Publications by authors named "Enrique Gracia"

54 Publications

Contextual Factors Related to Alcohol Abuse Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

Subst Use Misuse 2017 02 19;52(3):294-302. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

b Department of Social Psychology , University of Valencia , Valencia , Spain.

Background: The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems.

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs.

Method: This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on alcohol use, ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events and perceived social support and rejection. The sample was divided into hazardous and nonhazardous alcohol users, according to the AUDIT test scale.

Results: No differences were found between groups on demographic variables. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis supplemented with ROC curves revealed that Latin American immigrants as opposed to Spanish nationality, accumulating stressful life events, and perceiving low social support significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol abuse, with adequate predictive power.

Conclusion: Contextual variables such as ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events, and lack of social support may explain harmful alcohol consumption. These variables should be taken into account in batterer intervention programs in order to reduce one of the most relevant risk factors of IPV: alcohol abuse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2016.1225097DOI Listing
February 2017

Intimate partner violence against women and the Nordic paradox.

Soc Sci Med 2016 05 31;157:27-30. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Unit for Social Epidemiology, University of Lund, Malmö, Sweden.

Nordic countries are the most gender equal countries in the world, but at the same time they have disproportionally high prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. High prevalence of IPV against women, and high levels of gender equality would appear contradictory, but these apparently opposite statements appear to be true in Nordic countries, producing what could be called the 'Nordic paradox'. Despite this paradox being one of the most puzzling issues in the field, this is a research question rarely asked, and one that remains unanswered. This paper explores a number of theoretical and methodological issues that may help to understand this paradox. Efforts to understand the Nordic paradox may provide an avenue to guide new research on IPV and to respond to this major public health problem in a more effective way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.040DOI Listing
May 2016

Preliminary evaluation of an analog procedure to assess acceptability of intimate partner violence against women: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task.

Front Psychol 2015 12;6:1567. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia , Valencia, Spain.

Acceptability of partner violence against women is a risk factor linked to its perpetration, and to public, professionals' and victims' responses to this behavior. Research on the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships is, however, limited by reliance solely on self-reports that often provide distorted or socially desirable accounts that may misrepresent respondents' attitudes. This study presents data on the development and initial validation of a new analog task assessing respondents' acceptability of physical violence toward women in intimate relationships: the Partner Violence Acceptability Movie Task (PVAM). This new analog task is intended to provide a more implicit measure of the acceptability of partner violence against women. For this analog task, clips were extracted from commercially available films (90-s segments) portraying partner violence. Two independent samples were used to develop and evaluate the PVAM: a sample of 245 undergraduate students and a sample of 94 male intimate partner violence offenders. This new analog task demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. Results also indicated adequate construct validity. Both perpetrators and undergraduates scoring high in the PVAM also scored higher in self-reported justifications of partner abuse. Perpetrators of partner violence scored significantly higher in acceptability of partner violence than the undergraduate sample (both male and female students), and male students scored higher than females. These preliminary results suggest that the PVAM may be a promising tool to assess the acceptability of violence in intimate partner relationships, highlighting the need to consider alternatives to self-report to evaluate potential beliefs about partner violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4600898PMC
November 2015

The Spatial Epidemiology of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Neighborhoods Matter?

Am J Epidemiol 2015 Jul 15;182(1):58-66. Epub 2015 May 15.

We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwv016DOI Listing
July 2015

Intimate partner violence against women and victim-blaming attitudes among Europeans.

Authors:
Enrique Gracia

Bull World Health Organ 2014 May 5;92(5):380-1. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain .

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.131391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4007130PMC
May 2014

Correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women among the Spanish general population.

Violence Against Women 2014 Jan 28;20(1):26-41. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

University of Valencia, Spain.

This article analyzes correlates of victim-blaming attitudes regarding partner violence against women (PVAW) among the Spanish general population (N = 1,006). Results showed that victim-blaming attitudes were more common among respondents who were older, less educated, and who placed themselves at the bottom of the social scale. Furthermore, the odds of expressing victim-blaming attitudes were higher among respondents who thought that PVAW was common in society, considered it more acceptable, and knew women victims of partner violence in their circle of friends and family. Implications for public education are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801213520577DOI Listing
January 2014

Exploring neighborhood influences on small-area variations in intimate partner violence risk: a Bayesian random-effects modeling approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Jan 9;11(1):866-82. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain.

This paper uses spatial data of cases of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) to examine neighborhood-level influences on small-area variations in IPVAW risk in a police district of the city of Valencia (Spain). To analyze area variations in IPVAW risk and its association with neighborhood-level explanatory variables we use a Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach, as well as disease mapping methods to represent risk probabilities in each area. Analyses show that IPVAW cases are more likely in areas of high immigrant concentration, high public disorder and crime, and high physical disorder. Results also show a spatial component indicating remaining variability attributable to spatially structured random effects. Bayesian spatial modeling offers a new perspective to identify IPVAW high and low risk areas, and provides a new avenue for the design of better-informed prevention and intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110100866DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924479PMC
January 2014

Validation of the English version of the Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire.

