the outcomes. We aimed to clarify the feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic PE and LEER for previously irradiated recurrent cervical cancer.

Methods: We prospectively investigated the outcomes of laparoscopic PE and LEER in 28 patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma after radiotherapy.

Results: Seventeen laparoscopic PEs for central recurrences and 11 laparoscopic LEERs for lateral recurrences were performed. The median operation time and blood loss were 454mins and 285 mL in the PE group, and 562mins and 325 mL in the LEER group, respectively, with no conversions to laparotomy. R0 resection was achieved in all patients in the PE group and 73% in the LEER group. The morbidity and mortality rates were 41% and 0% in PE group, and 55% and 0% in LEER group, respectively. The 2-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 68.9% and 76% in the PE group, and 27.3% and 29.6% in the LEER group, respectively.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic PE is feasible for previously irradiated central recurrent cervical cancer and has acceptable outcomes. Laparoscopic LEER is also feasible for lateral recurrence, but oncologic outcome may be modest in this limited preliminary study. Further studies using a larger sample size with a longer follow-up period is warranted to determine the indications for laparoscopic LEER.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.12.034DOI Listing
April 2021

Surgical and oncologic outcomes of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for uterine leiomyosarcoma: A systematic review of literature.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 04 6;161(1):70-77. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the perioperative and survival outcomes in women with disseminated peritoneal uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) who underwent cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).

Methods: A comprehensive systematic review of literature was conducted using multiple public search engines, PubMed, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library, in compliance with the PRISMA guidelines. Women with disseminated peritoneal uLMS treated with CRS-HIPEC were analyzed. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rate as well as oncologic outcomes related to CRS-HIPEC were assessed.

Results: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria from 2004 to 2020, including 8 case series (n=28) and 2 original articles (n=47). Of the 75 patients, 68 (90.7%) were women with uLMS whereas 7 women were non-uLMS. Of these, 64 (85.3%) had recurrent disease, and 39 (52.0%) received chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to CRS-HIPEC. The perioperative mortality rate was 4.0% (intraoperative 1.3%, and postoperative 2.7%), and postoperative complications (grade ≥3) rate ranged 21.4-22.2%. With regard to HIPEC regimens (n=75), cisplatin was most frequently used (n=55, 73.3%) followed by melphalan (n=17, 22.7%) and others (n=3, 4.0%). Among the two observational studies, the median overall survival after CRS-HIPEC treatment was 29.5-37 months. In one limited comparative effectiveness study (n=13), albeit statistically non-significant CRS-HIPEC was associated with higher progression-free survival versus CRS alone (3-year rates, 71.4% versus 0%, P=0.10). When the HIPEC regimens were compared, melphalan use was associated with decreased uLMS-related mortality compared to a cisplatin-based regimen, but the association was not statistically significant (hazard ratio 0.35, 95% confidence interval 0.04-3.05, P=0.35).

Conclusion: Effectiveness of CRS-HIPEC for disseminated peritoneal uLMS is yet to be determined. As interpretation of the available data on survival is limited due to small sample sizes or the lack of an active comparator, further study is warranted to examine the safety and survival effect of CRS-HIPEC in disseminated peritoneal uLMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.12.032DOI Listing
April 2021

Utilization and perioperative outcome of minimally invasive pelvic exenteration in gynecologic malignancies: A national study in the United States.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 04 3;161(1):39-45. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To examine characteristics and short-term perioperative outcomes related to minimally invasive pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancy.

Methods: This comparative effectiveness study is a retrospective population-based analysis of the National Inpatient Sample from 10/2008-9/2015. Women with cervical, uterine, vaginal, and vulvar malignancies who underwent pelvic exenteration were evaluated based on the use of laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery. Patient demographics and intraoperative/postoperative complications related to a minimally invasive surgical approach were assessed.

