Publications by authors named "Erasmus Schneider"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Early introductions and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in the United States.

Cell 2021 May 3;184(10):2595-2604.e13. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Connecticut State Department of Public Health, Rocky Hill, CT 06067, USA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, first detected in the United Kingdom, has become a global public health concern because of its increased transmissibility. Over 2,500 COVID-19 cases associated with this variant have been detected in the United States (US) since December 2020, but the extent of establishment is relatively unknown. Using travel, genomic, and diagnostic data, we highlight that the primary ports of entry for B.1.1.7 in the US were in New York, California, and Florida. Furthermore, we found evidence for many independent B.1.1.7 establishments starting in early December 2020, followed by interstate spread by the end of the month. Finally, we project that B.1.1.7 will be the dominant lineage in many states by mid- to late March. Thus, genomic surveillance for B.1.1.7 and other variants urgently needs to be enhanced to better inform the public health response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018830PMC
May 2021

Early introductions and community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in the United States.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

The emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7, first detected in the United Kingdom, has become a national public health concern in the United States because of its increased transmissibility. Over 500 COVID-19 cases associated with this variant have been detected since December 2020, but its local establishment and pathways of spread are relatively unknown. Using travel, genomic, and diagnostic testing data, we highlight the primary ports of entry for B.1.1.7 in the US and locations of possible underreporting of B.1.1.7 cases. New York, which receives the most international travel from the UK, is likely one of the key hubs for introductions and domestic spread. Finally, we provide evidence for increased community transmission in several states. Thus, genomic surveillance for B.1.1.7 and other variants urgently needs to be enhanced to better inform the public health response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.10.21251540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885932PMC
February 2021

Analysis of the AHR gene proximal promoter GGGGC-repeat polymorphism in lung, breast, and colon cancer.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2015 Jan 4;282(1):30-41. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, United States; Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201, United States. Electronic address:

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates expression of numerous genes, including those of the CYP1 gene family. With the goal of determining factors that control AHR gene expression, our studies are focused on the role of the short tandem repeat polymorphism, (GGGGC)n, located in the proximal promoter of the human AHR gene. When luciferase constructs containing varying GGGGC repeats were transfected into cancer cell lines derived from the lung, colon, and breast, the number of GGGGC repeats affected AHR promoter activity. The number of GGGGC repeats was determined in DNA from 327 humans and from 38 samples representing 5 species of non-human primates. In chimpanzees and 3 species of macaques, only (GGGGC)2 alleles were observed; however, in western gorilla, (GGGGC)n alleles with n=2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 were identified. In all human populations examined, the frequency of (GGGGC)n was n=4>5≫2, 6. When frequencies of the (GGGGC)n alleles in DNA from patients with lung, colon, or breast cancer were evaluated, the occurrence of (GGGGC)2 was found to be 8-fold more frequent among lung cancer patients in comparison with its incidence in the general population, as represented by New York State neonates. Analysis of matched tumor and non-tumor DNA samples from the same individuals provided no evidence of microsatellite instability. These studies indicate that the (GGGGC)n short tandem repeats are inherited, and that the (GGGGC)2 allele in the AHR proximal promoter region should be further investigated with regard to its potential association with lung cancer susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2014.10.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404625PMC
January 2015

Measurement of unconjugated estriol in serum by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and assessment of the accuracy of chemiluminescent immunoassays.

Clin Chem 2014 Jan 19;60(1):260-8. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China;

Background: Unconjugated estriol (uE3) is routinely analyzed in clinical laboratories as risk assessment for Down syndrome. Immunoassays of various types are the most commonly used methods. The accuracies of RIAs and ELISAs for uE3 have been questioned, and to date there have been no independent studies investigating the accuracy of the relatively new chemiluminescent immunoassays. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for uE3 measurements in serum.

Methods: Serum samples from patients in the second trimester of pregnancy were used, and uE3 concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS and the Beckman Coulter Access® 2 and Siemens IMMULITE 2000 automatic chemiluminescent immunoassay analyzers.

