Publications by authors named "Eric Cardinale"

56 Publications

The role of livestock movements in the spread of Rift Valley fever virus in animals and humans in Mayotte, 2018-19.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 8;15(3):e0009202. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health group, Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease of major animal and public health importance. In 2018-19, it caused an epidemic in both livestock and human populations of the island of Mayotte. Using Bayesian modelling approaches, we assessed the spatio-temporal pattern of RVF virus (RVFV) infection in livestock and human populations across the island, and factors shaping it. First, we assessed if (i) livestock movements, (ii) spatial proximity from communes with infected animals, and (iii) livestock density were associated with the temporal sequence of RVFV introduction into Mayotte communes' livestock populations. Second, we assessed whether the rate of human infection was associated with (a) spatial proximity from and (b) livestock density of communes with infected animals. Our analyses showed that the temporal sequence of RVFV introduction into communes' livestock populations was associated with livestock movements and spatial proximity from communes with infected animals, with livestock movements being associated with the best model fit. Moreover, the pattern of human cases was associated with their spatial proximity from communes with infected animals, with the risk of human infection sharply increasing if livestock in the same or close communes were infected. This study highlights the importance of understanding livestock movement networks in informing the design of risk-based RVF surveillance programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939299PMC
March 2021

Describing fine spatiotemporal dynamics of rat fleas in an insular ecosystem enlightens abiotic drivers of murine typhus incidence in humans.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 18;15(2):e0009029. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

UMR PIMIT, Univ La Réunion, INSERM, CNRS, IRD, CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, Reunion Island, France.

Murine typhus is a flea-borne zoonotic disease that has been recently reported on Reunion Island, an oceanic volcanic island located in the Indian Ocean. Five years of survey implemented by the regional public health services have highlighted a strong temporal and spatial structure of the disease in humans, with cases mainly reported during the humid season and restricted to the dry southern and western portions of the island. We explored the environmental component of this zoonosis in an attempt to decipher the drivers of disease transmission. To do so, we used data from a previously published study (599 small mammals and 175 Xenopsylla fleas from 29 sampling sites) in order to model the spatial distribution of rat fleas throughout the island. In addition, we carried out a longitudinal sampling of rats and their ectoparasites over a 12 months period in six study sites (564 rats and 496 Xenopsylla fleas) in order to model the temporal dynamics of flea infestation of rats. Generalized Linear Models and Support Vector Machine classifiers were developed to model the Xenopsylla Genus Flea Index (GFI) from climatic and environmental variables. Results showed that the spatial distribution and the temporal dynamics of fleas, estimated through the GFI variations, are both strongly controlled by abiotic factors: rainfall, temperature and land cover. The models allowed linking flea abundance trends with murine typhus incidence rates. Flea infestation in rats peaked at the end of the dry season, corresponding to hot and dry conditions, before dropping sharply. This peak of maximal flea abundance preceded the annual peak of human murine typhus cases by a few weeks. Altogether, presented data raise novel questions regarding the ecology of rat fleas while developed models contribute to the design of control measures adapted to each micro region of the island with the aim of lowering the incidence of flea-borne diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924756PMC
February 2021

Using a participatory qualitative risk assessment to estimate the risk of introduction and spread of transboundary animal diseases in scarce-data environments: A Spatial Qualitative Risk Analysis applied to foot-and-mouth disease in Tunisia 2014-2019.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

This article presents a participative and iterative qualitative risk assessment framework that can be used to evaluate the spatial variation of the risk of infectious animal disease introduction and spread on a national scale. The framework was developed through regional training action workshops and field activities. The active involvement of national animal health services enabled the identification, collection and hierarchization of risk factors. Quantitative data were collected in the field, and expert knowledge was integrated to adjust the available data at regional level. Experts categorized and combined the risk factors into ordinal levels of risk per epidemiological unit to ease implementation of risk-based surveillance in the field. The framework was used to perform a qualitative assessment of the risk of introduction and spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Tunisia as part of a series of workshops held between 2015 and 2018. The experts in attendance combined risk factors such as epidemiological status, transboundary movements, proximity to the borders and accessibility to assess the risk of FMD outbreaks in Tunisia. Out of the 2,075 Tunisian imadas, 23 were at a very high risk of FMD introduction, mainly at the borders; and 59 were at a very high risk of FMD spread. To validate the model, the results were compared to the FMD outbreaks notified by Tunisia during the 2014 FMD epizootic. Using a spatial Poisson model, a significant alignment between the very high and high-risk categories of spread and the occurrence of FMD outbreaks was shown. The relative risk of FMD occurrence was thus 3.2 higher for imadas in the very high and high spread risk categories than for imadas in the low and negligible spread risk categories. Our results show that the qualitative risk assessment framework can be a useful decision support tool for risk-based disease surveillance and control, in particular in scarce-data environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13920DOI Listing
November 2020

Reunion Island, a sentinel territory for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria surveillance in the South-Western Indian Ocean: a retrospective survey using hospitalized patient screening, 2015-2017.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 1;20(1):1488. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

UMR Animal Santé Territoires Risque Environnement (CIRAD, INRAe, Univ Montpellier), Montpellier, France.

Background: In 2015, antimicrobial resistance was identified as a public health priority for the South-Western Indian Ocean (SWIO) (i.e. Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte (France), Reunion Island (France), and Seychelles). However, in 2020, colonization rates of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) in human populations on most islands in SWIO were still not known and neither hospital nor community colonization rates had been estimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of colonization of six ARB groups in hospitalized patients residing in the SWIO territories. The six groups comprise extended-spectrum betalactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and both ceftazidime and/or imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (ACB), and ceftazidime and/or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas spp. (PSA)).

