Publications by authors named "Eric Winquist"

183 Publications

Predicting Outcomes in Men With Metastatic Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumors (NSGCT): Results From the IGCCCG Update Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 6:JCO2003296. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University Department of Medical Oncology, Inselspital, University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Purpose: The classification of the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) plays a pivotal role in the management of metastatic germ cell tumors but relies on data of patients treated between 1975 and 1990.

Materials And Methods: Data on 9,728 men with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors treated with cisplatin- and etoposide-based first-line chemotherapy between 1990 and 2013 were collected from 30 institutions or collaborative groups in Europe, North America, and Australia. Clinical trial and registry data were included. Primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The survival estimates were updated for the current era. Additionally, a novel prognostic model for PFS was developed in 3,543 patients with complete information on potentially relevant variables. The results were validated in an independent data set.

Results: Compared with the original IGCCCG publication, 5-year PFS remained similar in patients with good prognosis with 89% (87%-91%) versus 90% (95% CI, 89 to 91), but the 5-year OS increased from 92% (90%-94%) to 96% (95%-96%). In patients with intermediate prognosis, PFS remained similar with 75% (71%-79%) versus 78% (76%-80%) and the OS increased from 80% (76%-84%) to 89% (88%-91%). In patients with poor prognosis, the PFS increased from 41% (95% CI, 35 to 47) to 54% (95% CI, 52 to 56) and the OS from 48% (95% CI, 42 to 54) to 67% (95% CI, 65 to 69). A more granular prognostic model was developed and independently validated. This model identified a new cutoff of lactate dehydrogenase at a 2.5 upper limit of normal and increasing age and presence of lung metastases as additional adverse prognostic factors. An online calculator is provided (https://www.eortc.org/IGCCCG-Update).

Conclusion: The IGCCCG Update model improves individual prognostication in metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. Increasing age and lung metastases add granularity to the original IGCCCG classification as adverse prognostic factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03296DOI Listing
April 2021

Survival and New Prognosticators in Metastatic Seminoma: Results From the IGCCCG-Update Consortium.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 17:JCO2003292. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI), Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Purpose: The classification of the International Germ-Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) has been a major advance in the management of germ-cell tumors, but relies on data of only 660 patients with seminoma treated between 1975 and 1990. We re-evaluated this classification in a database from a large international consortium.

Materials And Methods: Data on 2,451 men with metastatic seminoma treated with cisplatin- and etoposide-based first-line chemotherapy between 1990 and 2013 were collected from 30 institutions or collaborative groups in Australia, Europe, and North America. Clinical trial and registry data were included. Primary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) calculated from day 1 of treatment. Variables at initial presentation were evaluated for their prognostic impact. Results were validated in an independent validation set of 764 additional patients.

Results: Compared with the initial IGCCCG classification, in our modern series, 5-year PFS improved from 82% to 89% (95% CI, 87 to 90) and 5-year OS from 86% to 95% (95% CI, 94 to 96) in good prognosis, and from 67% to 79% (95% CI, 70 to 85) and 72% to 88% (95% CI, 80 to 93) in intermediate prognosis patients. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) proved to be an additional adverse prognostic factor. Good prognosis patients with LDH above 2.5× upper limit of normal had a 3-year PFS of 80% (95% CI, 75 to 84) and a 3-year OS of 92% (95% CI, 88 to 95) versus 92% (95% CI, 90 to 94) and 97% (95% CI, 96 to 98) in the group with lower LDH.

Conclusion: PFS and OS in metastatic seminoma significantly improved in our modern series compared with the original data. The original IGCCCG classification retains its relevance, but can be further refined by adding LDH at a cutoff of 2.5× upper limit of normal as an additional adverse prognostic factor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03292DOI Listing
March 2021

Near Miss or Standard of Care? Screening for Cancer Patients Receiving Fluorouracil.

Curr Oncol 2020 Dec 18;28(1):94-97. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

London Health Sciences Centre and Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada.

5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its pro-drug capecitabine are widely used anticancer agents. Most 5-FU catabolism is dependent on dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) encoded by the gene, and variants that reduce DPD function increase 5-FU toxicity. Most DPD deficient patients are heterozygous and can be treated with reduced 5-FU dosing. We describe a patient with a genotype associated with near complete absence of DPD function, and severe and likely fatal toxicity with 5-FU treatment. The patient was treated effectively with alternative systemic therapy. Routine pretreatment genotyping is recommended by the European Medicines Agency, and guidelines for use of 5-FU in DPD deficient patients are available. However, outside the province of Quebec, routine pretreatment screening for DPD deficiency remains unavailable in Canada. It is likely our patient would have died from 5-FU toxicity under the current standard of care, but instead provides an example of the potential benefit of screening on patient outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816174PMC
December 2020

Primary Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors-The University of Western Ontario Experience.

Curr Oncol 2020 Dec 8;28(1):78-85. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Surgery, Urology Division, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5W9, Canada.

