Publications by authors named "Eric Adjei"

5 Publications

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Demographic and socio-cultural factors influencing contraceptive uptake among women of reproductive age in Tamale Metropolis, Northern Region, Ghana.

Ghana Med J 2020 Jun;54(2 Suppl):64-72

Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: This study assessed some demographic and socio-cultural factors that influence contraceptive uptake among reproductive-aged women in Tamale Metropolis of the Northern Region, Ghana.

Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from February to March 2015.

Setting: All three sub Metropolis in Tamale.

Participants: All community members and women of reproductive age (15-49 years).

Intervention: The study used cluster sampling to recruit women who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were also held among community members who were purposively selected.

Main Outcome Measures: contraceptive uptake (use of contraceptive).

Results: The mean age of the women was 26 years. The prevalence of contraceptive uptake among reproductive-age women was 36.8% (165/448). Women with secondary school education [AOR=4.4(95%CI:1.6-12.4)], and those in homes where decisions on having children were made by both partners [AOR=2.1(95%CI:1.1-04.42)] were more likely to use contraceptives. Unemployed women [AOR=0.3(95%CI:0.1-0.8)], women whose husbands were unaware of their contraceptive use [AOR=0.4(95%CI:0.2-0.9)] and those having a culture or religion that frowns on contraceptive use [AOR=0.4(95%CI:0.2-0.8)] were less likely to use contraceptive among women in the Tamale Metropolis.

Conclusion: The study found a contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in Tamale Metropolis, Northern Ghana to be 36.8%. Education and living in a home where childbearing decisions are made together were identified as positive factors influencing contraceptive uptake.

Funding: This work was funded by the authors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gmj.v54i2s.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837347PMC
June 2020

Structural basis for distinct operational modes and protease activation in AAA+ protease Lon.

Sci Adv 2020 May 20;6(21):eaba8404. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Substrate-bound structures of AAA+ protein translocases reveal a conserved asymmetric spiral staircase architecture wherein a sequential ATP hydrolysis cycle drives hand-over-hand substrate translocation. However, this configuration is unlikely to represent the full conformational landscape of these enzymes, as biochemical studies suggest distinct conformational states depending on the presence or absence of substrate. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine structures of the Lon AAA+ protease in the absence and presence of substrate, uncovering the mechanistic basis for two distinct operational modes. In the absence of substrate, Lon adopts a left-handed, "open" spiral organization with autoinhibited proteolytic active sites. Upon the addition of substrate, Lon undergoes a reorganization to assemble an enzymatically active, right-handed "closed" conformer with active protease sites. These findings define the mechanistic principles underlying the operational plasticity required for processing diverse protein substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba8404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239648PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of cholera surveillance system in Osu Klottey District, Accra, Ghana (2011-2013).

Pan Afr Med J 2017 13;28:224. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (GFELTP), Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Cholera is an acute illness characterized by profuse watery diarrhea. It is caused by vibrio cholera subgroup 01 and 0139. Rapid administration of fluid replacement therapy and supportive treatment can reduce mortality to around 1%. By the close of 2011, 10,628 cases and 100 deaths were reported in Ghana with a case fatality rate of 0.99. It is important to evaluate the cholera surveillance system in Ghana to determine if it is meeting its objective.

Methods: The study was conducted in Osu Klottey district in the Accra Metropolitan area in January 2014. We assessed the operations (attributes and performance) of the surveillance system for cholera using CDC guidelines (2001). Surveillance data records at the district level from 2011-2013 were extracted and analyzed for frequency using Microsoft excel. Stakeholders and key informants were interviewed using structured questionnaire. Records were also reviewed at some health facilities and at district levels.

Results: In 2011 and 2012, case fatality rates (1.3% and 0.65%) respectively. Males were mostly affected. The most affected age group was 20-29. In 2011, Predictive value positive was 69.2% and 50% in 2012.Cholera peaked in March 2011 and April 2012. The Government of Ghana funded the system. The system is sensitive, simple, stable, flexible, acceptable and representative. It was also useful and data quality was relatively good. Predictive Value Positive was also good.

Conclusion: The surveillance system is achieving its set out objectives. The system is sensitive, simple, stable, flexible, and acceptable. Predictive value positive was good.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.28.224.10737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5881562PMC
May 2018

Pedestrians' adherence to road traffic regulations on the N1 Highway in Accra, Ghana.

Pan Afr Med J 2016 1;25(Suppl 1):11. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

School Of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon Boundary, Accra, Ghana; Ghana Field Epidemiology And Laboratory Training Program.

Introduction: Pedestrian behavior and adherence to road traffic regulation is vital in the prevention and control of road traffic accidents (RTA) especially on highways in Ghana. We assessed pedestrians' adherence to road crossing regulations on the George Walker Bush (N1) Highway in Accra.

Methods: We conducted a cross sectional study of pedestrians crossing the N1 highway from both sides of the road between 7:00 am and 11:00am. We observed all pedestrians using a checklist and interviewed 413 using a structured questionnaire. We collected data on basic demographics, and pedestrians' knowledge on road crossing (exposures). Data was, cleaned and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.4. Pearson Chi-square was used to assess differences in proportions for categorical variables. Binary logistic regression was used to test for association between pedestrian choice of route and exposures.

Results: We observed (n = 1856) pedestrians crossing the road during the study period; 1155 (62.2%) males, 461 (24.8%) did not use the approved route(s). Majority 317(76.8%) were adults between the ages of 20-49, mostly males 265 (56.4%). Most people (92.7%) had at least basic education. AOR for sex (male) was 1.7(1.1-2.6), and regular use of Highway (always) was 0.4(0.2-0.8) at 95% CI.

Conclusion: One out of every 4pedestrians using the N1 Highway used an unapproved route. Majority of pedestrians who regularly cross the Highway at unapproved routes were males. We recommend vigorous public education and addition of more footbridges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2016.25.1.6184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5257021PMC
March 2017

Foodborne disease outbreak in a resource-limited setting: a tale of missed opportunities and implications for response.

Pan Afr Med J 2016 9;23:69. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Ghana Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (GFELTP), School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Introduction: Foodborne diseases (FBD) have emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. Though the global burden of FBD is currently unknown, foodborne diarrhoeal diseases kill 1.9 million children globally every year. On 25th September 2014, health authorities in Eastern Region of Ghana were alerted of a suspected FBD outbreak involving patrons of a community food joint. We investigated to determine the magnitude, source and implement control and preventive measures.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. We reviewed medical records for data on demographics and clinical features. A suspected foodborne disease was any person in the affected community with abdominal pain, vomiting and or diarrhea between 25(th) and 30(th) September 2014 and had eaten from the food joint. We conducted active case search, descriptive data analysis and calculated food specific attack rate ratios (ARR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals.

Results: Of 43 case-patients, 44.2% (19/43) were males; median age was 19 years (interquartile range: 17-24 years). Overall attack rate was 43.4% (43/99) with no fatality. Case counts rose sharply for four hours to a peak and fell to baseline levels after 12 hours. Compared to those who ate other food items, patrons who ate "waakye" and "shitor" were more likely to develop foodborne disease [ARR = 4.1 (95% CI = 1.09-15.63)]. Food samples and specimens from case-patients were unavailable for testing. Laboratory diagnostic capacity was also weak.

Conclusion: A point source FBD outbreak linked to probable contaminated "waakye" and or "shitor" occurred. Missed opportunities for definitive diagnosis highlighted the need for strengthening local response capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.23.69.7660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862777PMC
February 2017
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