Publications by authors named "Eric Julien"

16 Publications

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Targeting the methyltransferase SETD8 impairs tumor cell survival and overcomes drug resistance independently of p53 status in multiple myeloma.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Sep 16;13(1):174. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

IGH, CNRS, Univ Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of plasma cells that largely remains incurable. The search for new therapeutic targets is therefore essential. In addition to a wide panel of genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations also appear as important players in the development of this cancer, thereby offering the possibility to reveal novel approaches and targets for effective therapeutic intervention.

Results: Here, we show that a higher expression of the lysine methyltransferase SETD8, which is responsible for the mono-methylation of histone H4 at lysine 20, is an adverse prognosis factor associated with a poor outcome in two cohorts of newly diagnosed patients. Primary malignant plasma cells are particularly addicted to the activity of this epigenetic enzyme. Indeed, the inhibition of SETD8 by the chemical compound UNC-0379 and the subsequent decrease in histone H4 methylation at lysine 20 are highly toxic in MM cells compared to normal cells from the bone marrow microenvironment. At the molecular level, RNA sequencing and functional studies revealed that SETD8 inhibition induces a mature non-proliferating plasma cell signature and, as observed in other cancers, triggers an activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which together cause an impairment of myeloma cell proliferation and survival. However, a deadly level of replicative stress was also observed in p53-deficient myeloma cells treated with UNC-0379, indicating that the cytotoxicity associated with SETD8 inhibition is not necessarily dependent on p53 activation. Consistent with this, UNC-0379 triggers a p53-independent nucleolar stress characterized by nucleolin delocalization and reduction of nucleolar RNA synthesis. Finally, we showed that SETD8 inhibition is strongly synergistic with melphalan and may overcome resistance to this alkylating agent widely used in MM treatment.

Conclusions: Altogether, our data indicate that the up-regulation of the epigenetic enzyme SETD8 is associated with a poor outcome and the deregulation of major signaling pathways in MM. Moreover, we provide evidences that myeloma cells are dependent on SETD8 activity and its pharmacological inhibition synergizes with melphalan, which could be beneficial to improve MM treatment in high-risk patients whatever their status for p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01160-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447659PMC
September 2021

The mouse HP1 proteins are essential for preventing liver tumorigenesis.

Oncogene 2020 03 4;39(13):2676-2691. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

IRCM, Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, F-34298, Montpellier, France.

Chromatin organization is essential for appropriate interpretation of the genetic information. Here, we demonstrated that the chromatin-associated proteins HP1 are dispensable for hepatocytes survival but are essential within hepatocytes to prevent liver tumor development in mice with HP1β being pivotal in these functions. Yet, we found that the loss of HP1 per se is not sufficient to induce cell transformation but renders cells more resistant to specific stress such as the expression of oncogenes and thus in fine, more prone to cell transformation. Molecular characterization of HP1-Triple KO premalignant livers and BMEL cells revealed that HP1 are essential for the maintenance of heterochromatin organization and for the regulation of specific genes with most of them having well characterized functions in liver functions and homeostasis. We further showed that some specific retrotransposons get reactivated upon loss of HP1, correlating with overexpression of genes in their neighborhood. Interestingly, we found that, although HP1-dependent genes are characterized by enrichment H3K9me3, this mark does not require HP1 for its maintenance and is not sufficient to maintain gene repression in absence of HP1. Finally, we demonstrated that the loss of TRIM28 association with HP1 recapitulated several phenotypes induced by the loss of HP1 including the reactivation of some retrotransposons and the increased incidence of liver cancer development. Altogether, our findings indicate that HP1 proteins act as guardians of liver homeostasis to prevent tumor development by modulating multiple chromatin-associated events within both the heterochromatic and euchromatic compartments, partly through regulation of the corepressor TRIM28 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1177-8DOI Listing
March 2020

Histone H4K20 methylation mediated chromatin compaction threshold ensures genome integrity by limiting DNA replication licensing.

Nat Commun 2018 09 12;9(1):3704. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC), Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaløes Vej 5, 2200, Copenhagen N, Denmark.

