Publications by authors named "Eric Breitbart"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Zinc has insulin-mimetic properties which enhance spinal fusion in a rat model.

Spine J 2016 06 2;16(6):777-83. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Department of Orthopaedics, Rutgers University, New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen St, Suite 7300, Newark, NJ 07101, USA.

Background Context: Previous studies have found that insulin or insulin-like growth factor treatment can stimulate fracture healing in diabetic and normal animal models, and increase fusion rates in a rat spinal fusion model. Insulin-mimetic agents, such as zinc, have demonstrated antidiabetic effects in animal and human studies, and these agents that mimic the effects of insulin could produce the same beneficial effects on bone regeneration and spinal fusion.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of locally applied zinc on spinal fusion in a rat model.

Study Design/setting: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved animal study using Sprague-Dawley rats was used as the study design.

Methods: Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats (450-500 g) underwent L4-L5 posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF). After decortication and application of approximately 0.3 g of autograft per side, one of three pellets were added to each site: high-dose zinc calcium sulfate (ZnCaSO4), low-dose ZnCaSO4 (half of the high dose), or a control palmitic acid pellet (no Zn dose). Systemic blood glucose levels were measured 24 hours postoperatively. Rats were sacrificed after 8weeks and the PLFs analyzed qualitatively by manual palpation and radiograph review, and quantitatively by micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis of bone volume and trabecular thickness. Statistical analyses with p-values set at .05 were accomplished with analysis of variance, followed by posthoc tests for quantitative data, or Mann-Whitney rank tests for qualitative assessments.

Results: Compared with controls, the low-dose zinc group demonstrated a significantly higher manual palpation grade (p=.011), radiographic score (p=.045), and bone formation on micro-CT (172.9 mm(3) vs. 126.7 mm(3) for controls) (p<.01). The high-dose zinc also demonstrated a significantly higher radiographic score (p=.017) and bone formation on micro-CT (172.7 mm(3) vs. 126.7 mm(3)) (p<.01) versus controls, and was trending toward higher manual palpation scores (p=.058).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential benefit of a locally applied insulin-mimetic agent, such as zinc, in a rat lumbar fusion model. Previous studies have demonstrated the benefits of local insulin application in the same model, and it appears that zinc has similar effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2016.01.190DOI Listing
June 2016

The effect of locally delivered recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 with hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate on the biomechanical properties of bone in diabetes-related osteoporosis.

J Orthop Traumatol 2015 Jun 25;16(2):151-9. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

Division of Orthopaedic Trauma, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases, 301 E 17th Street, Suite 1402, New York, NY, 10003, USA,

Background: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is particularly effective in improving osteogenesis in patients with diminished bone healing capabilities, such as individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who have impaired bone healing capabilities and increased risk of developing osteoporosis. This study measured the effects of rhBMP-2 treatment on osteogenesis by observing the dose-dependent effect of localized delivery of rhBMP-2 on biomechanical parameters of bone using a hydroxyapatite/tri-calcium phosphate (HA/TCP) carrier in a T1DM-related osteoporosis animal model.

Materials And Methods: Two different doses of rhBMP-2 (LD low dose, HD high dose) with a HA/TCP carrier were injected into the femoral intramedullary canal of rats with T1DM-related osteoporosis. Two more diabetic rat groups were injected with saline alone and with HA/TCP carrier alone. Radiographs and micro-computed tomography were utilized for qualitative assessment of bone mineral density (BMD). Biomechanical testing occurred at 4- and 8-week time points; parameters tested included torque to failure, torsional rigidity, shear stress, and shear modulus.

Results: At the 4-week time point, the LD and HD groups both exhibited significantly higher BMD than controls; at the 8-week time point, the HD group exhibited significantly higher BMD than controls. Biomechanical testing revealed dose-dependent, higher trends in all parameters tested at the 4- and 8-week time points, with minimal significant differences.

Conclusions: Groups treated with rhBMP-2 demonstrated improved bone mineral density at both 4 and 8 weeks compared to control saline groups, in addition to strong trends towards improvement of intrinsic and extrinsic biomechanical properties when compared to control groups. Data revealed trends toward dose-dependent increases in peak torque, torsional rigidity, shear stress, and shear modulus 4 weeks after rhBMP-2 treatment.

Level Of Evidence: Not applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10195-014-0327-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441641PMC
June 2015

Local ZnCl2 accelerates fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2014 Jun 26;32(6):834-41. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey, 07103.