Psicothema 2013 ;25(4):549-55

Universidad de Valencia.

Background: The Spanish Five-Factor Self-Concept Questionnaire (AF5) is one of the most widely used instruments assessing self-concept with Spanish-speaking samples. It is also one of the few psychometrically sound instruments assessing self-concept from a multidimensional perspective. The availability of the AF5 in both languages (Spanish and English) would expand its potential, and would facilitate cross-cultural research.

Method: To validate the English version of the AF5, we used multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis. The sample was 624 USA respondents, 301 males (48%) and 323 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 (M = 16.21, SD = 1.08).

Results: The English version of the AF5 does not change the original factor weights, the variances and covariances of the factors, or the error variances of items, with regard to the original Spanish five-factor model. The five factors proposed -academic, social, emotional, family, and physical- satisfactorily reproduce the inter-item relationships of the original Spanish version. The reliability for all items and dimensions of the English version was also good, with similar results as the original version.

Conclusions: This preliminary validation study of the English version of the AF5 showed that it is an acceptable measure to be used with English-speaking adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.33DOI Listing
August 2014

[Self-concept and drug use in adolescence].

Adicciones 2011 ;23(3):237-48

Universidad de Valencia, España.

This study analyzes the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and drug use among adolescents. From the responses of 632 participants (47.5% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.88 years, SD = 1.71 years), results showed negative relationships between family, academic and physical self-concept, and drug use. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the age and sex of adolescents was controlled statistically. Moreover, the study includes other adjustment indicators in adolescence (psychological adjustment, personal competence, antisocial behavior and parenting). Results support the idea of self-concept as an important correlate of psychological well-being and a basic theoretical construct for explaining adjusted and adaptive behaviors in adolescence. Likewise, our results underline the need for statistical control of the effect of a third variable (sex), which could explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), so as to avoid reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships. self-concept, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, adolescence, psychosocial adjustment, drug use.
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December 2011

[Self-concept and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence].

Psicothema 2011 Feb;23(1):7-12

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

This study analyses the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and a broad set of adolescents' psychosocial adjustment indicators. From the responses of 1,281 participants (53.7% females) aged 12 to 17 years ( M = 14.98 years, SD = 1.74 years), results indicated that higher self-concept scores corresponded to better psychological adjustment, good personal skills and fewer behavioral problems. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the adolescent's age and sex was controlled for. These results support the idea that the self-concept is a basic theoretical construct closely related to the psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. Also this study helps explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (i.e., a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), by showing how the statistical control of a third variable effect (i.e., age) avoids reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships.
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February 2011

Police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women: do they correspond to different psychosocial profiles?

J Interpers Violence 2011 Jan 6;26(1):189-207. Epub 2010 May 6.

Departamento de Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

This study analyzed whether police attitudes toward policing partner violence against women corresponded with different psychosocial profiles. Two attitudes toward policing partner violence were considered-one reflecting a general preference for a conditional law enforcement (depending on the willingness of the victim to press charges against the offender) and the other reflecting a general preference for unconditional law enforcement (regardless of the victim's willingness to press charges against the offender). Results from a sample of 378 police officers showed that those police officers who expressed a general preference for unconditional law enforcement scored higher in other-oriented empathy, were less sexist, tended to perceive the same incidents of partner violence as more serious, and felt more personally responsible, as compared to the group of police officers who expressed a preference for a conditional law enforcement approach. Implications for police education are considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260510362892DOI Listing
January 2011

Internet use and self-rated health among older people: a national survey.

J Med Internet Res 2009 Dec 2;11(4):e49. Epub 2009 Dec 2.

University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Older people are among the segments of the population for which the digital divide is most persistent and are considered to be at risk of losing out on the potential benefits that the information society can provide to their quality of life. Little attention has been paid, however, to relationships between Internet use and actual indicators of health among older people.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between Internet use and self-rated health among older people and determine whether this association holds independently of socioeconomic position.

Methods: Data were from a survey about the digital divide and quality of life among older people in Spain that was conducted in 2008. The final sample consisted of 709 individuals and was representative of the Spanish adult population in terms of Internet use and sex across two age groups (55-64 and 65-74 years). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between Internet use and self-rated health.