Methods: Based on comprehensive hospital laboratory ARB screening data, we provide the first estimation of ARB colonization rates in hospitalized patients residing in SWIO (2015-2017). Using ARB colonization rates in Reunion Island (France) as the reference for estimating odds ratio, we identified at risk patients based on their territory of residence.

Results: The survey pointed to significantly higher overall ARB colonization rates in patients from Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte, and Seychelles compared to Reunion Island as the reference. Extended-spectrum betalactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae was found to be the most common ARB group colonizing patients from SWIO territories. The highest MRSA colonization rates were observed in patients from Mayotte and Seychelles. Colonization by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was highest in patients from Mauritius.

Conclusion: These results identify high ARB colonization rates in hospitalized patients from SWIO territories that require further investigation, particularly CRE in Mauritius and MRSA in Seychelles and Mayotte. This study is the first step toward the implementation of a broader regional ARB surveillance system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09591-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528459PMC
October 2020

Estimation of Rift Valley fever virus spillover to humans during the Mayotte 2018-2019 epidemic.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 09 14;117(39):24567-24574. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Santé Publique France, Cellule Mayotte de Santé publique France, 97600 Mamoudzou, France.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging, zoonotic, arboviral hemorrhagic fever threatening livestock and humans mainly in Africa. RVF is of global concern, having expanded its geographical range over the last decades. The impact of control measures on epidemic dynamics using empirical data has not been assessed. Here, we fitted a mathematical model to seroprevalence livestock and human RVF case data from the 2018-2019 epidemic in Mayotte to estimate viral transmission among livestock, and spillover from livestock to humans through both direct contact and vector-mediated routes. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of vaccination on reducing the epidemic size. The rate of spillover by direct contact was about twice as high as vector transmission. Assuming 30% of the population were farmers, each transmission route contributed to 45% and 55% of the number of human infections, respectively. Reactive vaccination immunizing 20% of the livestock population reduced the number of human cases by 30%. Vaccinating 1 mo later required using 50% more vaccine doses for a similar reduction. Vaccinating only farmers required 10 times as more vaccine doses for a similar reduction in human cases. Finally, with 52.0% (95% credible interval [CrI] [42.9-59.4]) of livestock immune at the end of the epidemic wave, viral reemergence in the next rainy season (2019-2020) is unlikely. Coordinated human and animal health surveillance, and timely livestock vaccination appear to be key to controlling RVF in this setting. We furthermore demonstrate the value of a One Health quantitative approach to surveillance and control of zoonotic infectious diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2004468117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7533885PMC
September 2020

In vitro shared transcriptomic responses of Aedes aegypti to arboviral infections: example of dengue and Rift Valley fever viruses.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Aug 5;13(1):395. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, 97490, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Background: Arthropod borne virus infections are the cause of severe emerging diseases. Among the diseases due to arboviruses, dengue (DEN) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are in the top ten in the list of diseases responsible of severe human cases worldwide. Understanding the effects of viral infection on gene expression in competent vectors is a challenge for the development of early diagnostic tools and may enable researchers and policy makers to better anticipate outbreaks in the next future.

Methods: In this study, alterations in gene expression across the entire Aedes aegypti genome during infection with DENV and RVFV were investigated in vitro at two time points of infection, the early phase (24 h) and the late phase (6 days) of infection using the RNA sequencing approach RESULTS: A total of 10 upregulated genes that share a similar expression profile during infection with both viruses at early and late phases of infection were identified. Family B and D clip-domain serine proteases (CLIP) were clearly overrepresented as well as C-type lectins and transferrin.

Conclusions: Our data highlight the presence of 10 viral genes upregulated in Ae. aegypti during infection. They may also be targeted in the case of the development of broad-spectrum anti-viral diagnostic tools focusing the mosquito vectors rather than the mammalian hosts as they may predict the emergence of outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04253-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404916PMC
August 2020

Spatial Multicriteria Evaluation for Mapping the Risk of Occurrence of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Eastern Africa and the Union of the Comoros.

Front Vet Sci 2019 12;6:455. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

UMR ASTRE, CIRAD, Ste-Clotilde, France.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), responsible for peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is widely circulating in Africa and Asia. The disease is a huge burden for the economy and development of the affected countries. In Eastern Africa, the disease is considered endemic. Because of the geographic proximity and existing trade between eastern African countries and the Comoros archipelago, the latter is at risk of introduction and spread, and the first PPR outbreaks occurred in the Union of the Comoros in 2012. The objective of this study was to map the areas suitable for PPR occurrence and spread in the Union of the Comoros and four eastern African countries, namely Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE) was developed. Risk factors for PPR occurrence and spread, and their relative importance, were identified using literature review and expert-based knowledge. Corresponding geographic data were collected, standardized, and combined based on a weighted linear combination to obtain PPR suitability maps. The accuracy of the maps was assessed using outbreak data from the EMPRES database and a ROC curve analysis. Our model showed an excellent ability to distinguish between absence and presence of outbreaks in Eastern Africa (AUC = 0.907; 95% CI [0.820-0.994]), and a very good performance in the Union of the Comoros (AUC = 0.889, 95% CI: [0.694-1]). These results highlight the efficiency of the GIS-MCE method, which can be applied at different geographic scales: continental, national and local. The resulting maps provide decision support tools for implementation of disease surveillance and control measures, thus contributing to the PPR eradication goal of OIE and FAO by 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2019.00455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6922030PMC
December 2019