This study evaluated the effect of local zinc chloride (ZnCl2 ), an insulin mimetic agent, upon the early and late parameters of fracture healing in rats using a standard femur fracture model. Mechanical testing, radiographic scoring, histomorphometry, qualitative histological scoring, PCNA immunohistochemistry, and local growth factor analysis were performed. Fractures treated with local ZnCl2 possessed significantly increased mechanical properties compared to controls at 4 weeks post fracture. The radiographic scoring analysis showed increased cortical bridging at 4 weeks in the 1.0 (p=0.0015) and 3.0 (p<0.0001) mg/kg ZnCl2 treated groups. Histomorphometry of the fracture callus at day 7 showed 177% increase (p=0.036) in percent cartilage and 133% increase (p=0.002) in percent mineralized tissue with local ZnCl2 treatment compared to controls. Qualitative histological scoring showed a 2.1× higher value at day 7 in the ZnCl2 treated group compared to control (p = 0.004). Cell proliferation and growth factors, VEGF and IGF-I, within fracture calluses treated with local ZnCl2 were increased at day 7. The results suggest local administration of ZnCl2 increases cell proliferation, causing increased growth factor production which yields improved chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification. Ultimately, these events lead to accelerated fracture healing as early as 4 weeks post fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22593DOI Listing
June 2014

Effects of local insulin delivery on subperiosteal angiogenesis and mineralized tissue formation during fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2013 May 13;31(5):783-91. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

Local insulin delivery has been shown to improve osseous healing in diabetic animals. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of local intramedullary delivery of saline or Ultralente insulin (UL) on various fracture healing parameters using an in vivo non-diabetic BB Wistar rat model. Quantitation of local insulin levels showed a rapid release of insulin from the fractured femora, demonstrating complete release at 2 days. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of early osteogenic markers (Col1α2, osteopontin) was significantly enhanced with UL treatment when compared with saline controls (p < 0.05). Significant differences in VEGF + cells and vascularity were evident between the treatment and control groups at day 7 (p < 0.05). At day 21, histomorphometric analysis demonstrated a significant increase in percent mineralized tissue in the UL-treated animals compared with controls (p < 0.05), particularly within the subperiosteal region of the fracture callus. Mechanical testing at 4 weeks showed significantly greater mechanical strength for UL-treated animals (p < 0.05), but healing in control animals caught up at 6 weeks post-fracture. These results suggest that the primary osteogenic effect of UL during the early stages of fracture healing (1-3 weeks) is through an increase in osteogenic gene expression, subperiosteal angiogenesis, and mineralized tissue formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446235PMC
May 2013

Local insulin therapy affects fracture healing in a rat model.

J Orthop Res 2013 May 13;31(5):776-82. Epub 2012 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine, Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

A significant number of lower extremity fractures result in mal-union necessitating effective treatments to restore ambulation. Prior research in diabetic animal fracture models demonstrated improved healing following local insulin application to the fracture site and indicated that local insulin therapy can aid bone regeneration, at least within an insulin-dependent diabetic animal model. This study tested whether local insulin therapy could accelerate femur fracture repair in normal, non-diabetic rats. High (20 units) and low (10 units) doses of insulin were delivered in a calcium sulfate carrier which provided sustained release of the exogenous insulin for 7 days after fracture. Histomorphometry, radiographic scoring, and torsional mechanical testing were used to measure fracture healing. The fracture calluses from rats treated with high-dose insulin had significantly more cartilage than untreated rats after 7 and 14 days of healing. After 4 weeks of healing, femurs from rats treated with low-dose insulin had significantly higher radiographic scores and mechanical strength (p < 0.05), compared to the no treatment control groups. The results of this study suggest that locally delivered insulin is a potential therapeutic agent for treating bone fractures. Further studies are necessary, such as large animal proof of concepts, prior to the clinical use of insulin for bone fracture treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22287DOI Listing
May 2013

The effects of local vanadium treatment on angiogenesis and chondrogenesis during fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2012 Dec 31;30(12):1971-8. Epub 2012 May 31.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA.