Results: Among 1376 women who underwent pelvic exenteration, 49 (3.6%) had the procedure performed via a minimally invasive approach. The majority of minimally invasive cases were robotic-assisted (51.0%). Women in the minimally invasive group were more likely to be old, white, have cervical/uterine cancers, and receive urinary diversion, but less frequently received vaginal reconstruction or colostomy when compared to those in the open surgery group (P < 0.05). Overall perioperative complication rates were similar between the minimally invasive and open surgery groups (79.6% versus 77.7%, P = 0.862), but the minimally invasive group had a decreased risk of high-risk complications compared to the open surgery group (adjusted-odds ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.07-0.51). Specifically, a minimally invasive approach was associated with decreased incidence of sepsis and thromboembolism compared to an open approach (P < 0.05). The minimally invasive group had a shorter length of stay (median, 9 versus 14 days) and lower total charge (median, $127,875 versus $208,591) compared to the open surgery group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Laparotomy remains the main surgical approach for pelvic exenteration for gynecologic malignancy and minimally invasive surgery was infrequently utilized during the study period in the United States. Before widely adopting this surgical approach, the utility and role of minimally invasive pelvic exenteration requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.12.036DOI Listing
April 2021

Survival effect of intra-operative tumor spillage during minimally invasive hysterectomy for early-stage endometrial cancer: a call for research.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 02 16;31(2):308-309. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-002289DOI Listing
February 2021

Significance of Malignant Peritoneal Cytology on Survival of Women with Uterine Sarcoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 15;28(3):1740-1748. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: This study was designed to examine the association between malignant peritoneal cytology and survival of women with uterine sarcoma.

Methods: This retrospective, observational study queried the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program. Uterine sarcoma cases diagnosed from 2010 to 2016 with known peritoneal cytology results were examined. Propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting was fitted to balance the measured covariates. Overall survival (OS) was compared between malignant and negative cytology cases.

Results: A total of 1481 uterine sarcomas were examined. Malignant peritoneal cytology was seen in 146 (9.9%) cases. Women who had T3 disease and distant metastases had the highest incidence of malignant peritoneal cytology (43.1%). In multivariable analysis, higher T stage, nodal involvement, distant metastasis, poorer tumor differentiation, and rhabdomyosarcoma/endometrial stromal sarcoma were significantly associated with an increased risk of malignant peritoneal cytology (all, P < 0.05). In the weighted model, malignant peritoneal cytology was associated with a nearly twofold increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with negative peritoneal cytology (3-year OS rate 34.7% versus 60.2%; hazard ratio 2.26; 95% confidence interval 1.88-2.71; P < 0.001). The absolute difference in the 3-year survival rate was particularly large in leiomyosarcoma (3-year OS rate 2.8% versus 51.9%; hazard ratio 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.94-3.59; P < 0.001). Malignant peritoneal cytology was also associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk in early and advanced stages (both, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our study suggests that malignant peritoneal cytology may be a prognostic factor for increased mortality in uterine sarcoma, particularly in uterine leiomyosarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09202-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Malignant peritoneal cytology and increased mortality risk in stage I non-endometrioid endometrial cancer.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 10 18;159(1):43-51. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objective: To examine the survival of women with stage I non-endometrioid endometrial cancer with malignant peritoneal cytology.

Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to examine the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 2010 to 2016. Women with stage I serous, clear cell, carcinosarcoma, undifferentiated, and mixed endometrial cancer with known peritoneal cytology results at hysterectomy were examined (N = 4506). Propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance the measured covariates, and survival outcomes were assessed according to peritoneal cytology results.

Results: Malignant peritoneal cytology was reported in 401 (8.9%) women. In multivariable analysis, older age, serous histology, and large tumors were associated with an increased likelihood of malignant peritoneal cytology (all, P < 0.05). In a propensity score weighted model, malignant peritoneal cytology was associated with a nearly two-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk compared to negative peritoneal cytology (5-year rates, 63.4% versus 80.2%, hazard ratio 2.18, 95% confidence interval 1.78-2.66). In sensitivity analyses, malignant peritoneal cytology was associated with decreased overall survival in old and young age groups, serous, clear cell, carcinosarcoma, and mixed histology groups, stage T1a disease, and staged and unstaged cases, but not for stage T1b disease. Difference in 5-year overall survival rates between the malignant and negative peritoneal cytology groups was particularly large among those with clear cell histology (24.0%), stage T1a disease (19.4%), aged >78 years (18.2%), and serous tumors (17.6%).

