Publications by authors named "Eric T McCarthy"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanoformulation of Talazoparib Delays Tumor Progression and Ascites Formation in a Late Stage Cancer Model.

Front Oncol 2019 10;9:353. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States.

Talazoparib, a potent PARP inhibitor, induces synthetic lethality in -deficient cancers making it an attractive candidate for ovarian cancer treatment. However, its potency lends itself to side effects associated more closely with traditional chemotherapeutics than other clinically approved PARP inhbitors. We sought to formulate Talazoparib in a nanoparticle delivery system, which allows the drug to be administered intraperitoneally. This was done to specifically target peritoneal dissemination of late stage metastatic ovarian cancer and increase talazoparib's therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxic side effects. NanoTalazoparib was developed and characterized with regard to its size, loading, and surface charge. Talazoparib and NanoTalazoparib were tested on a panel of murine and human cell lines and the dose response was compared to Olaparib's, the currently used PARP inhibitor. Therapeutic efficacy was tested in a peritoneal cancer model that mimics late stage disseminated disease. NanoTalazoparib has a diameter of about 70 nm with a neutral surface charge and ~75% encapsulation efficiency, which slowly releases the drug over several hours. Dose response analysis indicated that the murine cell lines with conditional , and deletions had the lowest IC50s. NanoTalazoparib administered on a schedule of three doses weekly slowed disease progression and resulted in significantly less mice with ascites at the end point compared to controls. These results indicate that the slow release nanoformulation, NanoTalazoparib, effectively delivers PARP inhibitor therapy to the peritoneal cavity for disseminated cancer treatment. The ability to decrease ascites formation with the introduction of intraperitoneal NanoTalazoparib suggests this treatment may be an effective way to treat ovarian cancer-associated ascites and slow disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6524318PMC
May 2019

Epigenetic Reprogramming Strategies to Reverse Global Loss of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine, a Prognostic Factor for Poor Survival in High-grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 03 20;24(6):1389-1401. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Department of Pathology, Division of Women's and Perinatal Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

A major challenge in platinum-based cancer therapy is the clinical management of chemoresistant tumors, which have a largely unknown pathogenesis at the level of epigenetic regulation. We evaluated the potential of using global loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) levels as a novel diagnostic and prognostic epigenetic marker to better assess platinum-based chemotherapy response and clinical outcome in high-grade serous tumors (HGSOC), the most common and deadliest subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, we identified a targetable pathway to reverse these epigenetic changes, both genetically and pharmacologically. This study shows that decreased 5-hmC levels are an epigenetic hallmark for malignancy and tumor progression in HGSOC. In addition, global 5-hmC loss is associated with a decreased response to platinum-based chemotherapy, shorter time to relapse, and poor overall survival in patients newly diagnosed with HGSOC. Interestingly, the rescue of 5-hmC loss restores sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy and , decreases the percentage of tumor cells with cancer stem cell markers, and increases overall survival in an aggressive animal model of platinum-resistant disease. Consequently, a global analysis of patient 5-hmC levels should be included in future clinical trials, which use pretreatment with epigenetic adjuvants to elevate 5-hmC levels and improve the efficacy of current chemotherapies. Identifying prognostic epigenetic markers and altering chemotherapeutic regimens to incorporate DNMTi pretreatment in tumors with low 5-hmC levels could have important clinical implications for newly diagnosed HGSOC disease. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-17-1958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5951622PMC
March 2018