This study quantified the effects of local intramedullary delivery of an organic vanadium salt, which may act as an insulin-mimetic on fracture healing. Using a BB Wistar rat femoral fracture model, local vanadyl acetylacetonate (VAC) was delivered to the fracture site and histomorphometry, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed. Callus percent cartilage was 200% higher at day 7 (p < 0.05) and 88% higher at day 10 (p < 0.05) in the animals treated with 1.5 mg/kg of VAC. Callus percent mineralized tissue was 37% higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) and 31% higher at day 21 (p < 0.05) in the animals treated with 1.5 mg/kg of VAC. Maximum torque to failure was 104% and 154% higher at 4 weeks post-fracture (p < 0.05) for the healing femurs from the VAC-treated (1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg) animals. Animals treated with other VAC doses demonstrated increased mechanical parameters at 4 weeks (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry detected 62% more proliferating cells at days 7 (p < 0.05) and 94% more at day 10 (p < 0.05) in the animals treated with 1.5 mg/kg VAC. Results showed 100% more vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) positive cells and 80% more blood vessels at day 7 (p < 0.05) within the callus subperiosteal region of VAC-treated animals (1.5 mg/kg) compared to controls. The results suggest that local VAC treatment affects chondrogenesis and angiogenesis within the first 7-10 days post-fracture, which leads to enhanced mineralized tissue formation and accelerated fracture repair as early as 3-4 weeks post-fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.22159DOI Listing
December 2012

The effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound upon diabetic fracture healing.

J Orthop Res 2011 Feb 30;29(2):181-8. Epub 2010 Sep 30.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA.

In the United States, over 17 million people are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) with its inherent morbidity of delayed bone healing and nonunion. Recent studies demonstrate the utility of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound (LIPUS) to facilitate fracture healing. The current study evaluated the effects of daily application of LIPUS on mid-diaphyseal femoral fracture growth factor expression, cartilage formation, and neovascularization in DM and non-DM BB Wistar rats. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ELISA assays were used to measure and quantify growth factor expression. Histomorphometry assessed cartilage formation while immunohistochemical staining for PECAM evaluated neovascularization at the fracture site. In accordance with previous studies, LIPUS was shown to increase growth factor expression and cartilage formation. Our study also demonstrated an increase in fracture callus neovascularization with the addition of LIPUS. The DM group showed impaired growth factor expression, cartilage formation, and neovascularization. However, the addition of LIPUS significantly increased all parameters so that the DM group resembled that of the non-DM group. These findings suggest a potential role of LIPUS as an adjunct for DM fracture treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.21223DOI Listing
February 2011

Bone and wound healing in the diabetic patient.

Foot Ankle Clin 2010 Sep;15(3):411-37

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, 07103, USA.

Impaired soft tissue regeneration and delayed osseous healing are known complications associated with diabetes mellitus with regard to orthopedic surgery, making the management and treatment of diabetic patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery more complex and difficult. At the moment several options are available to address the known issues that complicate the clinical outcomes in these high-risk patients. Using a multifaceted approach, with close attention to intraoperative and perioperative considerations including modification of surgical technique to supplement fixation, local application of orthobiologics, tight glycemic control, administration of supplementary oxygen, and biophysical stimulation via low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and electrical bone stimulation, the impediments associated with diabetic healing can potentially be overcome, to yield improved clinical results for diabetic patients after acute or elective foot and ankle surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2010.03.005DOI Listing
September 2010

Role of local insulin augmentation upon allograft incorporation in a rat femoral defect model.

J Orthop Res 2011 Jan;29(1):92-9

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA.

Each year, over one million orthopedic operations are performed which a bony defect is presence, requiring the use of further augmentation in addition to bony fixation. Application of autogenous bone graft is the standard of care to promote healing of these defects, but several determents exist in using autogenous bone graft exist including limited supply and donor site morbidity. Prior work has demonstrated that local insulin application to fracture sites promote fracture healing, but no work has been performed to date in its effects upon defect healing/allograft incorporation. The goal of this study was to examine the potential role of local insulin application upon allograft incorporation. Microradiographic, histologic, and histomorphometric analysis outcome parameters showed that local insulin significantly accelerated new bone formation. Histological comparisons using predetermined scoring systems demonstrated significantly greater healing in femora treated with insulin compared to control femora (p < 0.001). Quantitatively more bone production was also observed, specifically in areas of endosteal (p = 0.010) and defect (p = 0.041) bone in femora treated with local insulin, compared to control femora, 6 weeks after implantation. This study demonstrates the potential of local insulin as an adjunct for the treatment of segmental defect and allograft incorporation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.21205DOI Listing
January 2011

Mesenchymal stem cells accelerate bone allograft incorporation in the presence of diabetes mellitus.

J Orthop Res 2010 Jul;28(7):942-9

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, , Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.