Conclusion: Malignant peritoneal cytology can be prevalent in stage I non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Our study suggests that malignant peritoneal cytology is a prognostic factor for decreased survival in stage I non-endometrioid endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.07.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751572PMC
October 2020

Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy for early-stage cervical cancer: Volume-outcome relationship in the early experience period.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 08 27;158(2):390-396. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: Minimally invasive radical hysterectomy (MIS-RH) for early-stage cervical cancer is a relatively new surgical procedure with increased utilization in the mid-/late-2000s. This study examined the association between hospital surgical volume for MIS-RH and perioperative outcomes for early-stage cervical cancer in the period of early adoption.

Methods: This population-based retrospective study queried the National Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2011. Cervical cancer cases treated with MIS-RH were examined (n = 2202 from 163 hospitals). Annualized hospital surgical volume was defined as the average number of procedures performed per year in which at least one case was performed. Characteristics and outcomes related to MIS-RH use were assessed. The comparator cohort included RH by laparotomy (Open-RH; n = 11,187 from 405 hospitals).

Results: Among MIS-RH-offering centers, 42.3% had average 1 case/year and surgical volume of >4 cases/year represented the top decile. When stratified by MIS-RH types, on average 31.3 centers performed robotic-assisted approach per year versus 11.5 centers for the traditional approach. Small bed capacity centers were most likely to perform robotic-assisted RH (adjusted-odds ratio 4.07, P < 0.001). In the traditional MIS-RH group, higher hospital surgical volume was associated with lower surgical morbidity (P = 0.025) whereas in the robotic-assisted approach higher hospital surgical volume was associated with higher surgical morbidity (P < 0.001). In the Open-RH cohort, higher hospital surgical volume was significantly associated with decreased surgical morbidity and mortality (both, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: In the mid-/late-2000s, MIS-RH surgical volume was modest in the United States. Small bed capacity centers adopted robotic-assisted MIS-RH more frequently, and there was a statistically significant association of increased perioperative complications among higher volume centers. In contrast, higher surgical volume was associated with improved perioperative outcomes with the traditional MIS-RH and open-RH approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526860PMC
August 2020

Minimally invasive surgery for early-stage ovarian cancer: Association between hospital surgical volume and short-term perioperative outcomes.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 07 10;158(1):59-65. Epub 2020 May 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To examine trends and associated characteristics and outcomes of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for women with early-stage ovarian cancer.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample was queried to examine early-stage ovarian cancer treated with MIS from 2001 to 2011. Annualized hospital surgical volume was defined in the unweighted model as the average number of procedures performed per year in which at least one case was performed. Trends, characteristics, and outcomes related to MIS use were assessed in the weighted model.

Results: Among 73,707 oophorectomy cases, there were 4822 (6.5%) MIS cases. Utilization of MIS increased from 3.9% to 13.5% from 2001 to 2011 (3.5-fold increase, P < 0.001), and the number of MIS-offering centers also increased from 10.6% to 36.2% (3.4-fold increase, P < 0.001). MIS was associated with a decreased complication rate (20.3% versus 35.4%) and shorter hospital stay (median, 2 versus 4 days) compared to laparotomy (both, P < 0.001). Of the 472 hospitals at which MIS was performed, the majority were minimum-volume with one MIS oophorectomy per year (340 [72.0%], n = 1929 [40.0%]), followed by mid-volume (85 [18.0%], n = 1272 [26.4%]) and topdecile-volume (47 [10.0%] hospitals, n = 1621 [33.6%]). The topdecile-volume group had the highest rate of lymphadenectomy compared to other groups (62.2% versus 39.2-55.1%, P < 0.05). On multivariable analysis, a one increment increase in annualized hospital surgical volume was associated with an 11% decrease in multiple complications (adjusted-odds ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.97, P = 0.006).