Extragonadal germ cell tumors account for 2-5.7% of germ cell tumors (GCTs). Of these, primary mediastinal GCTs (PMGCTs) are responsible for 16-36% of cases. Given the rarity of these tumors, specific treatment strategies have not been well defined. We report our experience in treating these complex patients. In total, 318 men treated at our institution with chemotherapy for GCTs between 1980 and 2016 were reviewed. PMGCT was defined as clinically diagnosed mediastinal GCT with no evidence of testicular GCT (physical exam/ultrasound). We identified nine patients diagnosed with PMGCT. All patients presented with an anterior mediastinal mass and no gonadal lesion; four patients also had metastatic disease. Median age at diagnosis was 30 years (range, 14-56) and median mass size at diagnosis was 9 cm (range, 3.4-19). Eight patients had non-seminoma and one had pure seminoma. All patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy initially. Surgical resection was performed in four patients; three patients had a complete resection and one patient was found to have an unresectable tumor. At a median follow-up of 2 years (range, 3 months-28 years) six patients had progressed. Progression-free survival was short with a median of 4.1 months from diagnosis (range 1.5-122.2 months). Five patients died at a median of 4.4 months from diagnosis. One and 5-year overall survivals were 50% and 38%, respectively. PMGCT are rare and aggressive. Our real-life Canadian experience is consistent with current literature suggesting that non-seminoma PMGCT has a poor prognosis despite prompt cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by aggressive thoracic surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/curroncol28010010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816187PMC
December 2020

Impact of pretreatment dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase genotype-guided fluoropyrimidine dosing on chemotherapy associated adverse events.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.

Consensus guidelines exist for genotype-guided fluoropyrimidine dosing based on variation in the gene dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD). However, these guidelines have not been widely implemented in North America and most studies of pretreatment DPYD screening have been conducted in Europe. Given regional differences in treatment practices and rates of adverse events (AEs), we investigated the impact of pretreatment DPYD genotyping on AEs in a Canadian context. Patients referred for DPYD genotyping prior to fluoropyrimidine treatment were enrolled from December 2013 through November 2019 and followed until completion of fluoropyrimidine treatment. Patients were genotyped for DPYD c.1905+1G>A, c.2846A>T, c.1679T>G, and c.1236G>A. Genotype-guided dosing recommendations were informed by Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related AE (grade ≥3, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0). Secondary outcomes included early severe AEs, severe AEs by toxicity category, discontinuation of fluoropyrimidine treatment due to AEs, and fluoropyrimidine-related death. Among 1394 patients, mean (SD) age was 64 (12) years, 764 (54.8%) were men, and 47 (3.4%) were DPYD variant carriers treated with dose reduction. Eleven variant carriers (23%) and 418 (31.0%) noncarriers experienced a severe fluoropyrimidine-related AE (p = 0.265). Six carriers (15%) and 284 noncarriers (21.1%) experienced early severe fluoropyrimidine-related AEs (p = 0.167). DPYD variant carriers treated with genotype-guided dosing did not experience an increased risk for severe AEs. Our data support a role for DPYD genotyping in the use of fluoropyrimidines in North America.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12981DOI Listing
February 2021

Lenvatinib plus Pembrolizumab or Everolimus for Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2021 04 13;384(14):1289-1300. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

From Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.M.); P. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute, Moscow (B.A.), the State Institution of Health Care Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary, Omsk (E.K.), the State Budgetary Health Care Institution Novosibirsk Regional Clinical Oncology Dispensary, Novosibirsk (V.K.), and Prevoljskiy Region Medical Center, Novgorod (A.A.) - all in Russia; Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University Health System (S.Y.R.), Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic University of Korea (S.-H.H.), and Seoul National University Hospital (M.K.), Seoul, South Korea; San Matteo University Hospital Foundation, Pavia (C.P.), Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori IRCCS, Milan (G.P.), and Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori IRCCS, Meldola (U.D.G.) - all in Italy; Kyushu University, Fukuoka (M.E.), and Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo (T.T.) - both in Japan; the Royal Free NHS Trust, London (T.P.), and Eisai, Hatfield (A.D.S.) - both in the United Kingdom; University Hospital Essen, Essen (V.G.), and the University of Tübingen, Tübingen (J.B.) - both in Germany; Texas Oncology, Dallas (T.E.H.); Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research of Cordoba Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía, Medical Oncology Department, Córdoba (M.J.M.-V.), Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid (T.A.G.), and Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (P.M.) - all in Spain; McMaster University, Hamilton (A.K.), and Western University, London (E.W.) - both in Ontario, Canada; the University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami (J.R.M.), and Florida Cancer Specialists, Gainesville (V.P.); ICON Research, South Brisbane, and University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD (J.C.G.), Macquarie University, Sydney (H.G.), and Western Health, Melbourne, VIC (S.W.) - all in Australia; Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.P.); Palacky University and University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic (B.M.); Centre René Gauducheau, Saint Herblain, France (F.R.); the Department of Urology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (M.S.); Eisai, Woodcliff Lake (C.E.D., L.D., K.M., D.X.), and Merck, Kenilworth (R.F.P.) - both in New Jersey; and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (T.K.C.).

Background: Lenvatinib in combination with pembrolizumab or everolimus has activity against advanced renal cell carcinoma. The efficacy of these regimens as compared with that of sunitinib is unclear.

