Publications by authors named "Enrico Checcucci"

98 Publications

Retroperitoneal Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2022 Jun 26;40:27-37. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, USA.

Context: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) has gained increasing popularity as primary minimally invasive surgical treatment for localized renal tumors, and it has preferably been performed with a transperitoneal approach. However, the retroperitoneal approach represents an alternative approach given potential advantages.

Objective: To provide an updated analysis of the comparative outcomes of retroperitoneal RAPN (R-RAPN) versus transperitoneal RAPN (T-RAPN).

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review of the literature was performed up to September 2021 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) recommendations. A sensitivity analysis was performed considering only matched-pair studies.

Evidence Synthesis: Seventeen studies, which were published between 2013 and 2021, were retrieved. None of them was a randomized clinical trial. Among the 6,266 patients included in the meta-analysis, 2261 (36.1%) and 4,005 (63.9%) underwent R-RAPN and T-RAPN, respectively. No significant difference was found in terms of baseline features. The T-RAPN group presented a higher rate of male patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.86,  = 0.03) and larger tumor size (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 0.2 cm;  = 0.003). The R-RAPN group reported more frequent posterior renal masses (OR: 0.23;  < 0.0001). The retroperitoneal approach presented lower estimated blood loss (WMD: 30.41 ml;  = 0.001), shorter operative time (OT; WMD: 20.36 min;  = 0.0001), and shorter length of stay (LOS; WMD: 0.35 d;  = 0.002). Overall complication rates were 13.7% and 16.05% in the R-RAPN and T-RAPN groups, respectively (OR: 1.32;  = 0.008). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding major (Clavien-Dindo classification ≥3 grade) complication rate, "pentafecta" achievement, as well as positive margin rates. When considering only matched-pair studies, no difference between groups was found in terms of baseline characteristics. Posterior renal masses were more frequent in the R-RAPN group (OR: 0.6;  = 0.03). Similar to the analysis of the entire cohort, R-RAPN reported lower EBL (WMD: 35.56 ml;  < 0.0001) and a shorter OT (WMD: 18.31 min;  = 0.03). Overall and major complication rates were similar between the two groups. The LOS was significantly lower for R-RAPN (WMD: 0.46 d;  = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was found between groups in terms of overall PSM rates.

Conclusions: R-RAPN offers similar surgical outcomes to T-RAPN, and it carries potential advantages in terms of shorter OT and LOS. Available evidence remains limited by the lack of randomized clinical trials.

Patient Summary: In this review of the literature, we looked at comparative outcomes of two surgical approaches to robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. We found that the retroperitoneal technique offers similar surgical outcomes to the transperitoneal one, with potential advantages in terms of shorter operative time and length of hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.03.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9062267PMC
June 2022

"Augmented reality" applications in urology: a systematic review.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Keck School of Medicine, Catherine and Joseph Aresty Department of Urology, USC Institute of Urology, Los Angeles, CA, USA -

Introduction: Augmented reality (AR) applied to surgical procedures refers to the superimposition of preoperative or intra-operative images onto the operative field. Augmented reality has been increasingly used in myriad surgical specialties including Urology. The following study reviews advances in the use of AR for improvements in urologic outcomes.

Evidence Acquisition: We identified all descriptive, validity, prospective randomized/nonrandomized trials and retrospective comparative/noncomparative studies about the use of AR in Urology up until March 2021. The MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were used for literature search. We conducted the study selection according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and meta-analysis statement) guidelines. We limited included studies to only those using AR, excluding all that used virtual reality technology.

Evidence Synthesis: A total of 60 studies were identified and included in the present analysis. Overall, 19 studies were descriptive/validity/phantom studies for specific AR methodologies, 4 studies were case reports, and 37 studies included clinical prospective/retrospective comparative studies.

Conclusions: Advances in AR have led to increasing registration accuracy as well as increased ability to identify anatomic landmarks and improve outcomes during Urologic procedures such as RARP and robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04726-7DOI Listing
April 2022

Robot-assisted Simple Prostatectomy Is Better than Endoscopic Enucleation of the Prostate.