Results: The LC-MS/MS method was validated and showed limit of detection 0.05 ng/mL; limit of quantification 0.2 ng/mL; linearity of response to 32 ng/mL; total imprecision of 16.2%, 10.4%, and 8.2% for uE3 at 1.10, 4.18, and 8.32 ng/mL, respectively; and analytical recoveries of 95.9%-104.2%. ANOVA of the correlation for LC-MS/MS results vs chemiluminescent immunoassays results showed R(2) = 0.9678 (Access 2 = 0.9305 LC-MS/MS + 0.2177, Sy|x = 0.1786, P < 0.0001), and R(2) = 0.9663 (IMMULITE 2000 = 0.8849 LC-MS/MS - 0.0403, Sy|x = 0.1738, P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots of uE3 results revealed concentration-dependent immunoassay biases. Mock risk analysis for Down syndrome showed no apparent difference in the risk assessment outcomes if the adjusted method-specific multiples of the median were used, and the assay imprecision was <10% CV.

Conclusions: Standardization of immunoassay methods for uE3 analysis is needed to improve the accuracy of the measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2013.212126DOI Listing
January 2014

Notch1 regulates the expression of the multidrug resistance gene ABCC1/MRP1 in cultured cancer cells.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 Dec 5;108(51):20778-83. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a barrier to successful cancer chemotherapy. Although MDR is associated with overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters, mechanisms behind their up-regulation are not entirely understood. The cleaved form of the Notch1 protein, intracellular Notch1 (N1(IC)), is involved in transcriptional regulation of genes. To test whether Notch1 is involved in the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1/MRP1; herein referred to as ABCC1), we measured N1(IC) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1), the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase required for Notch activation. We observed higher levels of N1(IC) and PSEN1 proteins as well as higher activity of N1(IC) in ABCC1-expressing MDR MCF7/VP cells compared with parental MCF7/WT cells. Reducing N1(IC) levels in MCF7/VP cells with either a γ-secretase inhibitor or shRNA led to reduction of ABCC1. By contrast, ectopic expression of N1(IC) in MCF7/WT cells led to increased expression of ABCC1 and associated drug resistance, consistent with expression of this transporter. Inhibition of ABCC1 reversed drug resistance of N1(IC)-overexpressing stable cells. Using an ABCC1 promoter construct, we observed both its reduced transcriptional activity after blocking the generation of N1(IC) and its increased transcriptional activity in stable cells overexpressing N1(IC). ChIP and gel-shift assays revealed an interaction between a specific promoter region of ABCC1 and the N1(IC)-activated transcription factor CBF1, suggesting that the regulation of ABCC1 expression by Notch1 is mediated by CBF1. Indeed, deletion or site-directed mutagenesis of these CBF1 binding sites within the ABCC1 promoter region attenuated promoter-reporter activity. Overall, our results reveal a unique regulatory mechanism of ABCC1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019452108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3251103PMC
December 2011

Unique cyanide adduct in human serum albumin: potential as a surrogate exposure marker.

Chem Res Toxicol 2011 Apr 18;24(4):505-14. Epub 2011 Mar 18.

Biggs Laboratory, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, United States.

Cyanide (CN = HCN + CN(-)) is a renowned poison and neurotoxicant that is prevalent throughout the environment. Despite a plethora of studies conducted over the last half century, relatively little is known of its potential to cause adverse health outcomes at sublethal exposures. CN exposure is normally determined from blood, but because CN is rapidly metabolized and cleared from this compartment (t(1/2) < 1 h), it is common for several half-lives to have passed before blood samples are drawn for analysis. This variable, coupled with a very narrow toxic index and metabolic diversity within the human population, has rendered accurate assessment of CN exposure, and consequently any predictions of possible adverse health outcomes, highly problematic. Prior studies by us showed the potential of Cys-SCN adducts within human serum albumin (HSA) to act as retrospective surrogates of CN exposure. Here, we report the discovery of a stable, SCN adduct at Cys(567) formed by the reaction of CN with the C-terminal Cys(558)Cys(567) disulfide bond of HSA. Treatment of HSA purified from human serum with base in guanidine hydrochloride releases a readily detectable, uniquely modified, C-terminal-19-mer peptide from Cys(567)-SCN moieties in all the samples examined thus far. Inclusion of a HSA-Cys(567)-S(13)C(15)N labeled internal standard permits quantitation of the Cys(567)-SCN adduct by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) of the surrogate peptide with high sensitivity and good precision. Reaction of CN in vitro with the Cys(558)Cys(567) disulfide bond in HSA is specific, rapid, and concentration dependent within a putative, physiologically relevant range. Data from various human sera demonstrate the potential usefulness of this adduct as a biomarker of CN exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx100344eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3089968PMC
April 2011