Methods: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1 ratio) patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and no previous systemic therapy to receive lenvatinib (20 mg orally once daily) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg intravenously once every 3 weeks), lenvatinib (18 mg orally once daily) plus everolimus (5 mg orally once daily), or sunitinib (50 mg orally once daily, alternating 4 weeks receiving treatment and 2 weeks without treatment). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as assessed by an independent review committee in accordance with Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1. Overall survival and safety were also evaluated.

Results: A total of 1069 patients were randomly assigned to receive lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab (355 patients), lenvatinib plus everolimus (357), or sunitinib (357). Progression-free survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (median, 23.9 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.49; P<0.001) and was longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (median, 14.7 vs. 9.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.80; P<0.001). Overall survival was longer with lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab than with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.88; P = 0.005) but was not longer with lenvatinib plus everolimus than with sunitinib (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.50; P = 0.30). Grade 3 or higher adverse events emerged or worsened during treatment in 82.4% of the patients who received lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab, 83.1% of those who received lenvatinib plus everolimus, and 71.8% of those who received sunitinib. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurring in at least 10% of the patients in any group included hypertension, diarrhea, and elevated lipase levels.

Conclusions: Lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival than sunitinib. (Funded by Eisai and Merck Sharp and Dohme; CLEAR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02811861.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2035716DOI Listing
April 2021

Cognition and Depression effects of androgen receptor axis-targeted drugs in men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

J Geriatr Oncol 2020 Nov 22. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Departments of Surgery (Urology) and Oncology, Western University and London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Context: Novel androgen receptor axis-targeting drugs (ARATs) have been shown to improve outcomes in men with prostate cancer. Central nervous system androgen blockade may be harmful for older adults who may be at increased risk of adverse cognitive and psychologic effects.

Objective: To systematically evaluate the effect of ARATs on cognition and depression in men with metastatic prostate cancer.

Evidence Acquisition: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for articles published in English between September 2012 and September 2019 reporting cognition and depression outcomes in men receiving ARATs for metastatic prostate cancer using validated psychometric tools. The level of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE approach for randomized clinical trials and observational studies.

Results: 15 reports studying 8954 men with metastatic castration-sensitive and -resistant, or non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were identified. Data were available for abiraterone, enzalutamide and apalutamide but not darolutamide. The mean (and 95% confidence interval) and median (and min-max) of the absolute scores and changes from baseline were included, when available. There was heterogeneity in the psychometric tools used which obviated statistical pooling of results. Very limited data assessing cognition suggested that abiraterone was associated with improved cognitive functioning or perhaps less cognitive harm versus enzalutamide. Fourteen reports assessed emotional wellbeing. ARATs reduced depressive symptoms when compared to prednisone alone or placebo but not compared to bicalutamide. Abiraterone may improve short-term emotional functioning relative to enzalutamide. The quality of evidence was low when examining ARAT effect on cognitive function and moderate when examining ARAT effect on depression.

Conclusions: Depression was assessed more frequently than cognition in men receiving ARATs. Self-reported depression measures favored abiraterone over enzalutamide and both abiraterone and enzalutamide over placebo. Data evaluating apalutamide and darolutamide are lacking. Further studies of ARATs using validated clinician-based psycho-cognition tools along with self-reported measures in men with metastatic prostate cancer are needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2020.11.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Modern treatment outcomes for early T-stage oropharyngeal cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy at a tertiary care institution.

Radiat Oncol 2020 Nov 10;15(1):261. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Transoral surgery (TOS), particularly transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become the preferred modality in the United States for the treatment of early stage oropharyngeal cancer, largely due to assumptions of fewer toxicities and improved quality of life compared to primary radiotherapy (RT). However, these assumptions are based on retrospective analysis, a subset of which utilize primary RT groups not limited to T1-2 stage tumors for which transoral robotic surgery is FDA approved. Thus, there is potential for underestimating survival and overestimating toxicity, including treatment related mortality, in primary RT.

Methods: Consecutive cases of early T-stage (T1-T2) oropharyngeal cancer presenting to the London Health Sciences Centre between 2014 and 2018 treated with RT or chemoradiation (CRT) were reviewed. Patient demographics, treatment details, survival outcomes and toxicity were collected. Toxicities were retrospectively graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events criteria.

Results: A total of 198 patients were identified, of which 82% were male and 73% were HPV-positive. Sixty-eight percent of patients experienced a grade 2 toxicity, 48% a grade 3 and 4% a grade 4. The most frequent toxicities were dysphagia, neutropenia and ototoxicity. The rates of gastrostomy tube dependence at 1 and 2 years were 2.5% and 1% respectively. There were no grade 5 (fatal) toxicities. HPV-positive patients experienced improved 5-year overall survival (86% vs 64%, p = 0.0026).