Modelling temporal dynamics of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) populations on Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), vectors of viruses of veterinary importance.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Nov 27;12(1):562. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, 97490, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Background: Reunion Island regularly faces outbreaks of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT), two viral diseases transmitted by haematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to ruminants. To date, five species of Culicoides are recorded in Reunion Island in which the first two are proven vector species: Culicoides bolitinos, C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. grahamii and C. kibatiensis. Meteorological and environmental factors can severely constrain Culicoides populations and activities and thereby affect dispersion and intensity of transmission of Culicoides-borne viruses. The aim of this study was to describe and predict the temporal dynamics of all Culicoides species present in Reunion Island.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2018, 55 biweekly Culicoides catches using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute traps were set up in 11 sites. A hurdle model (i.e. a presence/absence model combined with an abundance model) was developed for each species in order to determine meteorological and environmental drivers of presence and abundance of Culicoides.

Results: Abundance displayed very strong heterogeneity between sites. Average Culicoides catch per site per night ranged from 4 to 45,875 individuals. Culicoides imicola was dominant at low altitude and C. kibatiensis at high altitude. A marked seasonality was observed for the three other species with annual variations. Twelve groups of variables were tested. It was found that presence and/or abundance of all five Culicoides species were driven by common parameters: rain, temperature, vegetation index, forested environment and host density. Other parameters such as wind speed and farm building opening size governed abundance level of some species. In addition, Culicoides populations were also affected by meteorological parameters and/or vegetation index with different lags of time, suggesting an impact on immature stages. Taking into account all the parameters for the final hurdle model, the error rate by Normalized Root mean Square Error ranged from 4.4 to 8.5%.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to model Culicoides population dynamics in Reunion Island. In the absence of vaccination and vector control strategies, determining periods of high abundance of Culicoides is a crucial first step towards identifying periods at high risk of transmission for the two economically important viruses they transmit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3812-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880491PMC
November 2019

Development and validation of a pen side test for Rift Valley fever.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 09 11;13(9):e0007700. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is one of the main vector borne zoonotic diseases that affects a wide range of ruminants and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. A rapid and specific test for RVF diagnosis at the site of a suspected outbreak is crucial for the implementation of control measures.

Methodology/principal Findings: A first-line lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFT) was developed for the detection of the nucleoprotein (N) of the RVF virus (RVFV). Its diagnostic performance characteristics were evaluated using reference stocks isolates recovered from different hosts and in geographic regions mimicking clinical specimens and from known RVF negative serum samples. A high level of diagnostic accuracy (DSe (35/35), DSp (167/169)) was observed, including the absence of cross-reactivity with viruses belonging to different genera.

Conclusion/significance: The fact no specialized reagents and laboratory equipment are needed, make this assay a valuable, first-line diagnostic tool in resource-poor diagnostic territories for on-site RVFV detection, however the staff require training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738586PMC
September 2019

How could an African swine fever outbreak evolve in an enzootic context? The case of Imerintsiatosika, Madagascar in 2015.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(9):e0221928. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Epidemic Intelligence Unit, SEGA One Health Network, Indian Ocean Commission, Ébène, Mauritius.

African swine fever (ASF) is a haemorrhagic contagious pig disease generally causing high mortality. ASF is enzootic in Madagascar with outbreaks reported each year. An ASF outbreak occurred in May 2015 in the municipality of Imerintsiatosika in Madagascar. We investigated the outbreak to describe it and to identify risk factors in order to propose control measures, and to document evidence of an ASF outbreak in an enzootic country. We took biological samples from very sick and dying pigs, sold by the farmer to the butcher, for PCR analysis. An active search for all possible farm-cases was carried out. A definition of suspected farm-case was established and we implemented a descriptive survey and a retrospective cohort study. Laboratory results confirmed ASF virus infection. Suspected farm-cases represented 81 farms out of 922. Out of 3081 pigs of infected farms, 44% (95% CI: 42-46%) were sick, of which 47% were sold or slaughtered. Case fatality was 60% (95% CI: 56-63%) while 21% (95% CI: 19-24%) of the diseased pigs recovered. The outbreak duration was nine months and half of the infected farms' pig population remained after the outbreak. Compared to the exotic breed, local pigs had twice the risk of infection. It is the first detailed report of an ASF outbreak in an enzootic situation. The disease still has a large impact with 50% animals lost. However, the case fatality is lower than expected that suggests the possibility of resistance and subclinical cases. Proximity to road and increased number of farms are risk factors so biosecurity measures are needed. Further studies are needed to understand why pigs of local breed are more affected. Finally, an acceptable alternative to the sale of sick animals should be found as this currently is the breeders' means to reducing economic loss.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221928PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6730906PMC
March 2020

Co-circulation and characterization of novel African arboviruses (genus Ephemerovirus) in cattle, Mayotte island, Indian Ocean, 2017.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Nov 27;66(6):2601-2604. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier (I-MUSE), CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Mayotte is an island located in the Mozambique Channel, between Mozambique and Madagascar, in the South Western Indian Ocean region. A severe syndrome of unknown aetiology has been observed seasonally since 2009 in cattle (locally named "cattle flu"), associated with anorexia, nasal discharge, hyperthermia and lameness. We sampled blood from a panel of those severely affected animals at the onset of disease signs and analysed these samples by next-generation sequencing. We first identified the presence of ephemeral bovine fever viruses (BEFV), an arbovirus belonging to the genus Ephemerovirus within the family Rhabdoviridae, thus representing the first published sequences of BEFV viruses of African origin. In addition, we also discovered and genetically characterized a potential new species within the genus Ephemerovirus, called Mavingoni virus (MVGV) from one diseased animal. Finally, both MVGV and BEFV have been identified in cattle from the same herd, evidencing a co-circulation of different ephemeroviruses on the island. The clinical, epidemiological and virological information strongly suggests that these viruses represent the etiological agents of the observed "cattle flu" within this region. This study highlights the importance of the strengthening and harmonizing arboviral surveillance in Mayotte and its neighbouring areas, including Africa mainland, given the importance of the diffusion of infectious diseases (such as BEFV) mediated by animal and human movements in the South Western Indian Ocean area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899740PMC
November 2019