A structural analysis of in vitro catalytic activities of hammerhead ribozymes.

BMC Bioinformatics 2007 Nov 30;8:469. Epub 2007 Nov 30.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Background: Ribozymes are small catalytic RNAs that possess the dual functions of sequence-specific RNA recognition and site-specific cleavage. Trans-cleaving ribozymes can inhibit translation of genes at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems and are thus useful tools for studies of gene function. However, identification of target sites for efficient cleavage poses a challenge. Here, we have considered a number of structural and thermodynamic parameters that can affect the efficiency of target cleavage, in an attempt to identify rules for the selection of functional ribozymes.

Results: We employed the Sfold program for RNA secondary structure prediction, to account for the likely population of target structures that co-exist in dynamic equilibrium for a specific mRNA molecule. We designed and prepared 15 hammerhead ribozymes to target GUC cleavage sites in the mRNA of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). These ribozymes were tested, and their catalytic activities were measured in vitro. We found that target disruption energy owing to the alteration of the local target structure necessary for ribozyme binding, and the total energy change of the ribozyme-target hybridization, are two significant parameters for prediction of ribozyme activity. Importantly, target disruption energy is the major contributor to the predictability of ribozyme activity by the total energy change. Furthermore, for a target-site specific ribozyme, incorrect folding of the catalytic core, or interactions involving the two binding arms and the end sequences of the catalytic core, can have detrimental effects on ribozyme activity.

Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest rules for structure-based rational design of trans-cleaving hammerhead ribozymes in gene knockdown studies. Tools implementing these rules are available from the Sribo module and the Srna module of the Sfold program available through Web server at http://sfold.wadsworth.org.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-8-469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238771PMC
November 2007

Multi-marker testing for cancer: what can we learn from modern prenatal testing for Trisomy-21.

Cancer Inform 2007 Feb 9;2:44-7. Epub 2007 Feb 9.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2675509PMC
February 2007

Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase and drug resistance.

Clin Chim Acta 2006 Dec 10;374(1-2):25-32. Epub 2006 Jun 10.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, United States.

Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) is a lysosomal enzyme involved in the metabolism of folates and anti-folates. It acts as an endo- and/or exo-peptidase to cleave gamma-polyglutamate chains that are attached to folates and anti-folates after they enter a mammalian cell. Whereas the addition of multiple glutamates is necessary to enable the cell to retain folates and anti-folates, hydrolysis of the polyglutamate tails by GGH has the opposite effect of making (anti)-folates exportable again. Thus, GGH plays an important role in the cellular homeostasis of folate. Furthermore, high levels of GGH have been associated with cellular resistance to anti-folates, in particular methotrexate. Consequently, GGH also has pharmacological importance. In addition to the intracellular GGH, carboxypeptidase II (also called intestinal folate conjugase, prostate specific membrane antigen or N-acetyl-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase) is another enzyme with gamma-glutamyl hydrolase activity; it resides, however, in the cellular membrane. Although genetically and biochemically distinct, this enzyme too appears to play a major role in folate homeostasis, by cleaving polyglutamates from extracellular folate-polyglutamates, so that they can be imported into the cell. Finally, there have been reports suggesting that gamma-glutamyl hydrolase plays a role as a tumor marker in breast and lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2006.05.044DOI Listing
December 2006

Increased lysosomal uptake of methotrexate-polyglutamates in two methotrexate-resistant cell lines with distinct mechanisms of resistance.