Conclusions: Primary RT or CRT provides outstanding survival for early T-stage disease, with low rates of severe toxicity and feeding tube dependence. This study provides a reference for comparison for patients treated with primary transoral surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01705-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654053PMC
November 2020

Efficacy and Safety of nab-Paclitaxel vs Paclitaxel on Survival in Patients With Platinum-Refractory Metastatic Urothelial Cancer: The Canadian Cancer Trials Group BL.12 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 Sep 17. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Canadian Cancer Trials Group (CCTG), Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Treatment options for platinum-refractory metastatic urothelial cancer (mUC) are limited, and outcomes remain poor. Nab-paclitaxel is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel showing promising activity and tolerability in a prior single-arm trial.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel in platinum-refractory mUC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this investigator-initiated, open-label, phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted across Canada and Australia from January 2014 to April 2017, eligible patients had histologically confirmed, radiologically evident mUC of the urinary tract. Mixed histologic findings, except small cell, were permitted provided UC was the predominant histologic finding. All patients had received platinum-based chemotherapy either in the metastatic setting or were within 12 months of perioperative chemotherapy. Patients with prior taxane chemotherapy were not included. Patients had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) 0 to 2 and adequate organ function.

Interventions: Patients were randomized to nab-paclitaxel, 260 mg/m2, or paclitaxel, 175 mg/m2, every 3 weeks.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Among 199 patients, median age was 67 (range, 24-88) years; 144 (72%) were men; 167 (84%) were ECOG PS 0-1; 59 (30%) had liver metastases; and 110 (55%) were within 6 months of prior platinum-based chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 16.4 months, there was no significant difference between nab-paclitaxel vs paclitaxel for median PFS (3.4 months vs 3.0 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92; 90% CI, 0.68-1.23; 1-sided P = .31). Median overall survival was 7.5 months for nab-paclitaxel vs 8.8 months for paclitaxel (HR, 0.95; 90% CI, 0.70-1.30; 1-sided P = .40); and objective response rate (ORR) was 22% for nab-paclitaxel vs 25% for paclitaxel (P = .97). Grade 3/4 adverse events were more frequent with nab-paclitaxel (64/97 [66%]) compared with paclitaxel (45/97 [46%]), P = .009; but peripheral sensory neuropathy was similar (all grades, 72/97 [74%] vs 64/97 [66%]; grade 3/4, 7/97 [7%] vs 3/97 [3%]; P = .27). There were no apparent differences in scores for health-related quality of life.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this open-label, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of patients with platinum-refractory mUC, nab-paclitaxel had similar efficacy to paclitaxel; but worse toxic effects. The ORR with either taxane, however, was higher than previously reported and similar to those reported for the immune checkpoint inhibitors, suggesting that the taxanes remain a reasonable option in this setting.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02033993.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.3927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499236PMC
September 2020

Preservation of swallowing in resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: examining radiation volume effects (PRESERVE): study protocol for a randomized phase II trial.

Radiat Oncol 2020 Aug 14;15(1):196. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, 800 Commissioners Rd. E, London, ON, N6A 5W9, Canada.

Background: Patients with resected oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) are often treated with adjuvant radiation (RT) ± concomitant chemotherapy based on pathological findings. Standard RT volumes include all surgically dissected areas, including the tumour bed and dissected neck. RT has significant acute and long-term toxicities including odynophagia, dysphagia, dermatitis and fibrosis. The goal of this study is to assess the rate of regional failure with omission of radiation to the surgically dissected pathologically node negative (pN0) hemi-neck(s) compared to historical control, and to compare oncologic outcomes, toxicity, and quality of life (QoL) profiles between standard RT volumes and omission of RT to the pN0 neck.

Methods: This is a multicentre phase II study randomizing 90 patients with T1-4 N0-2 OCSCC with at least one pN0 hemi-neck in a 1:2 ratio between standard RT volumes and omission of RT to the pN0 hemi-neck(s). Patients will be stratified based on overall nodal status (nodal involvement vs. no nodal involvement) and use of concurrent chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is regional failure in the pN0 hemi-neck(s); we hypothesize that a 2-year regional recurrence of 20% or less will be achieved. Secondary endpoints include overall and progression-free survival, local recurrence, rate of salvage therapy, toxicity and QoL.

Discussion: This study will provide an assessment of omission of RT to the dissected pN0 hemi-neck(s) on oncologic outcomes, QoL and toxicity. Results will inform the design of future definitive phase III trials.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03997643 . Date of registration: June 25, 2019, Current version: 2.0 on July 11 2020.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-020-01636-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427897PMC
August 2020

Images - Solitary fibrous tumor of the prostate.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Nov;14(11):E613-E614

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673834PMC
November 2020

Prostate Cancer Lymphangitic Pulmonary Carcinomatosis: Appearance on 18F-FDG PET/CT and 18F-DCFPyL PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2020 Sep;45(9):727-729

Department of Oncology, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

A 51-year-old man diagnosed with high-grade, high-volume metastatic castration-sensitive prostate adenocarcinoma received pelvic radiation, androgen deprivation therapy, and intravenous docetaxel. Serum prostate-specific antigen became undetectable following treatment. Within a year, his cancer progressed to castration-resistant disease, and he was treated with oral abiraterone acetate 1000 mg and prednisone 10 mg daily. Despite this, the serum prostate-specific antigen rose from 0.03 to 1.39 μg/L, and F-DCFPyL and F-FDG PET/CT showed progression. While F-DCFPyL uptake may be seen in aggressive disease, F-FDG portends poor prognosis. Despite intravenous platinum-based chemotherapy, the patient died of respiratory failure 20 months after his initial diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003109DOI Listing
September 2020

Trimodality Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Concurrent Chemotherapy is Not Enough.