Seroprevalence of (Q fever) Exposure in Humans on Reunion Island.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Jul 15;6(7):ofz227. Epub 2019 May 15.

UM 134 PIMIT Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire Tropical, Université de La Réunion, INSERM 1187, CNRS 9192, IRD 249, CYROI, Sainte Clotilde, Reunion, France.

After the documentation of sporadic cases of Q fever endocarditis, we conducted a serosurvey to assess exposure on Reunion Island. Two hundred forty-one stored frozen human sera were analyzed using an immunofluorescence assay. The weighted seroprevalence of Q fever was of 6.81% (95% confidence interval, 4.02%-9.59%). Despite the absence of infection in youths <20 years of age, exposure was not driven by age or by gender. There was a spatial disparity in exposure across the island, with higher prevalence being reported in regions where ruminant farms are present. The seroprevalence pattern suggests that Q fever is endemic on Reunion Island.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6602885PMC
July 2019

Culicoides Latreille in the sun: faunistic inventory of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Mayotte (Comoros Archipelago, Indian Ocean).

Parasit Vectors 2019 Mar 22;12(1):135. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: The south-west insular territories of the Indian Ocean have recently received attention concerning the diversity of arthropods of medical or veterinary interest. While a recent study highlighted the circulation of Culicoides-borne viruses, namely bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease, with clinical cases in Mayotte (comprising two islands, Petite-Terre and Grand-Terre), Comoros Archipelago, no data have been published concerning the species diversity of Culicoides present on the two islands.

Results: A total of 194,734 biting midges were collected in 18 sites, covering two collection sessions (April and June) in Mayotte. Our study reports for the first time livestock-associated Culicoides species and recorded at least 17 described Afrotropical species and one undescribed species. The most abundant species during the April collection session were C. trifasciellus (84.1%), C. bolitinos (5.4%), C. enderleini (3.9%), C. leucostictus (3.3%) and C. rhizophorensis (2.1%). All other species including C. imicola represented less than 1% of the total collection. Abundance ranged between 126-78,842 females with a mean and median abundance of 14,338 and 5111 individuals/night/site, respectively. During the June collection, the abundance per night was low, ranging between 6-475 individuals. Despite low abundance, C. trifasciellus and C. bolitinos were still the most abundant species. Culicoides sp. #50 is recorded for the first time outside South Africa.

Conclusions: Our study reports for the first time the Culicoides species list for Mayotte, Comoros Archipelago, Indian Ocean. The low abundance and rare occurrence of C. imicola, which is usually considered the most abundant species in the Afrotropical region, is unexpected. The most abundant and frequent species is C. trifasciellus, which is not considered as a vector species so far, but its role needs further investigation. Further work is needed to describe Culicoides sp. #50 and to carry on faunistic investigations on the other islands of the archipelago as well as in neighboring countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3379-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431056PMC
March 2019

Evidence of bluetongue and Epizootic Haemorrhagic disease circulation on the island of Mayotte.

Acta Trop 2019 Mar 24;191:24-28. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier, France; CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the epidemiological situation in Mayotte regarding two orbiviruses: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and Epizootic Haemorrhagic Disease virus (EHDV). In all, 385 individual asymptomatic cattle were blood-sampled (one EDTA and one serum tube per animal) between February and June 2016. Antibody (ELISA) and genome prevalence (PCR) was assessed. Almost all the selected cattle showed antibodies against both BTV and EHDV, at 99.5% (CI95% [98.00, 100]) and 96.9% (CI95% [94.5, 98.3]), respectively. Most of the cattle acquired antibodies in their first years of age. EHDV and BTV genomes were detected in 25.2% (CI95% [21.1, 29.8]) and 18.2% (CI95% [14.6, 22.4]) of samples, respectively. Coinfection with BTV and EHDV was observed in 9.4% of samples (CI95% [6.8, 12.7]). Cattle under three years old were more frequently reported as positive for genome detection by PCR than older cattle. Five serotypes of BTV and one serotype of EHDV were identified from eight samples: BTV-4, BTV-9, BTV-11, BTV-15, BTV-19 and EHDV-6, of which some were reported in neighbouring areas. BTV and EHDV both circulate in Mayotte and in its surrounding territories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.12.037DOI Listing
March 2019

Livestock trade network: potential for disease transmission and implications for risk-based surveillance on the island of Mayotte.

Sci Rep 2018 08 1;8(1):11550. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), UMR ASTRE "Animals, Health, Territories, Risks, and Ecosystems", Montpellier, France.