Conclusion: Utilization of MIS for early-stage ovarian cancer has significantly increased in the United States in 2000s. In 2011, one in eight surgeries performed for early ovarian cancer were performed via MIS. MIS procedures performed at hospitals with a higher surgical volume may be associated with improved short-term perioperative outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2020.04.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526044PMC
July 2020

Vesicoureteral Injury during Benign Hysterectomy: Minimally Invasive Laparoscopic Surgery versus Laparotomy.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2020 Sep - Oct;27(6):1354-1362. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Divisions of Gynecologic Oncology (Drs. Chang, Mandelbaum, Matsuzaki, Roman, and Matsuo, Mr. Nusbaum, and Ms. Violette); Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center (Drs. Roman and Matsuo), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Study Objective: The findings of previous studies have been inconsistent as to whether benign hysterectomy via minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery increases the risk of vesicoureteral injury when compared with laparotomy. The objectives of our study were to (1) examine the rate of vesicoureteral injury on benign hysterectomy by the surgical approach and (2) compare the risk of vesicoureteral injury specifically between minimally invasive laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy on a populational level.

Design: Retrospective population-based observational study.

Setting: The National Inpatient Sample.

Patients: A total of 501 110 women who had undergone hysterectomy for benign gynecologic disease between January 2012 and September 2015 were included as follows: total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH, n = 284 365 [56.7%]), total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH, n = 60 410 [12.1%]), abdominal supracervical hysterectomy (Abd-SCH, n = 55 655 [11.1%]), laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH, n = 45 620 [9.1%]), total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH, n = 34 865 [7.0%]), and laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy (LSC-SCH, n = 20 195 [4.0%]).

Interventions: A comprehensive risk assessment for vesicoureteral injury by hysterectomy mode was performed, adjusting for patient demographics and gynecologic disease types. Propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighing was used to compare (1) TLH versus TAH and (2) LSC-SCH versus Abd-SCH with generalized estimating equations. In a sensitivity analysis, gynecologic disease-specific injury risk and vaginal route-specific injury risk (LAVH vs TVH) were assessed.

Measurements And Main Results: Vesicoureteral injury was reported in 1045 (0.21%) women overall. LAVH (0.28%) had the highest bladder injury rate, whereas LSC-SCH had the lowest (0.10%) (p <.001). TLH (0.13%) had the highest ureteral injury rate, whereas TAH had the lowest (0.04%) (p <.001). In propensity score inverse probability of treatment weighing models, compared with TAH, TLH was associated with an increased risk of ureteral injury (odds ratio [OR] 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03-7.67, p <.001) but not bladder injury (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.57-1.90, p = .897). Risk of ureteral injury was particularly high when TLH was performed for endometriosis (OR 6.15, 95% CI 1.18-31.9, p = .031) or for uterine myoma (OR 4.15, 95% CI 2.13-8.11, p <.001). In contrast, for supracervical or vaginal hysterectomy, minimally invasive laparoscopic approaches were not associated with an increased risk of vesicoureteral injury (LSC-SCH vs Abd-SCH: OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.19-1.98, p = .419; LAVH vs TVH: OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.63-2.33, p = .564).

Conclusion: The risk of vesicoureteral injury on benign hysterectomy is low overall regardless of hysterotomy modalities but varies widely with the surgical approach. Compared with TAH, TLH may be associated with an increased risk of ureteral injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2019.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526035PMC
February 2021

Advanced paternal age and the risk of spontaneous abortion: an analysis of the combined 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 11 22;221(5):476.e1-476.e7. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Maternal and paternal age at first birth are increasing across the global population. Spontaneous abortion, one of the most common abnormal pregnancy outcomes, is known to occur more frequently with increasing maternal age. However, the relationship of advanced paternal age and spontaneous abortion is poorly understood, and previous results have yielded conflicting results.

Objective: To examine the influence of paternal age on the risk of spontaneous abortion among singleton pregnancies conceived without assisted reproductive technologies.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective, case-control study using combined pregnancy data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth. Spontaneous, singleton pregnancy data from women aged 15-45 years were analyzed. Ongoing pregnancies, induced abortions, ectopic pregnancies, preterm births, and intrauterine fetal deaths were excluded. Bivariate associations of pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortion at <20 weeks and ≤12 weeks vs. live birth at ≥37 weeks) and paternal age were determined, along with those of maternal age and selected demographic and pregnancy characteristics. Significant associations were included in a multivariable logistic regression, which accounted for multiple pregnancies derived from the same respondent.