J Clin Oncol 2020 08 27;38(24):2709-2711. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Oncology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02959DOI Listing
August 2020

Treatment de-escalation for HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with radiotherapy vs. trans-oral surgery (ORATOR2): study protocol for a randomized phase II trial.

BMC Cancer 2020 Feb 14;20(1):125. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Radiation Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, 800 Commissioners Rd. E, London, Ontario, N6A 5W9, Canada.

Background: Patients with human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPC) have substantially better treatment response and overall survival (OS) than patients with HPV-negative disease. Treatment options for HPV+ OPC can involve either a primary radiotherapy (RT) approach (± concomitant chemotherapy) or a primary surgical approach (± adjuvant radiation) with transoral surgery (TOS). These two treatment paradigms have different spectrums of toxicity. The goals of this study are to assess the OS of two de-escalation approaches (primary radiotherapy and primary TOS) compared to historical control, and to compare survival, toxicity and quality of life (QOL) profiles between the two approaches.

Methods: This is a multicenter phase II study randomizing one hundred and forty patients with T1-2 N0-2 HPV+ OPC in a 1:1 ratio between de-escalated primary radiotherapy (60 Gy) ± concomitant chemotherapy and TOS ± de-escalated adjuvant radiotherapy (50-60 Gy based on risk factors). Patients will be stratified based on smoking status (< 10 vs. ≥ 10 pack-years). The primary endpoint is OS of each arm compared to historical control; we hypothesize that a 2-year OS of 85% or greater will be achieved. Secondary endpoints include progression free survival, QOL and toxicity.

Discussion: This study will provide an assessment of two de-escalation approaches to the treatment of HPV+ OPC on oncologic outcomes, QOL and toxicity. Results will inform the design of future definitive phase III trials.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03210103. Date of registration: July 6, 2017, Current version: 1.3 on March 15, 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6607-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023689PMC
February 2020

Spleen tyrosine kinase expression is correlated with human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer.

Oral Oncol 2020 02 19;101:104529. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Otolaryngology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; Department of Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a promoter of cell survival in a variety of cell types, including normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We hypothesized that SYK would an important therapeutic target to inhibit for the treatment of HNSCC.

Materials And Methods: SYK protein abundance in patient tumours was evaluated. SYK protein and mRNA abundance was used to examine patient survival and human papillomavirus (HPV) status. Small-interfering RNAs and gene editing with CRISPR/Cas9 were used to evaluate SYK expression on proliferation in HNSCC cell lines. The potency of SYK inhibitor ER27319 maleate on cellular proliferation was tested using a panel of 28 HNSCC cell lines and in vivo in HNSCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models.

Results: Moderate to high protein expression of SYK was observed in 24% of patient tumors and high SYK expression was exclusively observed in HPV-positive samples (p < 0.001). SYK inhibition with RNA interference, gene editing or a SYK inhibitor (ER27319) decreased cell proliferation and migration. Treatment of PDXs with ER27319 maleate was observed to reduce tumour burden in vivo in two of three models.

Conclusions: HPV-positive HNSCC harbours high SYK protein levels. We demonstrate that proliferation, migration and overall burden of these tumours can be reduced by genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of SYK. Taken together, these data establish SYK as a therapeutic target for HNSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.104529DOI Listing
February 2020

Genomic and human papillomavirus profiling of an oral cancer cohort identifies TP53 as a predictor of overall survival.

Cancers Head Neck 2019 5;4. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Western University, London, ON Canada.

Background: The genomic landscape of head and neck cancer has been reported through The Cancer Genome Atlas project. We attempt to determine if high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) or frequently mutated genes are correlated with survival in an oral cancer cohort.

Methods: Patient demographic data along with data from final pathology was collected. Tumor DNA was analyzed using a custom Illumina targeted sequencing panel. Five high-risk HPV types were tested by qPCR. Statistical analyses were used to identify associations between patient outcome and mutational status.

Results: High-risk HPV types were identified in 7% of cases; HPV status was not associated with survival. Mutations were identified in TP53, TERT promoter, & PIK3CA. Mutations in TP53 were significantly associated with poorer overall survival on multi-variate analysis ( = 0.03).

Conclusions: Mutations in TP53 were associated with poor patient survival. Expanding our sample size may identify further predictors of outcome to direct customized cancer care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41199-019-0045-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894507PMC
December 2019

Radiotherapy versus transoral robotic surgery and neck dissection for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (ORATOR): an open-label, phase 2, randomised trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 10 12;20(10):1349-1359. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with concurrent neck dissection has supplanted radiotherapy in the USA as the most common treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), yet no randomised trials have compared these modalities. We aimed to evaluate differences in quality of life (QOL) 1 year after treatment.