The decompaction and re-establishment of chromatin organization immediately after mitosis is essential for genome regulation. Mechanisms underlying chromatin structure control in daughter cells are not fully understood. Here we show that a chromatin compaction threshold in cells exiting mitosis ensures genome integrity by limiting replication licensing in G1 phase. Upon mitotic exit, chromatin relaxation is controlled by SET8-dependent methylation of histone H4 on lysine 20. In the absence of either SET8 or H4K20 residue, substantial genome-wide chromatin decompaction occurs allowing excessive loading of the origin recognition complex (ORC) in the daughter cells. ORC overloading stimulates aberrant recruitment of the MCM2-7 complex that promotes single-stranded DNA formation and DNA damage. Restoring chromatin compaction restrains excess replication licensing and loss of genome integrity. Our findings identify a cell cycle-specific mechanism whereby fine-tuned chromatin relaxation suppresses excessive detrimental replication licensing and maintains genome integrity at the cellular transition from mitosis to G1 phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06066-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135857PMC
September 2018

Cell-cycle regulation of non-enzymatic functions of the Drosophila methyltransferase PR-Set7.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 04;46(6):2834-2849

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), INSERM U1194, Institut Régional du Cancer (ICM), Montpellier F-34298, France.

Tight cell-cycle regulation of the histone H4-K20 methyltransferase PR-Set7 is essential for the maintenance of genome integrity. In mammals, this mainly involves the interaction of PR-Set7 with the replication factor PCNA, which triggers the degradation of the enzyme by the CRL4CDT2 E3 ubiquitin ligase. PR-Set7 is also targeted by the SCFβ-TRCP ligase, but the role of this additional regulatory pathway remains unclear. Here, we show that Drosophila PR-Set7 undergoes a cell-cycle proteolytic regulation, independently of its interaction with PCNA. Instead, Slimb, the ortholog of β-TRCP, is specifically required for the degradation of the nuclear pool of PR-Set7 prior to S phase. Consequently, inactivation of Slimb leads to nuclear accumulation of PR-Set7, which triggers aberrant chromatin compaction and G1/S arrest. Strikingly, these phenotypes result from non-enzymatic PR-Set7 functions that prevent proper histone H4 acetylation independently of H4K20 methylation. Altogether, these results identify the Slimb-mediated PR-Set7 proteolysis as a new critical regulatory mechanism required for proper interphase chromatin organization at G1/S transition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5888314PMC
April 2018

Histone H4K20 tri-methylation at late-firing origins ensures timely heterochromatin replication.

EMBO J 2017 09 4;36(18):2726-2741. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), INSERM U1194, Institut Régional du Cancer (ICM), Montpellier, France

Among other targets, the protein lysine methyltransferase PR-Set7 induces histone H4 lysine 20 monomethylation (H4K20me1), which is the substrate for further methylation by the Suv4-20h methyltransferase. Although these enzymes have been implicated in control of replication origins, the specific contribution of H4K20 methylation to DNA replication remains unclear. Here, we show that H4K20 mutation in mammalian cells, unlike in , partially impairs S-phase progression and protects from DNA re-replication induced by stabilization of PR-Set7. Using Epstein-Barr virus-derived episomes, we further demonstrate that conversion of H4K20me1 to higher H4K20me2/3 states by Suv4-20h is not sufficient to define an efficient origin , but rather serves as an enhancer for MCM2-7 helicase loading and replication activation at defined origins. Consistent with this, we find that Suv4-20h-mediated H4K20 tri-methylation (H4K20me3) is required to sustain the licensing and activity of a subset of ORCA/LRWD1-associated origins, which ensure proper replication timing of late-replicating heterochromatin domains. Altogether, these results reveal Suv4-20h-mediated H4K20 tri-methylation as a critical determinant in the selection of active replication initiation sites in heterochromatin regions of mammalian genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201796541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5599798PMC
September 2017

Structures of Nahuoic Acids B-E Produced in Culture by a Streptomyces sp. Isolated from a Marine Sediment and Evidence for the Inhibition of the Histone Methyl Transferase SETD8 in Human Cancer Cells by Nahuoic Acid A.

J Org Chem 2016 Feb 1;81(4):1324-32. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Departments of Chemistry and Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia , 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z1.

Nahuoic acids A-E (1-5) have been isolated from laboratory cultures of a Streptomyces sp. obtained from a tropical marine sediment. The structures of the new polyketides 2-5 were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data of the natural products and the chemical derivatives 6 and 7. Nahuoic acids 1-5 are in vitro inhibitors of the histone methyltransferase SETD8, and nahuoic acid A (1) and its pentaacetate derivative 8 inhibit the proliferation of several cancer cells lines in vitro with modest potency. At the IC50 for cancer cell proliferation, nahuoic acid A (1) showed selective inhibition of SETD8 in U2OS osteosarcoma cells that reflect its selectivity against a panel of pure histone methyl transferases. A cell cycle analysis revealed that the cellular toxicity of nahuoic acid A (1) is likely linked to its ability to inhibit SETD8 activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.5b02569DOI Listing
February 2016

The transcription factor E4F1 coordinates CHK1-dependent checkpoint and mitochondrial functions.