Allograft (Allo) incorporation in the presence of a systemic disease like diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major issue in the orthopedic community. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells that may be derived from adult, whole bone marrow and have been shown to induce bone formation in segmental defects when combined with the appropriate carrier/scaffold. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effect of DM upon Allo incorporation in a segmental rat femoral defect and to also investigate MSC augmentation of Allo incorporation. Segmental (5 mm) femoral defects were created in non-DM and DM rats and treated with Allo containing demineralized bone matrix (DBM) or DBM with MSC augmentation. Histological scoring at 4 weeks demonstrated less mature bone in the DM/DBM group compared to its non-DM counterpart (p < 0.001). However, there was significantly more mature bone in the DM/MSC group when compared to the DM/DBM group at both 4 and 8 weeks (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004). Furthermore, significantly more bone formation was observed in the DM/MSC group compared to the DM/DBM group at the 4-week time point (p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that MSC are a potential adjunct for bone regeneration when implanted in an orthotopic site in the presence of DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.21065DOI Listing
July 2010

rhBMP-2 enhances the bone healing response in a diabetic rat segmental defect model.

J Orthop Trauma 2009 Apr;23(4):267-76

Department of Orthopedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry, Newark, NJ 07103, USA.

Objective: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been shown to enhance new bone formation in fracture and bone defect models in both normal and diabetic rats. Effects of rhBMP-2 in a segmental femoral defect model in diabetes mellitus (DM) BB Wistar rats have not been reported.

Methods: Collagen sponge soaked with either buffer or rhBMP-2 was inserted in a mid-diaphyseal 3.0-mm defect fixed with polyimide plate and stainless steel screws, in 62 DM BB Wistar rats. Progress of new bone formation in the defect was monitored with serial radiographs every 2 weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of the new bone formation was done on undecalcified sections of the extracted femurs at 3 and 6 weeks post surgery. Further analysis of the new bone was done by assessment of neoangiogenesis using immunohistochemical staining for Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1. Mechanical testing was performed at 9 weeks to assess the new bone with respect to 4 different parameters of mechanical and structural properties of bone.

Results: Radiographs assessed over a 6-point grading system showed statistically significant improvement in scores in rhBMP-2-treated rats at 6 weeks (P < 0.001). Histomorphometric analysis showed statistically significant increase in area of new bone formation between rats treated with rhBMP-2 compared with buffer at both 3 and 6 weeks (P < 0.001). On Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 staining at 3 weeks, the mean number of vessels in rhBMP-2-treated DM rats was 12.76 +/- 5.43/mm(2) compared with 4.49 +/- 1.89/mm(2) in buffer treated DM rats (P = 0.034). On mechanical testing, all 4 DM/buffer rats had nonunion. In DM/rhBMP-2 rats, the torque to failure and torsional rigidity values were 393.57 +/- 233.3 (P < 0.03) and 29,711 +/- 6224 (P < 0.002), respectively.

Conclusions: Clearly, although DM has a known impact on osseous healing, its negative effects are ameliorated with the application of the rhBMP-2-collagen carrier and demonstrates the potential clinical role of this adjunct in the clinical arena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOT.0b013e31819f290eDOI Listing
April 2009

Recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor BB (rhPDGF-BB) and beta-tricalcium phosphate/collagen matrix enhance fracture healing in a diabetic rat model.

J Orthop Res 2009 Aug;27(8):1074-81

UMDNJ- New Jersey Medical School and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Diabetes mellitus is a common systemic disease that has been associated with poor fracture healing outcomes. The mechanism through which diabetes impairs bone regeneration is unknown. One possible mechanism may be related to either decreased or uncoordinated release of local growth factors at the fracture site. Indeed, previous studies have found reduced platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in the fracture callus of diabetic rats, suggesting that local application of PDGF may overcome the negative effects of diabetes and promote fracture healing. To test this hypothesis, low (22 microg) and high (75 ug) doses of recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) were applied directly to femur fracture sites in BB Wistar diabetic rats that were then compared to untreated or vehicle-treated animals. rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly increased early callus cell proliferation compared to that in control specimens. Low dose rhPDGF-BB treatment significantly increased callus peak torque values (p < 0.05) at 8 weeks after fracture as compared to controls. High dose rhPDGF-BB treatment increased callus bone area at 12 weeks postfracture. These data indicate that rhPDGF-BB treatment ameliorates the effects of diabetes on fracture healing by promoting early cellular proliferation that ultimately leads to more bone formation. Local application of rhPDGF-BB may be a new therapeutic approach to treat diabetes-impaired fracture healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.20842DOI Listing
August 2009