Methods: The ORATOR trial was an investigator-initiated, multicentre, international, open-label, parallel-group, phase 2, randomised study. Patients were enrolled at six hospitals in Canada and Australia. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years or older, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scores of 0-2, and with T1-T2, N0-2 (≤4 cm) OPSCC tumour types to radiotherapy (70 Gy, with chemotherapy if N1-2) or TORS plus neck dissection (with or without adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, based on pathology). Following stratification by p16 status, patients were randomly assigned using a computer-generated randomisation list with permuted blocks of four. The primary endpoint was swallowing-related QOL at 1 year as established using the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) score, powered to detect a 10-point improvement (a clinically meaningful change) in the TORS plus neck dissection group. All analyses were done by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01590355) and is active, but not currently recruiting.

Findings: 68 patients were randomly assigned (34 per group) between Aug 10, 2012, and June 9, 2017. Median follow-up was 25 months (IQR 20-33) for the radiotherapy group and 29 months (23-43) for the TORS plus neck dissection group. MDADI total scores at 1 year were mean 86·9 (SD 11·4) in the radiotherapy group versus 80·1 (13·0) in the TORS plus neck dissection group (p=0·042). There were more cases of neutropenia (six [18%] of 34 patients vs none of 34), hearing loss (13 [38%] vs five [15%]), and tinnitus (12 [35%] vs two [6%]) reported in the radiotherapy group than in the TORS plus neck dissection group, and more cases of trismus in the TORS plus neck dissection group (nine [26%] vs one [3%]). The most common adverse events in the radiotherapy group were dysphagia (n=6), hearing loss (n=6), and mucositis (n=4), all grade 3, and in the TORS plus neck dissection group, dysphagia (n=9, all grade 3) and there was one death caused by bleeding after TORS.

Interpretation: Patients treated with radiotherapy showed superior swallowing-related QOL scores 1 year after treatment, although the difference did not represent a clinically meaningful change. Toxicity patterns differed between the groups. Patients with OPSCC should be informed about both treatment options.

Funding: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute Grant (#701842), Ontario Institute for Cancer Research Clinician-Scientist research grant, and the Wolfe Surgical Research Professorship in the Biology of Head and Neck Cancers grant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30410-3DOI Listing
October 2019

Early experience with chemotherapy intensification for poor-prognosis metastatic germ cell cancer and unfavorable tumor marker decline.

Can Urol Assoc J 2020 Feb 23;14(2):43-47. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Western University and London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Intensified chemotherapy improved outcomes for men with poor-prognosis metastatic germ cell cancer (GCC) and unfavorable tumor marker decline after one cycle of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy in the GETUG-13 trial. Herein, we report our experience to date using a similar approach.

Methods: Patients were identified from our electronic GCC database. Men with poor-prognosis GCC and unfavorable tumor marker decline were offered intensified chemotherapy consisting of T-BEP (three cycles) plus paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (TIP) (one cycle), along with prophylactic granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and resection of residual masses. Cisplatin, etoposide, and ifosfamide (PEI) replaced the last cycle of T-BEP for bleomycin pulmonary concerns. Serious toxicities, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated retrospectively.

Results: Ten patients with poor-prognosis GCC were identified from May 2012 to April 2016. Eight patients had unfavorable tumor marker decline. Six were offered and received intensified chemotherapy (two T-BEPx3 + TIP and four T-BEPx2 + PEI + TIP). Serious toxicities included neutropenic sepsis, deep venous thrombosis, and C. difficile colitis, but there were no toxic deaths. One patient died of synchronous metastatic adenocarcinoma ex teratoma. The remaining five patients achieved marker-negative partial response, two had residual mature teratoma excised, and four have no evidence of disease after surgery. All are alive at a median of 63.5 months (range 46.3-65.6); one patient has grade 2 peripheral sensory neuropathy, and one patient has grade 2 cognitive disturbance. Of four patients treated with standard BEP, two have died of disease and two are alive at 51.4 and 53.6 months.

Conclusions: Our experience with intensified chemotherapy for men with poor-prognosis GCC and unfavorable tumor marker decline confirms that it is feasible, reasonably safe, and appears to provide results similar to those reported in GETUG-13.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.5802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012285PMC
February 2020

Successful treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer using radiotherapy with concurrent cetuximab in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jul 15;12(7). Epub 2019 Jul 15.

London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

Herein we present a case of a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease who was diagnosed with locally invasive nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In the context of CMT, the use of standard platinum-based radio-sensitising chemotherapy would have been neurotoxic and is contraindicated in patients with CMT. However, no alternate antineoplastic treatment strategies for patients with CMT have been described in the literature. In this case, an innovative approach was taken using radical radiotherapy concurrently with the biological agent cetuximab. The patient did not suffer any neurotoxicity, though he did experience several expected toxicities commonly associated with this regimen. The patient nonetheless completed treatment and has experienced an excellent response both clinically and radiographically and remains disease free.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6663183PMC
July 2019

A Phase II Study of PX-866 in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Canadian Cancer Trials Group Study IND205.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 06 15;17(3):201-208.e1. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Canadian Cancer Trials Group, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Background: In PTEN-loss models, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and androgen receptor signaling pathways cross-regulate by reciprocal feedback whereby inhibition of one activates the other, creating a rationale for co-targeting. We studied the irreversible, pan-isoform inhibitor of Class I PI-3K PX-866 singly (part A) and with abiraterone acetate (AA) in patients on AA with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (part B).