Biochem Pharmacol 2005 Dec 2;71(1-2):203-13. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

Methotrexate (MTX) resistance in mitoxantrone-selected MCF7/MX cells and in MTX-selected CEM/MTX cells is associated with reduced drug accumulation, albeit caused by different mechanisms. In addition, in both resistant cell lines the proportion of active long-chain MTX-polyglutamate (MTX-PG) metabolites is reduced relative to that in the respective parental cell line. Previous studies by others have implied that increased lysosomal uptake could affect the rate of MTX-PG hydrolysis, and hence the length distribution of the polyglutamate chains. However, in the two cell line pairs studied, the number of lysosomes per cell was not different between the corresponding parental and resistant cells. Instead, we observed a two- to three-fold increased facilitative uptake of MTX-Glu4 by the lysosomes from these two independently derived MTX-resistant cell lines, compared to uptake by lysosomes from their corresponding parental cells. Enhanced lysosomal uptake of MTX-Glu4 was reflected in an increased maximal uptake velocity, without a change in the apparent substrate affinity. In addition, the rate of MTX efflux from lysosomes from CEM/MTX cells was two-fold faster than from lysosomes from CEM cells. Consistent with this observation, the relative amount of short-chain MTX-Glu(1+2) species, as a fraction of the total amount of all MTX-Glu(1-4) species combined, was only half as large in lysosomes from CEM/MTX cells as in lysosomes from CEM cells. Together, these results suggest the possibility that increased lysosomal uptake, and hence enhanced sequestration of MTX-PGs in resistant cells, contributes to the development of high-level MTX resistance by decreasing the cytosolic levels of MTX-PGs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2005.10.008DOI Listing
December 2005

Developing a sustainable process to provide quality control materials for genetic testing.

Genet Med 2005 Oct;7(8):534-49

Quality Control Materials for Genetic Testing Group, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA.

Purpose: To provide a summary of the outcomes of two working conferences organized by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to develop recommendations for practical, sustainable mechanisms to make quality control (QC) materials available to the genetic testing community.

Methods: Participants were selected to include experts in genetic testing and molecular diagnostics from professional organizations, government agencies, industry, laboratories, academic institutions, cell repositories, and proficiency testing (PT)/external Quality Assessment (EQA) programs. Current efforts to develop QC materials for genetic tests were reviewed; key issues and areas of need were identified; and workgroups were formed to address each area of need and to formulate recommendations and next steps.

Results: Recommendations were developed toward establishing a sustainable process to improve the availability of appropriate QC materials for genetic testing, with an emphasis on molecular genetic testing as an initial step.

Conclusions: Improving the availability of appropriate QC materials is of critical importance for assuring the quality of genetic testing, enhancing performance evaluation and PT/EQA programs, and facilitating new test development. To meet the needs of the rapidly expanding capacity of genetic testing in clinical and public health settings, a comprehensive, coordinated program should be developed. A Genetic Testing Quality Control Materials Program has therefore been established by CDC in March 2005 to serve these needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.gim.0000183043.94406.81DOI Listing
October 2005

Lack of an effect of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) overexpression on methotrexate polyglutamate export and folate accumulation in a human breast cancer cell line.