Results: Results initially showed a significant relationship between Internet use and poor self-rated health (Model 1, OR = 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.67, P = .002), suggesting that Internet users have better self-rated health than nonusers. This effect remained significant when other sociodemographic variables were entered into the equation (Model 2, OR = 0.39, 95% CI 0.18-0.83, P = .01; Model 3, OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.87, P = .02). However, the significant relationship between Internet use and self-rated health disappeared once social class was considered (Model 4, OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.27-1.37, P = .23).

Conclusions: This study suggests that the use of the Internet is not a significant determinant of health among older people once the socioeconomic position of individuals is taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.1311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2802559PMC
December 2009

Public responses to intimate partner violence against women: the influence of perceived severity and personal responsibility.

Span J Psychol 2009 Nov;12(2):648-56

Departamento de Psicología Social, Facultad de Psicología, Universitat de València, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

This paper explored public willingness to act when exposed to cases of intimate partner violence against women, by analyzing the influence of perceived severity and personal responsibility on two types of responses: mediating and reporting to the police. Results (N = 419) yielded main effects of personal responsibility for both types of responses. No main effects of perceived severity were found. A significant interaction between perceived severity and personal responsibility was found only for reporting responses. Results are discussed in light of the helping behavior research tradition. Implications for public education and advocacy programs are also considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1138741600002018DOI Listing
November 2009

Is always authoritative the optimum parenting style? Evidence from Spanish families.

Adolescence 2009 ;44(173):101-31

Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Metodologia, Valencia, Spain.

The aim of this paper is to establish which parenting style is associated with optimum youth outcomes among adolescents of Spanish families. A sample of 1,416 teenagers from 12 to 17 years of age, of whom 57.2% were females, reported on their parents' child-rearing practices. The teenagers' parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on four different outcomes: (1) self-esteem (academic, social, emotional, family and physical); (2) psychosocial maladjustment (hostility/aggression, negative self-esteem, negative self-adequacy, emotional irresponsiveness, emotional instability, and negative worldview); (3) personal competence (social competence, grade point average, and number of failing grades); and (4) problem behaviors (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). Results showed that both the indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that in Spain the optimum style of parenting is the indulgent one, as adolescents' scores in the four sets of youth outcomes were equal or better than the authoritative style of parenting.
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June 2009

Beliefs in the necessity of corporal punishment of children and public perceptions of child physical abuse as a social problem.

Child Abuse Negl 2008 Nov 21;32(11):1058-62. Epub 2008 Nov 21.

University of Valencia, Department of Social Psychology, Valencia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.05.004DOI Listing
November 2008

Multiple victimization of Spanish adolescents: a multilevel analysis.

Adolescence 2008 ;43(170):333-50

Department de Psicologia Social, Facultad de Psicologia, Avd. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010-Valencia, Spain.

Multiple victimization in adolescence is an issue that has received little research attention. Furthermore, adolescents are particularly vulnerable to victimization in different contexts. The aim of this study is to analyze correlates of multiple victimization in three contexts (home, school, and street). The following forms of victimization were considered: stealing, hitting, insulting, threatening, blackmailing, and weapon intimidation. Multiple victimization correlates explored were: sex, age, public/private school, socioeconomic status, quality of family relationships, and antisocial behavior. A probabilistic sample of 1,908 adolescents (ages 13 to 18) was used. Multilevel analyses were conducted to separate correlates at the individual level from those operating at the contextual level. Results show that gender, quality of family relationships, and deviant behavior were related to multiple victimization in adolescence.
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November 2008

[Role of health professionals in the prevention of domestic violence against women].

Rev Med Chil 2008 Mar 3;136(3):394-400. Epub 2008 Jun 3.

Departamento de Psicología Social, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, España.

Domestic violence against women is an important public health problem that cannot be ignored. Health professionals need to take part in the prevention, detection and treatment processes, acting in a coordinate way with other professionals and institutions. This paper analyzes the consequences of domestic violence against women, and underscores the fact that health professionals are part of the social circle surrounding the victims, playing an important role in its detection and prevention. Several response strategies from the health services are examined and, finally, the paper considers screening as a mechanism for early detection of domestic violence, paying special attention to the important controversies that surround this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org//S0034-98872008000300017DOI Listing
March 2008

Police involvement in cases of intimate partner violence against women: the influence of perceived severity and personal responsibility.

Violence Against Women 2008 Jun;14(6):697-714

University of Valencia.

The influence of perceived severity and sense of personal responsibility of police officers on their level of involvement in cases of intimate partner violence against women is analyzed. Three levels of police involvement are considered: low, medium, and high. The sample consists of 143 Spanish police officers. A 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design is conducted to test hypotheses. Effects of perceived severity and personal responsibility are found only at the highest level of police involvement. For low and medium levels of involvement, no differences in perceived severity and personal responsibility of police officers are found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801208317288DOI Listing
June 2008

Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women.