Patients And Methods: The primary endpoint was lack of progression at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included changes in circulating tumor cells (CTC), pharmacodynamic studies on platelets (part A), and archival tumor exploration of PTEN as predictor of response (part B).

Results: A total of 43 and 25 patients accrued to parts A and B, respectively. In part A, 14 (33%) patients were progression-free at 12 weeks, with 2 partial objective responses and 1 confirmed PSA response. Favorable CTC conversion (< 5 CTC/7.5 mL) occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 evaluable patients. In part B, 11 of 25 patients had measurable disease. Six (24%) patients were progression-free at 12 weeks. No objective or PSA responses were observed. For all 68 patients, the most common toxicities were diarrhea (53 patients), nausea (36), anorexia (24), fatigue (22), and vomiting (20). Among 17 patients for whom PTEN testing was possible, 3 had PTEN homozygous deletion and 14 had no change. No correlation between PTEN status and response was seen.

Conclusions: PX-866 had modest single agent activity. Adding AA to PX-866 showed no evidence of resistance reversal. Strategies to combine PI3K inhibition with androgen receptor-targeted therapies could consider initiation earlier, combination with other agents, and/or recruiting a selected population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2019.03.005DOI Listing
June 2019

Predictors of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and survival in chemoradiation treated head and neck cancer patients.

Oral Oncol 2019 02 21;89:72-78. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Medicine, Western University, 1151 Richmond St., London, ON N6A3K7, Canada; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Medical Sciences Building, UWO, London, ON N6A 5C1, Canada; Department of Oncology, Division of Experimental Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, Western University, 800 Commissioners Rd. E., London, ON N6A5W9, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is a common permanent consequence of curative chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Predictors of ototoxicity in HNSCC were examined.

Materials And Methods: In this prospective, observational cohort study, 206 adult HNSCC patients underwent audiometric testing at baseline, during and after treatment with cisplatin-based chemoradiation. Ototoxicity was defined as ≥grade 2 audiometric change from baseline (CTCAE v4.02). Relationships between clinical and pharmacogenetic (TPMT, COMT, ACYP2, CTR1, OCT2, MATE1, ABCC2, ABCC3, and ABCG2) covariates and ototoxicity, progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox regression.

Results: Weekly cisplatin resulted in lower ototoxicity risk while PFS and OS were similar compared to high dose cisplatin (P = 0.00035; HR = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.07-0.46). COMT (rs9332377) carriers had higher ototoxicity risk (P = 0.00556; HR = 1.72; 95% CI, 1.17-2.52) while MATE1 (rs2289669) A/A carriers were protected from ototoxicity (P = 0.01062; HR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.26-0.84). Absence of the protective MATE1 allele among those who carry the risk allele in COMT predicted increased ototoxicity risk, (P = 0.00414; HR = 3.22; 95% CI, 1.45-7.17 and P = 0.00022; HR = 4.89; 95% CI, 2.11-11.36). Survival outcomes did not differ between carriers of protective or risk alleles.

Conclusions: Weekly cisplatin dosing, COMT and MATE1 are predictors of ototoxicity without affecting treatment efficacy. COMT and MATE1 genotyping and weekly dosing may be a potential strategy for mitigating cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in HNSCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2018.12.010DOI Listing
February 2019

The efficacy and safety of sunitinib given on an individualised schedule as first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A phase 2 clinical trial.

Eur J Cancer 2019 02 14;108:69-77. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 1Z2, Canada.

Background: Sunitinib is administered on a rigid schedule that may not be optimal for all patients. We hypothesised that toxicity-driven dose and schedule changes would optimise drug exposure and outcome for each patient.

Materials And Methods: In a phase 2 trial, 117 patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer were started on sunitinib 50 mg/day with the aim to treat for 28 days. Treatment breaks were reduced to 7 days. Sunitinib dose and the number of days on therapy were individualised based on toxicity aiming for ≤ grade II toxicity with dose escalation in patients with minimal toxicity. The null hypothesis for the primary end-point was a progression-free survival (PFS) of 8.5 months based on a study with similar eligibility criteria.

Results: The null hypothesis was rejected (p < 0.001) with a median PFS of 12.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.6-16.5). The median overall survival was 38.5 months (95% CI: 28.3-not reached). The objective response rate (46.1%) and stable disease rate (38.5%) translated into a clinical benefit for 84.6% of patients with no decline in quality of life scores during therapy. Fewer patients were dose reduced (26.5% vs. 50%) or discontinued due to toxicity (7.7 vs. 18-20%) compared to standard sunitinib dosing, and 20 (18.4%) patients were dose escalated to 62.5 mg (12) and 75 mg (8) with a wide individual variation in the optimal dose and treatment duration.