Biochem Pharmacol 2005 Jan;69(1):123-32

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

Accumulation of methotrexate (MTX) and its polyglutamates (PGs) has been recognized as an important factor in MTX efficacy. We have previously described a multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cell line, MCF7/MX, that exhibits reduced accumulation of total MTX as well as MTX-PGs, and that is resistant to continuous MTX exposure [Volk EL, Rohde K, Rhee M, McGuire JJ, Doyle LA, Ross DD, et al. Methotrexate cross-resistance in a mitoxantrone selected multidrug-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cell line is due to enhanced energy-dependent drug efflux. Cancer Res 2000;60:3514-21]. These cells express high levels of the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) that has been shown to actively transport MTX and short-chain MTX-PGs in vitro. However, the effect of BCRP on MTX-PG accumulation in intact cells was unclear. Here, we show that MTX transport by BCRP is required for the observed lower levels of MTX-PGs in the resistant cells. When BCRP was inhibited with fumitremorgin C, or in cells expressing a mutated form of BCRP that is unable to transport MTX, MTX-PG accumulation was similar or even higher than that in the parental cells that do not express BCRP. Concomitantly, there was increased inhibition of thymidylate synthase. It had previously been suggested that BCRP-mediated efflux of MTX-PGs contributed to the reduced MTX-PG accumulation. However, we found no evidence of BCRP-mediated efflux of MTX-PGs from intact cells, suggesting that direct efflux of MTX-PGs does not play a major role in MTX resistance. Together, these data show that BCRP overexpression can cause a reduction in total MTX accumulation as well as a reduction in the proportion of long-chain MTX-PGs. In contrast, BCRP overexpression did not affect natural folate accumulation or the relative distribution of folylpolyglutamates in the resistant, as compared to the parental, cells. Thus, it appears that BCRP overexpression affects the metabolism of the antifolate MTX, but not that of natural folates, although indirect effects cannot be excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2004.09.007DOI Listing
January 2005

Effective knock down of very high ABCG2 expression by a hammerhead ribozyme.

Anticancer Res 2004 Jul-Aug;24(4):2231-5

Wadsworth Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

Background: Ribozymes are an effective tool to reduce the mRNA levels of specific target genes. Overexpression of the drug transport protein, ABCG2, has been associated with multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: An expression plasmid encoding a hammerhead ribozyme against the ABCG2 gene was stably transfected into multidrug-resistant MCF7/MX cells that express very high levels of the ABCG2 protein. The effect of the ribozyme was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and cytotoxicity assays.

Results: The ribozyme reduced ABCG2 mRNA levels to less than 10% of control values, which resulted in the concomitant reduction of ABCG2 protein levels and sensitization of the cells to mitoxantrone and methotrexate.

Conclusion: The ribozyme used was highly effective in reducing the expression of its target gene, ABCG2, and was able to modulate the associated multidrug-resistant phenotype.
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September 2004

Wild-type breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is a methotrexate polyglutamate transporter.

Cancer Res 2003 Sep;63(17):5538-43

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201, USA.

The existence of an ATP-dependent methotrexate (MTX) efflux mechanism has long been postulated; however, until recently, the molecular components were largely unknown. We have previously demonstrated a role for the ATP-binding cassette transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in MTX resistance (Volk et al., Cancer Res., 62: 5035-5040, 2002). Resistance to this antifolate directly correlated with BCRP expression, and was reversible by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C and GF120918. Here, we provide evidence for BCRP as a MTX-transporter using an in vitro membrane vesicle system. Inside-out membrane vesicles were generated from both drug-selected and stably transfected cell lines expressing either wild-type (Arg482) or mutant (Gly482) variants of BCRP. In the presence of the wild-type variant of BCRP, transport of MTX into vesicles was ATP-dependent, osmotically sensitive, and inhibited by fumitremorgin C. In contrast, no transport was observed in vesicles containing the mutant form of BCRP. Wild-type BCRP appeared to have low affinity, but high capacity, for the transport of MTX, with an estimated K(m) of 680 micro M and a V(max) of 2400 pmol/mg/min. MTX accumulation was greatly decreased by mitoxantrone, a known BCRP substrate, suggesting competition for transport. Furthermore, and in contrast to the multidrug resistance-associated proteins, BCRP also transported significant amounts of polyglutamylated MTX. Although transport gradually decreased as the polyglutamate chain length increased, both MTX-Glu(2) and MTX-Glu(3) were substrates for BCRP. Together, these data demonstrate that BCRP is a MTX and MTX-polyglutamate transporter and reveal a possible mechanism by which it confers resistance.
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September 2003

Reactive oxygen species mediate the down-regulation of mitochondrial transcripts and proteins by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in L929 cells.