Cell Rep 2015 Apr 2;11(2):220-33. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Equipe labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, UMR5535, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 34293 Montpellier, France; Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), 34298 Montpellier, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1194, 34298 Montpellier, France; Université de Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France; Institut régional du Cancer de Montpellier, 34298 Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Recent data support the notion that a group of key transcriptional regulators involved in tumorigenesis, including MYC, p53, E2F1, and BMI1, share an intriguing capacity to simultaneously regulate metabolism and cell cycle. Here, we show that another factor, the multifunctional protein E4F1, directly controls genes involved in mitochondria functions and cell-cycle checkpoints, including Chek1, a major component of the DNA damage response. Coordination of these cellular functions by E4F1 appears essential for the survival of p53-deficient transformed cells. Acute inactivation of E4F1 in these cells results in CHK1-dependent checkpoint deficiency and multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions that lead to increased ROS production, energy stress, and inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis. This deadly cocktail leads to the accumulation of uncompensated oxidative damage to proteins and extensive DNA damage, ending in cell death. This supports the rationale of therapeutic strategies simultaneously targeting mitochondria and CHK1 for selective killing of p53-deficient cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.024DOI Listing
April 2015

Coupling mitosis to DNA replication: the emerging role of the histone H4-lysine 20 methyltransferase PR-Set7.

Trends Cell Biol 2011 Aug 31;21(8):452-60. Epub 2011 May 31.

Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier (IGMM), Université Montpellier 2 and Université Montpellier 1, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Unité Mixte Recherche, France.

To ensure accurate inheritance of genetic information through cell proliferation, chromosomes must be precisely copied only during S phase, and then correctly condensed and segregated during mitosis. Several new findings suggest that this tight coupling between DNA replication and mitosis is in part controlled by cell cycle regulated chromatin modifications, in particular due to the changing activity of lysine methyltransferase PR-Set7/SET8 that is responsible for the monomethylation of histone H4 at lysine 20. Cell cycle oscillation of PR-Set7 is orchestrated by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and interference with this regulatory process leads to unscheduled licensing of replication origins and altered timing of mitotic chromosome compaction. This review provides an overview of how PR-Set7 regulates these two cell cycle events and highlights questions that remain to be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2011.04.006DOI Listing
August 2011

The histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase PR-Set7 regulates replication origins in mammalian cells.

Nat Cell Biol 2010 Nov 17;12(11):1086-93. Epub 2010 Oct 17.

Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier (IGMM), UMR 5535 CNRS, Montpellier, France.

The initiation of DNA synthesis is governed by the licensing of replication origins, which consists of assembling a pre-replication complex (pre-RC) on origins during late M- and G1-phases. In metazoans, functional replication origins do not show defined DNA consensus sequences, thus evoking the involvement of chromatin determinants in the selection of these origins. Here, we show that the onset of licensing in mammalian cells coincides with an increase in histone H4 Lys 20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) at replication origins by the methyltransferase PR-Set7 (also known as Set8 or KMT5A). Indeed, tethering PR-Set7 methylase activity to a specific genomic locus promotes the loading of pre-RC proteins on chromatin. In addition, we demonstrate that PR-Set7 undergoes a PCNA- and Cul4-Ddb1-driven degradation during S phase that contributes to the disappearance of H4K20me1 at origins and the inhibition of replication licensing. Strikingly, expression of a PR-Set7 mutant insensitive to this degradation causes the maintenance of H4K20me1 and repeated DNA replication at origins. These results elucidate a critical role for PR-Set7 and H4K20me1 in the chromatin events that regulate replication origins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb2113DOI Listing
November 2010

PR-SET7 and SUV4-20H regulate H4 lysine-20 methylation at imprinting control regions in the mouse.

EMBO Rep 2008 Oct 22;9(10):998-1005. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Institute of Molecular Genetics, CNRS and University of Montpellier, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier, France.

Imprinted genes are important in development and their allelic expression is mediated by imprinting control regions (ICRs). On their DNA-methylated allele, ICRs are marked by trimethylation at H3 Lys 9 (H3K9me3) and H4 Lys 20 (H4K20me3), similar to pericentric heterochromatin. Here, we investigate which histone methyltransferases control this methylation of histone at ICRs. We found that inactivation of SUV4-20H leads to the loss of H4K20me3 and increased levels of its substrate, H4K20me1. H4K20me1 is controlled by PR-SET7 and is detected on both parental alleles. The disruption of SUV4-20H or PR-SET7 does not affect methylation of DNA at ICRs but influences precipitation of H3K9me3, which is suggestive of a trans-histone change. Unlike at pericentric heterochromatin, however, H3K9me3 at ICRs does not depend on SUV39H. Our data show not only new similarities but also differences between ICRs and heterochromatin, both of which show constitutive maintenance of methylation of DNA in somatic cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/embor.2008.147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2525564PMC
October 2008

PR-Set7-dependent lysine methylation ensures genome replication and stability through S phase.

