Publications by authors named "Enrique Jesús Delgado-Suárez"

3 Publications

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Genomic surveillance of antimicrobial resistance shows cattle and poultry are a moderate source of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella in Mexico.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(5):e0243681. Epub 2021 May 5.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México.

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a public health concern globally. This study reports the phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of NTS isolates from bovine lymph nodes (n = 48) and ground beef (n = 29). Furthermore, we compared genotypic AMR data of our isolates with those of publicly available NTS genomes from Mexico (n = 2400). The probability of finding MDR isolates was higher in ground beef than in lymph nodes:χ2 = 12.0, P = 0.0005. The most common resistant phenotypes involved tetracycline (40.3%), carbenicillin (26.0%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (20.8%), chloramphenicol (19.5%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (16.9%), while more than 55% of the isolates showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and 26% were MDR. Conversely, resistance to cephalosporins and carbapenems was infrequent (0-9%). MDR phenotypes were strongly associated with NTS serovar (χ2 = 24.5, P<0.0001), with Typhimurium accounting for 40% of MDR strains. Most of these (9/10), carried Salmonella genomic island 1, which harbors a class-1 integron with multiple AMR genes (aadA2, blaCARB-2, floR, sul1, tetG) that confer a penta-resistant phenotype. MDR phenotypes were also associated with mutations in the ramR gene (χ2 = 17.7, P<0.0001). Among public NTS isolates from Mexico, those from cattle and poultry had the highest proportion of MDR genotypes. Our results suggest that attaining significant improvements in AMR meat safety requires the identification and removal (or treatment) of product harboring MDR NTS, instead of screening for Salmonella spp. or for isolates showing resistance to individual antibiotics. In that sense, massive integration of whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies in AMR surveillance provides the shortest path to accomplish these goals.
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May 2021

Genomic surveillance links livestock production with the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistant non-typhoidal Salmonella in Mexico.

J Microbiol 2019 Apr 5;57(4):271-280. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico.

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is increasingly common worldwide. While food animals are thought to contribute to the growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) problem, limited data is documenting this relationship, especially in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Herein, we aimed to assess the role of non-clinical NTS of bovine origin as reservoirs of AMR genes of human clinical significance. We evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic AMR profiles in a set of 44 bovine-associated NTS. For comparative purposes, we also included genotypic AMR data of additional isolates from Mexico (n = 1,067) that are publicly available. The most frequent AMR phenotypes in our isolates involved tetracycline (40/44), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (26/44), chloramphenicol (19/44), ampicillin (18/44), streptomycin (16/44), and carbenicillin (13/44), while nearly 70% of the strains were MDR. These phenotypes were correlated with a widespread distribution of AMR genes (i.e. tetA, aadA, dfrA12, dfrA17, sul1, sul2, bla-TEM-1, blaCARB-2) against multiple antibiotic classes, with some of them contributed by plasmids and/or class-1 integrons. We observed different AMR genotypes for betalactams and tetracycline resistance, providing evidence of convergent evolution and adaptive AMR. The probability of MDR genotype occurrence was higher in meat-associated isolates than in those from other sources (odds ratio 11.2, 95% confidence interval 4.5-27.9, P < 0.0001). The study shows that beef cattle are a significant source of MDR NTS in Mexico, highlighting the role of animal production on the emergence and spread of MDR Salmonella in LMIC.
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April 2019

Whole genome sequencing reveals widespread distribution of typhoidal toxin genes and VirB/D4 plasmids in bovine-associated nontyphoidal Salmonella.

Sci Rep 2018 06 29;8(1):9864. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, 04510, Mexico.

Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common pathogen in food-producing animals and a public health concern worldwide. Various NTS serovars may be present in apparently healthy animals. This could result in carcass contamination during the slaughter process leading to human exposure. While most genomic research has focused on Salmonella pathogenesis, little is known on the factors associated with subclinical infections and environmental persistence. We report here the widespread distribution of typhoidal toxin genes (i. e. the cdtB islet, hlyE, taiA), among NTS strains from a beef slaughter operation (n = 39) and from epidemiologically unconnected ground beef (n = 20). These genes were present in 76% of the strains, regardless of serovar, isolation source or geographical location. Moreover, strains that predominated in the slaughterhouse carry plasmid-borne type IV secretion systems (T4SS), which have been linked to persistent infections in numerous pathogens. Population genomics supports clonal dissemination of NTS along the food production chain, highlighting its role as reservoir of genetic variability in the environment. Overall, the study provides a thorough characterization of serovar diversity and genomic features of beef-associated NTS in Mexico. Furthermore, it reveals how common genetic factors could partially explain the emergence and persistence of certain NTS serovars in the beef industry.
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June 2018