The island of Mayotte is a department of France, an outermost region of the European Union located in the Indian Ocean between Madagascar and the coast of Eastern Africa. Due to its close connection to the African mainland and neighbouring islands, the island is under constant threat of introduction of infectious diseases of both human and animal origin. Here, using social network analysis and mathematical modelling, we assessed potential implications of livestock movements between communes in Mayotte for risk-based surveillance. Our analyses showed that communes in the central region of Mayotte acted as a hub in the livestock movement network. The majority of livestock movements occurred between communes in the central region and from communes in the central region to those in the outer region. Also, communes in the central region were more likely to be infected earlier than those in the outer region when the spread of an exotic infectious disease was simulated on the livestock movement network. The findings of this study, therefore, suggest that communes in the central region would play a major role in the spread of infectious diseases via livestock movements, which needs to be considered in the design of risk-based surveillance systems in Mayotte.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29999-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6070536PMC
August 2018

Risk Factors of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase Producing Enterobacteriaceae Occurrence in Farms in Reunion, Madagascar and Mayotte Islands, 2016-2017.

Vet Sci 2018 Feb 23;5(1). Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Animals, Health, Territories, Risks and Ecosystems, Avenue Agropolis, 34398 Montpellier CEDEX 5, France.

In South Western Indian ocean (IO), Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) are a main public health issue. In livestock, ESBL-E burden was unknown. The aim of this study was estimating the prevalence of ESBL-E on commercial farms in Reunion, Mayotte and Madagascar and genes involved. Secondly, risk factors of ESBL-E occurrence in broiler, beef cattle and pig farms were explored. In 2016-2017, commercial farms were sampled using boot swabs and samples stored at 4 °C before microbiological analysis for phenotypical ESBL-E and gene characterization. A dichotomous questionnaire was performed. Prevalences observed in all production types and territories were high, except for beef cattle in Reunion, which differed significantly. The most common ESBL gene was . Generalized linear models explaining ESBL-E occurrence varied between livestock production sectors and allowed identifying main protective (e.g., water quality control and detergent use for cleaning) and risk factors (e.g., recent antibiotic use, other farmers visiting the exploitation, pet presence). This study is the first to explore tools for antibiotic resistance management in IO farms. It provides interesting hypothesis to explore about antibiotic use in IO territories and ESBL-E transmission between pig, beef cattle and humans in Madagascar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5010022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876575PMC
February 2018

Drivers for Rift Valley fever emergence in Mayotte: A Bayesian modelling approach.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Jul 21;11(7):e0005767. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Centre for the Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major zoonotic and arboviral hemorrhagic fever. The conditions leading to RVF epidemics are still unclear, and the relative role of climatic and anthropogenic factors may vary between ecosystems. Here, we estimate the most likely scenario that led to RVF emergence on the island of Mayotte, following the 2006-2007 African epidemic. We developed the first mathematical model for RVF that accounts for climate, animal imports and livestock susceptibility, which is fitted to a 12-years dataset. RVF emergence was found to be triggered by the import of infectious animals, whilst transmissibility was approximated as a linear or exponential function of vegetation density. Model forecasts indicated a very low probability of virus endemicity in 2017, and therefore of re-emergence in a closed system (i.e. without import of infected animals). However, the very high proportion of naive animals reached in 2016 implies that the island remains vulnerable to the import of infectious animals. We recommend reinforcing surveillance in livestock, should RVF be reported is neighbouring territories. Our model should be tested elsewhere, with ecosystem-specific data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0005767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540619PMC
July 2017

Review of Antibiotic Resistance in the Indian Ocean Commission: A Human and Animal Health Issue.

Front Public Health 2017 6;5:162. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Animals, Health, Territories, Risks and Ecosystems Unit, Department of Animal Health, French Agricultural Research Center for International Development (CIRAD), Montpellier, France.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to human, animal health, and environment worldwide. For human, transmission occurred through a variety of routes both in health-care settings and community. In animals, AMR was reported in livestock, pets, and wildlife; transmission of AMR can be zoonotic with the probably most important route being foodborne transmission. The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), composed of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France), and Seychelles recognized the surveillance of AMR in both animal and human as a main public health priority for the region. Mayotte, French overseas territory, located in Comoros archipelago, was also included in this review. This review summarized our best epidemiological knowledge regarding AMR in Indian Ocean. We documented the prevalence, and phenotypic and genotypic profiles of prone to resistance Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria both in animals and humans. Our review clearly pointed out extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae as main human and animal health issue in IOC. However, publications on AMR are scarce, particularly in Comoros, Mayotte, and Seychelles. Thus, research and surveillance priorities were recommended (i) estimating the volume of antimicrobial drugs used in livestock and human medicine in the different territories [mainly third generation cephalosporin (3GC)]; (ii) developing a "One Health" surveillance approach with epidemiological indicators as zoonotic foodborne pathogen (i.e., couple resistance to 3GC/carbapenems); (iii) screening travelers with a history of hospitalization and consumption of antibiotic drug returning from at risk areas (e.g., mcr-1 transmission with China or hajj pilgrims) allowing an early warning detection of the emergence for quick control measures implementation in IOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5498788PMC
July 2017

Four years into the Indian ocean field epidemiology training programme.

Pan Afr Med J 2017 4;26:195. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Health Surveillance Unit, SEGA One Health Network, Indian Ocean Commission, Mauritius.

Introduction: Following the 2005-6 chikungunya outbreak, a project to strengthen regional Public Health preparedness in the Indian Ocean was implemented. It includes the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France) and Seychelles. A Field Epidemiology Training Programme (FETP-OI) was started in 2011 to develop a pool of well-trained intervention epidemiologists.

Methods: The FETP-OI consists of two years of supervised, learning-by-doing, on-the-job training at national sites involved in disease surveillance and response. It includes work placements at the Madagascar Pasteur Institute and the French regional epidemiology unit in Reunion and up to three training courses per year. Training objectives include epidemiological surveillance, outbreak investigations, research studies, scientific communication and transfer of competencies.