J Interpers Violence 2007 Jun;22(6):737-52

University of Valencia, Spain.

This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women. Data from a national representative sample (N = 14,994) of Spaniards 18 years old and older were used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived neighborhood social disorder is negatively associated with attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women. These results take into account the potential confounding effects of gender, age, socioeconomic status, perceived frequency of domestic violence against women, and size of city on reporting attitudes. Findings support the idea that to reduce and prevent domestic violence against women, it is also important to address those conditions leading to mistrust between people and diminished social control such as concentrated disadvantage and disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260507300755DOI Listing
June 2007

Perceived neighborhood social disorder and residents' attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2006 Apr 5;30(4):357-65. Epub 2006 Apr 5.

Department of Social Psychology, Facultad de Psicología, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse.

Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N=9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish families, and willingness to report a case of child physical abuse to the police were collected through face-to-face interviews in respondents' homes.

Results: Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived neighborhood social disorder was negatively related to residents' attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. These results take into account the potential confounding effects of gender, age, socio-economic status, educational level, size of city, and perceived frequency of child physical abuse on reporting attitudes.

Conclusion: Results illustrate the important role that community characteristics may play in processes relevant to the prevention of child maltreatment such as residents' attitudes towards reporting child physical abuse, and suggest that especially disadvantaged communities characterized by high levels of social disorder need to be specifically targeted if the aim is to increase the capacity to prevent child maltreatment in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.11.001DOI Listing
April 2006

Perceived frequency of domestic violence against women and neighbourhood social disorder.

Psychol Rep 2005 Dec;97(3):712-6

Facultad de Psicología, University of Oviedo, Spain.

Regression analyses from a nationally representative sample of 10,235 adult Spaniards, provided in 1995 from the Spanish Demands of Security and Victimization Survey, showed a small and positive relationship between high neighbourhood social disorder and perceived frequency of domestic violence against women in Spanish families, after controlling for sociodemographic variables and size of city. Among sociodemographic variables, sex had the strongest association with neighbourhood social disorder, being more than twice as large as neighbourhood social disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.97.3.712-716DOI Listing
December 2005

Acceptability of domestic violence against women in the European Union: a multilevel analysis.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2006 Feb;60(2):123-9

University of Valencia, Spain.

Study Objective: The acceptability of domestic violence against women (DVAW) plays an important part in shaping the social environment in which the victims are embedded, which in turn may contribute either to perpetuate or to reduce the levels of DVAW in our societies. This study analyses correlates of the acceptability of DVAW in the European Union (EU).

Design: Three level ordinal logistic regression of 13 457 people nested within 212 localities (cities), nested within 15 countries of the EU. Sampling is multistage with random probability. All interviews were face to face in people's homes. The outcome variable was acceptability of DVAW. Multiple correlates at the individual, locality, and country level were analysed.

Setting: European Union, 1999.

Participants: National data were used of residents 15 years old and above of all member states in 1999 (n = 13 457). Average response rate was 47%, although it varied across countries (23%-73%).

Main Results: Higher levels of acceptability were reported by those who perceived DVAW as less severe and less frequent. Acceptability is higher among men who know a perpetrator and lower among men who know a victim. Victim blaming attitude is associated with higher levels of acceptability. In countries with higher gender empowerment measure the difference in acceptability among those who blame and those who do not blame the victim is greater.

Conclusions: There are still widespread attitudes in the EU such as victim blaming that condone DVAW, contributing to a climate of social acceptability of DVAW. Further efforts to reduce the acceptability of DVAW are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.036533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2588066PMC
February 2006

Social isolation from communities and child maltreatment: a cross-cultural comparison.

Child Abuse Negl 2003 Feb;27(2):153-68

Area de Psicologia Social, Facultad de Psicologia, Universitat de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine: (1) the differences between Spanish and Colombian cultures in relation to community social support variables, and (2) the relationships between community social support variables and child maltreatment in both cultures.

Method: The study was based on 670 nonabusive families and 166 abusive families. The parents were asked to complete the Community Social Support Questionnaire. This instrument measures community social support in terms of Community Integration and Satisfaction, membership in voluntary organizations and community participation, and use of Community Resources of Social Support.

Results: Differences between both cultures were found in the pattern of community social support for the nonabusive groups. However, the relationships between community social support and child maltreatment were similar cross-culturally. Our results indicate that in both cultures abusive parents show lower levels of community integration, participation in community social activities and use of formal and informal organizations than the parents that provide adequate care.

Conclusions: The results largely support the literature that has repeatedly reported the link between social isolation and child maltreatment and they confirm this relation within two cultural contexts, Colombian and Spanish, quite different from the Anglo-Saxon context, where most of the previous studies have been carried out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0145-2134(02)00538-0DOI Listing
February 2003
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