J Cell Biol 2007 Dec 24;179(7):1413-26. Epub 2007 Dec 24.

University of Montpellier II, Institut de Génétique Moléculaire de Montpellier, 34293 Montpellier, Cedex 5, France.

PR-Set7/SET8 is a histone H4-lysine 20 methyltransferase required for normal cell proliferation. However, the exact functions of this enzyme remain to be determined. In this study, we show that human PR-Set7 functions during S phase to regulate cellular proliferation. PR-Set7 associates with replication foci and maintains the bulk of H4-K20 mono- and trimethylation. Consistent with a function in chromosome dynamics during S phase, inhibition of PR-Set7 methyltransferase activity by small hairpin RNA causes a replicative stress characterized by alterations in replication fork velocity and origin firing. This stress is accompanied by massive induction of DNA strand breaks followed by a robust DNA damage response. The DNA damage response includes the activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and ataxia telangiectasia related kinase-mediated pathways, which, in turn, leads to p53-mediated growth arrest to avoid aberrant chromosome behavior after improper DNA replication. Collectively, these data indicate that PR-Set7-dependent lysine methylation during S phase is an essential posttranslational mechanism that ensures genome replication and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200706179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2373513PMC
December 2007

Epigenetic regulation of histone H3 serine 10 phosphorylation status by HCF-1 proteins in C. elegans and mammalian cells.

PLoS One 2007 Nov 28;2(11):e1213. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, United States of America.

Background: The human herpes simplex virus (HSV) host cell factor HCF-1 is a transcriptional coregulator that associates with both histone methyl- and acetyltransferases, and a histone deacetylase and regulates cell proliferation and division. In HSV-infected cells, HCF-1 associates with the viral protein VP16 to promote formation of a multiprotein-DNA transcriptional activator complex. The ability of HCF proteins to stabilize this VP16-induced complex has been conserved in diverse animal species including Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans suggesting that VP16 targets a conserved cellular function of HCF-1.

Methodology/principal Findings: To investigate the role of HCF proteins in animal development, we have characterized the effects of loss of the HCF-1 homolog in C. elegans, called Ce HCF-1. Two large hcf-1 deletion mutants (pk924 and ok559) are viable but display reduced fertility. Loss of Ce HCF-1 protein at reduced temperatures (e.g., 12 degrees C), however, leads to a high incidence of embryonic lethality and early embryonic mitotic and cytokinetic defects reminiscent of mammalian cell-division defects upon loss of HCF-1 function. Even when viable, however, at normal temperature, mutant embryos display reduced levels of phospho-histone H3 serine 10 (H3S10P), a modification implicated in both transcriptional and mitotic regulation. Mammalian cells with defective HCF-1 also display defects in mitotic H3S10P status.

Conclusions/significance: These results suggest that HCF-1 proteins possess conserved roles in the regulation of cell division and mitotic histone phosphorylation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001213PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2082077PMC
November 2007

E4F1 is an atypical ubiquitin ligase that modulates p53 effector functions independently of degradation.

Cell 2006 Nov;127(4):775-88

Institut de Génétique Moléculaire CNRS-UMII UMR5535, IFR122, Montpellier 34293, France.

p53 is regulated by multiple posttranslational modifications, including Hdm2-mediated ubiquitylation that drives its proteasomal degradation. Here, we identify the p53-associated factor E4F1, a ubiquitously expressed zinc-finger protein first identified as a cellular target of the viral oncoprotein E1A, as an atypical ubiquitin E3 ligase for p53 that modulates its effector functions without promoting proteolysis. E4F1 stimulates oligo-ubiquitylation in the hinge region of p53 on lysine residues distinct from those targeted by Hdm2 and previously described to be acetylated by the acetyltransferase PCAF. E4F1 and PCAF mediate mutually exclusive posttranslational modifications of p53. E4F1-dependent Ub-p53 conjugates are associated with chromatin, and their stimulation coincides with the induction of a p53-dependent transcriptional program specifically involved in cell cycle arrest, and not apoptosis. Collectively, our data reveal that E4F1 is a key posttranslational regulator of p53, which modulates its effector functions involved in alternative cell fates: growth arrest or apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.09.031DOI Listing
November 2006

Anti-HPA-9bw (Maxa) fetomaternal alloimmunization, a clinically severe neonatal thrombocytopenia: difficulties in diagnosis and therapy and report on eight families.