Results: A total of 12,710 pregnancies from 6979 women were analyzed, consisting of 2300 (18.2%) spontaneous abortions and 10,410 (81.8%) term live births. Median maternal and paternal ages were 25 and 28 years, respectively. After adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, marital status, and pregnancy intention, pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortions had 2.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.20) times the odds of being from a father aged 50 years or older, vs. 25-29 years of age. These relationships remained significant when defining SABs at ≤12 weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.52).

Conclusion: Paternal age may increase the odds of spontaneous abortion, independent of selected factors, including demographics, pregnancy intention, and maternal age. This association was robust across several gestational age-based definitions of spontaneous abortion, even after adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2019.05.028DOI Listing
November 2019

Long-Term Outcome of the Treatment of Zenker's Diverticulum.

Ann Thorac Surg 2015 Sep 22;100(3):975-8. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment of Zenker's diverticulum can be accomplished by use of a transcervical myotomy (TCM) with diverticulopexy/diverticulectomy or by the transoral endoscopic stapling (TOS) approach. Our aim was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of these two techniques.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify all patients who had received either treatment for Zenker's diverticulum from July 1998 to August 2013. Telephone interviews were attempted of all surviving patients to assess long-term outcome.

Results: There were 77 patients, with a median age of 71 years (range, 37 to 97 years). All patients had dysphagia, and 33 (43%) had regurgitation. TCM was performed in 68 patients, and TOS was done in nine. The median size of the diverticulum was 2.5 cm in the TCM group and 4 cm in the TOS group (p = 0.13). The operation was primary in 66 patients (86%) and a reoperation in 11 patients. The median hospital stay was 1 day for TOS and 3 for TCM (p = 0.0005). The median time to oral intake for both groups was 1 day. There were three adverse events in the TCM group and none in the TOS group. Early outcome was assessed in all 77 patients at a median of 4 months (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to 13.5 months). Symptomatic improvement occurred in all patients, with 55 patients (71%) reporting complete resolution. Long-term symptoms were assessed at a median of 54 months (IQR, 34 to 77 months) in 38 of 59 (64%) surviving patients.

Conclusions: Cricopharyngeal myotomy with diverticulopexy/diverticulectomy and TOS are both safe and effective treatments for Zenker's diverticulum. All patients reported improvement in symptoms, with complete resolution in the majority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.04.029DOI Listing
September 2015

High resolution manometry sub-classification of Achalasia: does it really matter? Does Achalasia sub-classification matter?

Surg Endosc 2015 Jun 24;29(6):1363-7. Epub 2014 Sep 24.

Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, 1510 San Pablo St, HCCI, Suite 514, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Background: Three variants of Achalasia have been described using high-resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). While manometrically distinct, their clinical significance has yet to be established. Our objective was to compare the outcome after myotomy in patients with these Achalasia subtypes.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with Achalasia who had HRM and who underwent Heller myotomy or Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). Symptoms and esophageal clearance by timed barium study were compared before and after treatment.

Results: We identified 49 patients, 21 males and 28 females, with a median age of 52 years. The primary symptom in all patients was dysphagia, with a median duration of 4 years (range 4 months-50 years). By HRM, ten patients (20 %) were classified as Type I, 30 (61 %) as Type II, and 9 (18 %) as Type III. At a median follow-up of 16 months after myotomy (range 1-63 months), the median Eckardt score was zero and was similar across subtypes. Relief of dysphagia was also similar across subtypes (80 % of Type I, 93 % of Type II and 89 % of Type III). On pre-treatment timed barium study, no patient had complete emptying at 1 or 5 min. After myotomy, complete emptying occurred within 1 min in 50 % (20/40) and within 5 min in 60 % (24/40) and was similar across groups.

Conclusion: Myotomy for Achalasia results in excellent symptomatic outcome and improvement in esophageal clearance. There was no difference among the described HRM Achalasia variants. This calls into question the clinical utility of Achalasia sub-classification and affirms the benefit of myotomy for this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3804-3DOI Listing
June 2015
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