Results: In four years, two cohorts of in total 15 fellows originating from four countries followed the FETP-OI. They led 42 surveillance projects (71% routine management, 14% evaluations, 12% setup, 3% other) and investigated 36 outbreak alerts, 58% of them in Madagascar; most investigations (72%) concerned foodborne pathogens, plague or malaria. Fellows performed 18 studies (44% descriptive analyses, 22% disease risk factors, and 34% on other subjects), and presented results during regional and international conferences through 26 oral and 15 poster presentations. Four articles were published in regional Public Health bulletins and several scientific manuscripts are in process.

Conclusion: The FETP-OI has created a regional force of intervention consisting of field epidemiologists and trained supervisors using the same technical language and epidemiological methods. The third cohort is now ongoing. Technically and financially sustainable FETP-OI projects help addressing public health priorities of the Indian Ocean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.26.195.10358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483346PMC
July 2017

Absence of Evidence of Rift Valley Fever Infection in Eulemur fulvus (Brown Lemur) in Mayotte During an Interepidemic Period.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 05 21;17(5):358-360. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

6 UMR CMAEE, CIRAD, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France .

The potential role of Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur) in the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Mayotte, during an interepidemic period, was explored. In February and March 2016, 72 animals were blood sampled and tested for RVF. No evidence of RVF genome or antibodies was found in the samples. The role of other wild mammals on the island should, however, be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2016.2079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5421605PMC
May 2017

Population dynamics of mosquito species in a West Nile virus endemic area in Madagascar.

Parasite 2017 30;24. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Laboratoire d'Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Ambatofotsikely, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar.

Human and animal serological surveys suggest that West Nile virus (WNV) circulation is widely distributed in Madagascar. However, there are no reported West Nile fever outbreaks or epizootics in the country and only one fatal human case has been reported to date. Currently there is very limited information on the maintenance and the transmission of WNV in Madagascar and particularly on the mosquito species involved in transmission cycles. In 2014, we initiated a study to investigate mosquito species composition, relative abundance, and trophic behavior in Mitsinjo District close to Lake Kinkony, a WNV endemic area in north-western Madagascar. We collected a total of 2519 adult mosquitoes belonging to 21 different species. The most abundant species was Aedeomyia (Aedeomyia) madagascarica Brunhes, Boussès & da Cunha Ramos, which made up 83% of all the mosquitoes collected. Mosquito abundance was associated with proximity to the lake (Morafeno and Ankelimitondrotra). Additionally, a correlation was observed between the lake-side biotope and the abundance of mosquito vectors in Morafeno. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of Ae. madagascarica and one pool of Anopheles (Cellia) pauliani Grjebine, suggesting that these two species may be involved in the maintenance and/or transmission of WNV in Madagascar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2017005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780677PMC
August 2017

Drivers of Rift Valley fever epidemics in Madagascar.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 01 17;114(5):938-943. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

French National Agricultural Research Center for International Development, Animal Health Department, UMR Astre, Campus International de Baillarguet, 34398 Montpellier, France.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne viral disease widespread in Africa. The primary cycle involves mosquitoes and wild and domestic ruminant hosts. Humans are usually contaminated after contact with infected ruminants. As many environmental, agricultural, epidemiological, and anthropogenic factors are implicated in RVF spread, the multidisciplinary One Health approach was needed to identify the drivers of RVF epidemics in Madagascar. We examined the environmental patterns associated with these epidemics, comparing human and ruminant serological data with environmental and cattle-trade data. In contrast to East Africa, environmental drivers did not trigger the epidemics: They only modulated local Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) transmission in ruminants. Instead, RVFV was introduced through ruminant trade and subsequent movement of cattle between trade hubs caused its long-distance spread within the country. Contact with cattle brought in from infected districts was associated with higher infection risk in slaughterhouse workers. The finding that anthropogenic rather than environmental factors are the main drivers of RVF infection in humans can be used to design better prevention and early detection in the case of RVF resurgence in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607948114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5293023PMC
January 2017

Identification of Tenrec ecaudatus, a Wild Mammal Introduced to Mayotte Island, as a Reservoir of the Newly Identified Human Pathogenic Leptospira mayottensis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 08 30;10(8):e0004933. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien (CRVOI), Plateforme de Recherche CYROI, Sainte Clotilde, Reunion Island, France.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis of major concern on tropical islands. Human populations on western Indian Ocean islands are strongly affected by the disease although each archipelago shows contrasting epidemiology. For instance, Mayotte, part of the Comoros Archipelago, differs from the other neighbouring islands by a high diversity of Leptospira species infecting humans that includes Leptospira mayottensis, a species thought to be unique to this island. Using bacterial culture, molecular detection and typing, the present study explored the wild and domestic local mammalian fauna for renal carriage of leptospires and addressed the genetic relationships of the infecting strains with local isolates obtained from acute human cases and with Leptospira strains hosted by mammal species endemic to nearby Madagascar. Tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus, Family Tenrecidae), a terrestrial mammal introduced from Madagascar, is identified as a reservoir of L. mayottensis. All isolated L. mayottensis sequence types form a monophyletic clade that includes Leptospira strains infecting humans and tenrecs on Mayotte, as well as two other Malagasy endemic tenrecid species of the genus Microgale. The lower diversity of L. mayottensis in tenrecs from Mayotte, compared to that occurring in Madagascar, suggests that L. mayottensis has indeed a Malagasy origin. This study also showed that introduced rats (Rattus rattus) and dogs are probably the main reservoirs of Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri, both bacteria being prevalent in local clinical cases. Data emphasize the epidemiological link between the two neighbouring islands and the role of introduced small mammals in shaping the local epidemiology of leptospirosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004980PMC
August 2016