Transfusion 2005 Nov;45(11):1799-803

INTS, Platelet Immunology Unit, Paris, France.

Background: Fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) results from a maternal alloimmunization against fetal platelet (PLT) antigens. In Caucasian persons, HPA-1a is the most frequently implicated antigen. During the past few years, FMAIT has been reported associated with rare or private antigens.

Study Design And Methods: Since the first documented case of FMAIT due to anti-HPA-9bw (Max(a)), no additional cases have been reported. Here a retrospective analysis is presented of the cases referred to our laboratories in recent years. The diagnosis was performed by genotyping and identification of the maternal alloantibody by the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of PLT antigens (MAIPA) technique.

Results: Parental genotyping showed HPA-9bw (Max(a)) mismatch as the sole antigenic incompatibility in seven of eight families. Because the father was found to be HPA-9bw (Max(a)) heterozygous in all the cases, the infant or fetus was genotyped to ascertain the diagnosis. The maternal alloantibody was identified in the MAIPA technique. These data strongly suggest, however, that recognition of the HPA-9bw (Max(a)) epitope is not uniform. The neonatal thrombocytopenia was severe in most cases with bleeding. The outcome was good in all the cases but one.

Conclusion: This analysis confirms that anti-HPA-9bw (Max(a)) FMAIT is not uncommon and was found to be approximately 2 percent of our confirmed FMAIT cases. It is a clinically severe syndrome that requires prompt diagnosis, albeit difficult, and maternal PLT transfusion therapy. Laboratory investigation of a suspected FMAIT case should be carried out in a specialist laboratory well-experienced in optimal testing. Appropriate management and antenatal therapy should be considered for successive pregnancies to prevent fetal bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1537-2995.2005.00606.xDOI Listing
November 2005

A switch in mitotic histone H4 lysine 20 methylation status is linked to M phase defects upon loss of HCF-1.

Mol Cell 2004 Jun;14(6):713-25

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1 Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.

The abundant chromatin-associated human factor HCF-1 is a heterodimeric complex of HCF-1N and HCF-1C subunits that are essential for two stages of the cell cycle. The HCF-1N subunit promotes G1 phase progression, whereas the HCF-1C subunit ensures proper cytokinesis at completion of M phase. How the HCF-1C subunit functions is unknown. Here, we show that HCF-1C subunit depletion causes extensive mitotic defects, including a switch from monomethyl to dimethyl lysine 20 of histone H4 (H4-K20) and defective chromosome alignment and segregation. Consistent with these activities, the HCF-1C subunit can associate with chromatin independently of the HCF-1N subunit and regulates the expression of the H4-K20 methyltransferase PR-Set7. Indeed, upregulation of PR-Set7 expression upon loss of HCF-1 leads to improper mitotic H4-K20 methylation and cytokinesis defects. These results establish the HCF-1C subunit as an important M phase regulator and suggest that H4-K20 methylation status contributes to chromosome behavior during mitosis and proper cytokinesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2004.06.008DOI Listing
June 2004

Proteolytic processing is necessary to separate and ensure proper cell growth and cytokinesis functions of HCF-1.

EMBO J 2003 May;22(10):2360-9

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, NY 11724, USA.

HCF-1 is a highly conserved and abundant chromatin-associated host cell factor required for transcriptional activation of herpes simplex virus immediate-early genes by the virion protein VP16. HCF-1 exists as a heterodimeric complex of associated N- (HCF-1(N)) and C- (HCF-1(C)) terminal subunits that result from proteolytic processing of a precursor protein. We have used small-interfering RNA (siRNA) to inactivate HCF-1 in an array of normal and transformed mammalian cells to identify its cellular functions. Our results show that HCF-1 is a broadly acting regulator of two stages of the cell cycle: exit from mitosis, where it ensures proper cytokinesis, and passage through the G(1) phase, where it promotes cell cycle progression. Proteolytic processing is necessary to separate and ensure these two HCF-1 activities, which are performed by separate HCF-1 subunits: the HCF-1(N) subunit promotes passage through the G(1) phase whereas the HCF-1(C) subunit is involved in proper exit from mitosis. These results suggest that HCF-1 links the regulation of exit from mitosis and the G(1) phase of cell growth, possibly to coordinate the reactivation of gene expression after mitosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emboj/cdg242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC156000PMC
May 2003
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