Biochem J 2003 Mar;370(Pt 2):609-19

Laboratorio Andaluz de Biología, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Carretera de Utrera Km 1, Sevilla 41013, Spain.

In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species production induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in L929 cells was associated with a decrease in the steady-state mRNA levels of the mitochondrial transcript ATPase 6-8. Simultaneously, the transcript levels of two nuclear-encoded glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphofructokinase, were increased. These changes were associated with decreased protein levels of the ATPase subunit a (encoded by the mitochondrial ATPase 6 gene) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, and increased protein levels of phosphofructokinase. Since TNF-alpha had no effect on the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the results suggested that TNF-alpha acted at the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional level. Reactive oxygen species scavengers, such as butylated hydroxianisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, blocked the production of free radicals, prevented the down-regulation of ATPase 6-8 transcripts, preserved the protein levels of ATPase subunit a and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, and attenuated the cytotoxic response to TNF-alpha, indicating a direct link between these two phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20021623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1223204PMC
March 2003

Overexpression of wild-type breast cancer resistance protein mediates methotrexate resistance.

Cancer Res 2002 Sep;62(17):5035-40

Wadsworth Center, Biggs Laboratories, New York State Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Previously, we have reported that a multidrug-resistant, mitoxantrone (MX)-selected cell line, MCF7/MX, is highly cross-resistant to the antifolate methotrexate (MTX), because of enhanced ATP-dependent drug efflux (E. L. Volk et al., Cancer Res., 60: 3514-3521, 2000). These cells overexpress the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and resistance to MTX as well as to MX was reversible by the BCRP inhibitor, GF120918. These data indicated that BCRP causes the multidrug-resistance phenotype. To further examine the role of this transporter in MTX resistance, and in particular the role of amino acid 482, we analyzed a number of BCRP-overexpressing cell lines. MTX resistance correlated with BCRP expression in all of the cell lines expressing the wild-type transporter, which contains an Arg at position 482. In contrast, little or no cross-resistance was found in the MCF7/AdVp1000 and S1-M1-3.2 and S1-M1-80 cell lines, which contain acquired mutations at this position, R482T and R482G, respectively. Concomitantly, the greatest reduction in MTX accumulation was observed in the MCF7/MX cells (BCRP(Arg)) as compared with cells expressing the Thr and Gly BCRP variants. Furthermore, the reduction in drug accumulation was sensitive to BCRP inhibition by GF120918. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel role for BCRP as a mediator of MTX resistance and have provided further evidence for the importance of amino acid 482 in substrate specificity.
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September 2002

Validation of sixteen leukemia and lymphoma cell lines as controls for molecular gene rearrangement assays.

Clin Chem 2002 Aug;48(8):1344-51

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany 12201, USA.

Background: Assays for rearrangement of the immunoglobulin, T-cell receptor, bcr/abl, and bcl-2 genes are valuable tools to aid in the diagnosis of leukemias and lymphomas and are now offered by many pathology laboratories. However, there is a lack of well-characterized and validated calibrators and positive controls for these assays. We therefore evaluated 16 readily available leukemia and lymphoma cell lines for their potential use as controls.

Methods: DNA and RNA were isolated from each cell line and analyzed by Southern blot and PCR or reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Rearrangements in the IgJ(H), IgJ(kappa), TcR-beta or TcR-gamma, bcr/abl, and bcl-2 genes were detected by commercially available probes and primers. Cell lineages were confirmed by immunophenotyping.

Results: Immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements were identified in five B- and three T-cell lines, respectively. Two cell lines tested positive for the bcr/abl gene, and one was positive for the bcl-2 gene rearrangement by Southern blot.

Conclusions: The 16 cell lines studied can be used as positive controls in molecular detection assays for gene rearrangements. The parallel processing of these cell lines with clinical samples can serve to quality control the experimental procedures from the first step of DNA or RNA extraction to the final step of result analysis.
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August 2002