Conclusions: Individualised sunitinib therapy is feasible, safe and an effective method to manage toxicity with one of the best efficacy seen for oral vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in metastatic renal cell carcinoma. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT01499121.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.12.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Mutational analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma stratified by smoking status.

JCI Insight 2019 Jan 10;4(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Smoking has historically been recognized as a negative prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study aimed to assess the mutational differences between heavy smokers (>20 pack years) and never smokers among the HNSCC patients within The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Single nucleotide variation and copy number aberration differences between heavy smokers and never smokers were compared within human papillomavirus-positive (HPV-positive) (n = 67) and HPV-negative (n = 431) TCGA cohorts with HNSCC, and the impact of these mutations on survival were assessed. No genes were differentially mutated between smoking and never-smoking patients with HPV-positive tumors. By contrast, in HPV-negative tumors, NSD1 and COL1A11 were found to be more frequently mutated in heavy smokers, while CASP8 was more frequently altered in never smokers. HPV-negative patients with NSD1 mutations experienced significantly improved overall survival compared with NSD1 WT patients. This improved prognosis was validated in an independent cohort of 77 oral cavity cancer patients and a meta-analysis that included 2 additional data sets (688 total patients, hazard ratio for death 0.44, 95% CI, 0.30-0.65). NSD1 mutations are more common in HPV-negative heavy smokers, define a cohort with favorable prognosis, and may represent a clinically useful biomarker to guide treatment deintensification for HPV-negative patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.123443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485669PMC
January 2019

Emerging cell cycle inhibitors for treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 2018 12 28;23(4):271-282. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

a Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry , Western University and London Health Sciences Centre , London , ON , Canada.

Introduction: Disease progression despite androgen suppression defines lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Most of these cancers remain androgen receptor (AR)-signaling dependent. Therapy for metastatic CRPC includes abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, docetaxel, cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T, and radium-223. However, survival remains modest for men with progressive disease despite AR-targeted therapy and docetaxel, and therefore novel treatments are needed. Areas covered: Recent evidence of genomic heterogeneity and sensitivity to PARP inhibitors supports investigation of targeted agents in CRPC. Cell cycle inhibitors are therefore logical molecules to investigate. Review of the current literature identified cell cycle inhibitors under study in early phase clinical trials targeting the G1 (palbociclib, ribociclib, AZD-5363, ipatasertib), S (M-6620, prexasertib), G2 (adavosertib), and M (alisertib) phases of the cell cycle. Expert opinion: Strategies combining cell cycle inhibitors with active agents in CRPC are most likely to have clinical impact with CDK4/6 and Wee1 inhibitors appearing most promising. Identification of predictive biomarkers may be essential and currently trials are testing circulating cell-free DNA as an approach. Incremental toxicities such as neutropenia are important in this population. Results from most current clinical trials of cell cycle inhibitors in CRPC are still pending but it is anticipated they will provide important insights into the heterogeneous biology of CRPC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14728214.2018.1547707DOI Listing
December 2018

Late Relapse of Ovarian Germ Cell Tumour.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018 10;40(10):1329-1332

Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University and London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON; Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON. Electronic address:

Background: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumours typically require multimodal therapy including surgery and systemic platinum-based chemotherapy. Most patients are cured, with survival rates exceeding 95%.

Case: This report describes an unusual case of ovarian germ cell tumour (GCT) recurring 15 years after surgery and manifesting as metastatic disease to the liver, lung, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes.

Conclusion: Thymic hyperplasia was a confounding finding in this case, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a mediastinal mass in heavily treated patients with GCT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogc.2018.02.021DOI Listing
October 2018

Assessment of the Validity of Nuclear-Localized Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 in Circulating Tumor Cells as a Predictive Biomarker for Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

JAMA Oncol 2018 09;4(9):1179-1186

Biostatistics Service, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Importance: A blood test to determine whether to treat patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) with an androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitor or taxane is an unmet medical need.

Objective: To determine whether a validated assay for the nuclear-localized androgen receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) protein in circulating tumor cells can determine differential overall survival among patients with mCRPC treated with taxanes vs ARS inhibitors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This blinded correlative study conducted from December 31, 2012, to September 1, 2016, included 142 patients with histologically confirmed mCRPC and who were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Royal Marsden, or the London Health Sciences Centre. Blood samples were obtained prior to administration of ARS inhibitors or taxanes as a second-line or greater systemic therapy for progressing mCRPC.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Overall survival after treatment with an ARS inhibitor or taxane in relation to pretherapy AR-V7 status.

Results: Among the 142 patients in the study (mean [SD] age, 69.5 [9.6] years), 70 were designated as high risk by conventional prognostic factors. In this high-risk group, patients positive for AR-V7 who were treated with taxanes had superior overall survival relative to those treated with ARS inhibitors (median overall survival, 14.3 vs 7.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.28-1.39; P = .25). Patients negative for AR-V7 who were treated with ARS inhibitors had superior overall survival relative to those treated with taxanes (median overall survival, 19.8 vs 12.8 months; hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81; P = .05).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that nuclear-localized AR-V7 protein in circulating tumor cells can identify patients who may live longer with taxane chemotherapy vs ARS inhibitor treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139066PMC
September 2018