The Epidemiology of Rift Valley Fever in Mayotte: Insights and Perspectives from 11 Years of Data.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 06 22;10(6):e0004783. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

UMR CMAEE, CIRAD, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic arboviral disease that is a threat to human health, animal health and production, mainly in Sub-Saharan Africa. RVF virus dynamics have been poorly studied due to data scarcity. On the island of Mayotte in the Indian Ocean, off the Southeastern African coast, RVF has been present since at least 2004. Several retrospective and prospective serological surveys in livestock have been conducted over eleven years (2004-15). These data are collated and presented here. Temporal patterns of seroprevalence were plotted against time, as well as age-stratified seroprevalence. Results suggest that RVF was already present in 2004-07. An epidemic occurred between 2008 and 2010, with IgG and IgM peak annual prevalences of 36% in 2008-09 (N = 142, n = 51, 95% CI [17-55]) and 41% (N = 96, n = 39, 95% CI [25-56]), respectively. The virus seems to be circulating at a low level since 2011, causing few new infections. In 2015, about 95% of the livestock population was susceptible (IgG annual prevalence was 6% (N = 584, n = 29, 95% CI [3-10])). Monthly rainfall varied a lot (2-540mm), whilst average temperature remained high with little variation (about 25-30°C). This large dataset collected on an insular territory for more than 10 years, suggesting a past epidemic and a current inter-epidemic period, represents a unique opportunity to study RVF dynamics. Further data collection and modelling work may be used to test different scenarios of animal imports and rainfall pattern that could explain the observed epidemiological pattern and estimate the likelihood of a potential re-emergence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4917248PMC
June 2016

Wild fauna as a carrier of Salmonella in Reunion Island: Impact on pig farms.

Acta Trop 2016 Jun 29;158:6-12. Epub 2016 Jan 29.

CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, Plateforme de Recherche CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, Ile de la Réunion, France,; INRA, UMR 1309 CMAEE, Montpellier, France; CRVOI, Centre de Recherche et de Veille des maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien, Plateforme de Recherche CYROI, Sainte-Clotilde, Ile de la Réunion, France. Electronic address:

Salmonellosis is an economic burden to the livestock industry in Reunion Island. In this study, we wanted to improve our understanding of Salmonella epidemiology by studying the wild fauna of Reunion Island. We assessed Salmonella diversity in small non-flying mammals, birds and cockroaches in order to evaluate their potential role in the epidemiology of Salmonella. A total of 268 samples were collected from cockroaches, small mammals and birds. The bacteriological analyses revealed that 11.7% of non-flying mammals and 25% of cockroaches tested were Salmonella infected; two wild bird species were also detected positive. The 128 Salmonella isolates were distributed in fifteen serotypes and the most predominant were S. 4,[5],12:i:- (21.9% of positive samples) followed by S. Enteritidis (15.6%), S. Typhimurium (15.6%), S. Infantis (12.5%) and S. Weltevreden (12.5%). A total of 27 XbaI profiles were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Comparison of these Salmonella strains with our collection of Salmonella isolated from pigs and pig farm environments at the same period revealed 14 strains in common between wild fauna and pigs, especially for cockroaches. Our results suggest that wild fauna of Reunion Island could be infected by strains of Salmonella also isolated from pigs or pig environment. They may play a role in both persistence and spreading of Salmonella and therefore, could be a source of infection in pig farms. Pest control against cockroaches could be a helpful tool in the reduction of Salmonella infection of pigs, limiting contacts between wild fauna and both pigs and pig environment. Special attention should be paid to S. 4,[5],12:i:- since it was predominant in Reunion Island's wild fauna and pigs and was the third most frequently reported serotype in human salmonellosis in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.01.027DOI Listing
June 2016

High Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Domestic Birds and Detection in 2 New Mosquito Species in Madagascar.

PLoS One 2016 25;11(1):e0147589. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Centre de coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UMR 15 CMAEE, Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne zoonosis transmitted by a large number of mosquito species, and birds play a key role as reservoir of the virus. Its distribution is largely widespread over Africa, Asia, the Americas and Europe. Since 1978, it has frequently been reported in Madagascar. Studies described a high seroprevalence level of the virus in humans in different areas of the island and a human fatal case of WNV infection was reported in 2011. Despite these reports, the epidemiology of WNV in Madagascar, in particular, viral circulation remains unclear. To explore the transmission of WNV in two rural human populations of Madagascar, we investigated local mosquitoes and poultry for evidence of current infections, and determined seroprevalence of candidate sentinel species among the local poultry. These 2 areas are close to lakes where domestic birds, migratory wild birds and humans coexist. Serological analysis revealed WNV antibodies in domestic birds (duck, chicken, goose, turkey and guinea fowl) sampled in both districts (Antsalova 29.4% and Mitsinjo 16.7%). West Nile virus nucleic acid was detected in one chicken and in 8 pools of mosquitoes including 2 mosquito species (Aedeomyia madagascarica and Anopheles pauliani) that have not been previously described as candidate vectors for WNV. Molecular analysis of WNV isolates showed that all viruses detected were part of the lineage 2 that is mainly distributed in Africa, and were most closely matched by the previous Malagasy strains isolated in 1988. Our study showed that WNV circulates in Madagascar amongst domestic birds and mosquitoes, and highlights the utility of poultry as a surveillance tool to detect WNV transmission in a peri-domestic setting.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147589PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4725773PMC
July 2016

Species Diversity, Abundance, and Host Preferences of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Two Different Ecotypes of Madagascar With Recent RVFV Transmission.

