Publications by authors named "Eric M Cooke"

6 Publications

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A Systematic Review of the Biological Correlates and Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment and Adverse Childhood Experiences.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 Jun 9:15248380211021613. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Criminal Justice, 2514University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Childhood maltreatment (CM) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are two primary forms of interpersonal victimization that have been associated with a host of deleterious health outcomes. Studies over the past decade have begun to use a range of biologically informed methods to better understand the role biology plays in the relationship between CM, ACEs, and later life outcomes. This line of research has shown that both forms of victimization occur at sensitive periods of development, which can increase the likelihood of "getting under the skin" and influence health and behavior across the life course. This review examines the current state of knowledge on this hypothesis. One hundred and ninety-nine studies are included in this systematic review based on criteria that they be written in English, use a biologically informed method, and be conducted on samples of humans. Results reveal that latent additive genetic influences, biological system functioning captured by biomarkers, polygenic risk scores, and neurobiological factors are commonly associated with exposure and response to CM and ACEs. The implication of these findings for the existing body of research on early life victimization and recommendations for future research and policy are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15248380211021613DOI Listing
June 2021

An exploratory analysis of testosterone, cortisol, and aggressive behavior type in men and women.

Biol Psychol 2021 04 13;161:108073. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Psychology and Philosophy, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, 77341, United States.

Increasing evidence indicates that the interaction between testosterone and cortisol is associated with variation in aggressive behavior. However, results are mixed. The current study further explored the association between testosterone, cortisol, and both reactive and proactive aggression in a large sample of university students. Models considered direct and interactive effects between baseline measures of testosterone and cortisol as well as change in hormones in response to a social stressor. In women, baseline cortisol had a negative direct association with reactive aggression and was further associated with reactive aggression in interaction with baseline testosterone (positive interaction). Hormones were unrelated to reactive aggression in men. Baseline cortisol had a negative direct association with proactive aggression in women. In contrast, the association between change in cortisol and proactive aggression was positive. Cortisol was not associated with proactive aggression in men. In addition, testosterone was not related to proactive aggression either directly or in interaction with cortisol in either men or women. Collectively, these results show that the association between hormones and aggression varies across aggressive behavior type and across sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2021.108073DOI Listing
April 2021

Examining the Relationship Between Victimization, Psychopathy, and the Acceptance of Rape Myths.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Oct 18:886260520966669. Epub 2020 Oct 18.

University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE, USA.

Rape myths are attitudes that implicitly and explicitly blame victims for their own sexual victimization. Greater adherence to rape myths is linked to several negative outcomes, including the neutralization of gender-based violence and the perpetration of sexual violence. Few studies have considered how previous life experiences and individual-level traits influence the development and greater adherence to rape myths. The current study examines how traits associated with the three-factor model of psychopathy (i.e., egocentric, callous, and antisocial dimensions) and adherence to traditional gender roles mediate the relationship between prior childhood/adolescent victimization and the acceptance of rape myths in a sample of college men and women ( = 789). Path modeling indicates that experiences of psychological victimization (before age 16) increased egocentric psychopathic traits, which then increased the acceptance of rape myths in men. In women, however, sexual victimization (before age 16) increased the acceptance of traditional gender roles, which then influenced the acceptance of rape myths. Additionally, the egocentric facet of psychopathy exerted indirect effects on the acceptance of rape myths through traditional views on gender roles in both men and women. These findings highlight the need to continue to examine egocentric personality traits in relation to the development of rape myths in adolescent and young adult populations. Directions for collegiate programming are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520966669DOI Listing
October 2020

Further Evaluation of the Associations Between Psychopathic Traits and Symptoms of PTSD and Depression in a Nonclinical Sample.

J Pers Disord 2021 Jun 10;35(3):469-480. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Nebraska Omaha.

Examining psychopathic traits at the factor or facet level has revealed that various aspects of psychopathy may be differentially related, even in opposing directions, to important outcomes (e.g., intelligence, emotion regulation). Empirical work on relations between psychopathy and internalizing disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, has provided evidence for a positive association with antisocial traits. However, findings for the affective domain have been more equivocal. The current study ( = 732) sought to replicate past findings of the positive association of antisocial psychopathic traits with higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms, and to further explore associations between affective traits of psychopathy and these disorders using two measures of psychopathy. Results confirmed prior findings of a positive correlation between antisocial features and self-reported PTSD/Depression symptom severity, but they did not provide evidence for any association with affective traits. Future research using longitudinal designs is needed to begin establishing temporal ordering of the psychopathy-internalizing relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2020_34_467DOI Listing
June 2021

Skin conductance, heart rate and aggressive behavior type.

Biol Psychol 2019 02 22;141:44-51. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Psychology, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville TX, 77341, United States.

The current study tested the association between physiology and aggressive behavior type in a large sample of University students (Nā€‰=ā€‰509). Measures of aggression were gathered with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analyses used raw aggressive behavior type scores and residualized measures of aggressive behavior type, which account for the overlap between reactive and proactive aggression. Measures of physiology included skin conductance and heart rate, both at rest and in response to a minor social stressor. Analyses assessed the association between aggressive behavior type and measures of physiology in the full sample and in sex specific sub-samples. Results indicated that resting skin conductance was positively associated with proactive aggression in the full sample and among females. Skin conductance in response to stress had a positive association with reactive aggression both in the full sample and among males. Skin conductance responsivity was negatively associated with proactive aggression among males. Findings further strengthen previous work suggesting that the etiologies of reactive and proactive aggression are distinct and may vary across sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2018.12.012DOI Listing
February 2019

The relationship between the MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism, delinquent peer affiliation, and antisocial behavior with a consideration of sex differences.

Psychiatr Q 2018 12;89(4):841-853

Department of Forensic Science, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA.

With the advent of new and more readily usable gene sequencing techniques, researchers have been able to examine the interactions between genes and the environment (G X E) within a multitude of scientific perspectives. One area that G X E interactions have been implicated in is the development of antisocial behavior (ASB). Antisocial behavior consists of a wide range of maladaptive behaviors and has been at the forefront of public health and mental health concerns for decades. One genetic polymorphism that has been associated with ASB is MAOA-uVNTR. Meta-analytic studies have found the low-activity MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism to be associated with ASB from early childhood through adulthood. Recently, studies have begun to examine the independent and interactive G X E relationship between MAOA-uVNTR and deviant peer affiliation on ASB. Inconsistent with the broader literature, these findings suggest an interaction between high-activity MAOA-uVNTR and deviant peer affiliation on ASB in a mixed sex sample. The current study re-examines the relationship between MAOA-uVNTR, peer delinquency, and ASB with a consideration of sex differences in 291 college participants. Findings indicate an interaction between the low-activity allele of the MAOA-uVNTR and peer delinquency in predicting ASB. Results are also specific to differences between the sexes. Implications and future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-018-9582-7DOI Listing
December 2018
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