J Med Entomol 2015 Sep 10;52(5):962-9. Epub 2015 Aug 10.

Unité d'Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo 101, Madagascar.

Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjv120DOI Listing
September 2015

Spatio-temporal prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar based on meat inspection.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Jul 25;8:391. Epub 2015 Jul 25.

CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, Ste Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Background: Taenia solium cysticercosis is a parasitic meat-borne disease that is highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Africa, but the burden is vastly underestimated due to the lack of official control along the pork commodity chain, which hampers long-term control policies.

Methods: The apparent and corrected prevalences of T. solium cysticercosis were investigated in pork carcasses slaughtered and retailed in Antananarivo (Madagascar), thanks to a 12-month monitoring plan in two urban abattoirs.

Results: Overall apparent prevalence was estimated at 4.6% [4.2 - 5.0%]. The corrected overall prevalence defined as the estimated prevalence after accounting for the sensitivity of meat inspection was 21.03% [19.18- 22.87%]. Significant differences among geoclimatic regions were observed only for indigenous pigs, with an apparent prevalence estimated at 7.9% [6.0 - 9.9%] in the northern and western regions, 7.3% [6.0 - 8.6%] in the central region, and 6.2% [4.7 - 7.8%] in the southern region. In the central region, where both exotic and indigenous pigs were surveyed, indigenous pigs were 8.5 times [6.7 - 10.7] more likely to be infected than exotic improved pigs. Urban consumers were more likely to encounter cysticercosis in pork in the rainy season, which is a major at risk period, in particular in December. Differences between abattoirs were also identified.

Conclusion: Our results underline the need for improved surveillance and control programmes to limit T. solium cysticercosis in carcasses by introducing a risk-based meat inspection procedure that accounts for the origin and breed of the pigs, and the season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0975-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4513394PMC
July 2015

A Stochastic Model to Study Rift Valley Fever Persistence with Different Seasonal Patterns of Vector Abundance: New Insights on the Endemicity in the Tropical Island of Mayotte.

PLoS One 2015 6;10(7):e0130838. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

CRVOI, Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les maladies émergentes dans l'Océan Indien, F-97490 Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France; CIRAD, UMR CMAEE, F-97490, Sainte Clotilde, France; INRA, UMR 1309 CMAEE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic vector-borne disease causing abortion storms in cattle and human epidemics in Africa. Our aim was to evaluate RVF persistence in a seasonal and isolated population and to apply it to Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean), where the virus was still silently circulating four years after its last known introduction in 2007. We proposed a stochastic model to estimate RVF persistence over several years and under four seasonal patterns of vector abundance. Firstly, the model predicted a wide range of virus spread patterns, from obligate persistence in a constant or tropical environment (without needing vertical transmission or reintroduction) to frequent extinctions in a drier climate. We then identified for each scenario of seasonality the parameters that most influenced prediction variations. Persistence was sensitive to vector lifespan and biting rate in a tropical climate, and to host viraemia duration and vector lifespan in a drier climate. The first epizootic peak was primarily sensitive to viraemia duration and thus likely to be controlled by vaccination, whereas subsequent peaks were sensitive to vector lifespan and biting rate in a tropical climate, and to host birth rate and viraemia duration in arid climates. Finally, we parameterized the model according to Mayotte known environment. Mosquito captures estimated the abundance of eight potential RVF vectors. Review of RVF competence studies on these species allowed adjusting transmission probabilities per bite. Ruminant serological data since 2004 and three new cross-sectional seroprevalence studies are presented. Transmission rates had to be divided by more than five to best fit observed data. Five years after introduction, RVF persisted in more than 10% of the simulations, even under this scenario of low transmission. Hence, active surveillance must be maintained to better understand the risk related to RVF persistence and to prevent new introductions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130838PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4493030PMC
April 2016

Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of ready-to-eat street-vended pork meat dishes in Antananarivo, Madagascar: a risk for the consumers?

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2015 Mar;12(3):197-202

1 Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement , Sainte Clotilde, La Réunion, France .

Street-food vending has been increasing in many developing countries and particularly in Madagascar since 2000. Gastroenteric diseases cause 37% of all deaths each year, and 50% of children <5 years are infected with intestinal pathogens. However, there has been little information regarding the incidence of street-food-related diseases, or foodborne pathogens in pork, which is the most commonly eaten meat, along with chicken. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the safety of traditional ready-to-eat street-vended pork dishes and to assess the association of restaurant characteristics and cooking practices with Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of these meals. Sixty street-restaurants were studied from March 2012 to August 2012 in Antananarivo. A questionnaire was submitted to the managers, and samples of ready-to-eat pork dishes were bought. Salmonella spp. were isolated in 10% of the 60 street-restaurants studied and in 5% samples of pork dishes. The most prevalent serovars isolated were Salmonella Typhimurium (44%) and Senftenberg (33%). Campylobacter was not detected. Only 4 of the 43 variables tested in the screening analysis were significantly associated with Salmonella spp. contamination of the street-restaurants. The risk for a restaurant to be Salmonella positive decreased when there were specific premises for the restaurant and when the staff was wearing specific clothes when working. Conversely, that risk increased when the temperature of ready-to-eat pork was <52 °C and when tablecloths were used in the restaurant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1864DOI Listing
March 2015