Eur Urol Focus 2022 Mar 25. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Robot-assisted simple prostatectomy represents a solid treatment option for benign prostatic obstruction in patients with large prostate glands. This procedure offers multiple attractive features that make it a strong competitor against endoscopic enucleation of the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2022.03.014DOI Listing
March 2022

Identification of Recurrent Anatomical Clusters Using Three-dimensional Virtual Models for Complex Renal Tumors with an Imperative Indication for Nephron-sparing Surgery: New Technological Tools for Driving Decision-making.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2022 Apr 4;38:60-66. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Some renal tumors have an imperative indication for nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), such as in cases of chronic kidney disease and bilateral complex tumors.

Objective: To demonstrate the degree to which three-dimensional virtual model (3DVM) assistance can be helpful in planning the surgical strategy for high-complexity renal masses with an imperative indication for NSS.

Design Setting And Participants: Three patients with high-complexity renal masses with unusual anatomy and an imperative indication for NSS were prospectively selected across 2020 and 2021 at our institution. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained.

Surgical Procedure: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with 3DVM augmented reality guidance.

Measurements: Demographics and tumor-related features were recorded. Data for intraoperative, pathological, and functional assessments were collected for all three patients.

Results And Limitations: Two of the three patients harbored bilateral renal tumors. The third patient presented with a renal mass in the left kidney and contralateral renal hypoplasia (right-split renal function of 25%). All of the patients demonstrated similar anatomical and tumor features on 3DVMs, with potentially independent vascularization and drainage for the lower pole. In one patient the upper pole of the kidney was spared, exiting in a functionally excluded hydrocalyx, while in the other two cases the upper pole was removed together with the lesion. The spared portion of the kidney retained vascularization, as demonstrated by intraoperative ultrasound and indocyanine green injection. The small sample size and short follow-up are the main limitations of the study.

Conclusions: 3DVMs, especially for complex renal masses with an imperative indication for NSS, allow planning of the surgical strategy on the basis of the anatomical characteristics of the organ in which the tumor is growing.

Patient Summary: Three-dimensional models help in defining the best surgical strategy for kidney tumors, especially for complex tumors that require surgery to spare as much of the kidney as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2022.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8898779PMC
April 2022

Robotic partial nephrectomy in 3D virtual reconstructions era: is the paradigm changed?

World J Urol 2022 Mar 22;40(3):659-670. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Context: The development of a tailored, patient-specific medical and surgical approach is becoming object of intense research. In kidney oncologic surgery, where a clear understanding of case-specific surgical anatomy is considered a key point to optimize the perioperative outcomes, such philosophy gained increasing importance. Recently, important advances in 3D virtual modeling technologies have fueled the interest for their application in the field of robotic minimally invasive surgery for kidney tumors.

Objective: To provide a synthesis of current applications of 3D virtual models for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy.

Evidence Acquisition: Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Database, and Embase were screened for Literature regarding the use of 3D virtual models for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN).

Evidence Synthesis: The use of 3D virtual models for RAPN has been tested in different settings, including surgical indication and planning, intraoperative guidance, and training. Currently, several studies are available on the application of this technology for surgical planning, demonstrating impact on clinical outcomes such as renal function recovery, whilst experiences concerning their intraoperative application for navigation are still experimental. One of the latest innovations in this field is represented by the development of dedicated softwares able to automatically overlap the 3D virtual models to the real anatomy, to perform augmented reality procedures.

Conclusions: The available Literature suggests a potentially crucial role of 3D virtual reconstructions during RAPN. Encouraging results concerning surgical planning and indication, intraoperative navigation, and surgical training are available. In the future, artificial intelligence may represent the key to further improve the 3D virtual modeling technology during RAPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-022-03964-xDOI Listing
March 2022

Partial vs. radical nephrectomy in non-metastatic pT3a kidney cancer patients: a population-based study.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Feb 11. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Department of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: To test for differences in cancer specific mortality (CSM) rates between radical nephrectomy (RN) and partial nephrectomy (PN) in pT3a nmRCC patients.

Methods: Within the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2005-2016), 13,177 pT3a patients treated with either PN or RN were identified. Before and after 1:2 ratio propensity score (PS)-match between PN and RN patients, cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) were used to test differences in CSM and other cause mortality (OCM) rates.

Results: Relative to PN (n=1,615, 22.5%), RN patients harbored higher tumor size (72 vs. 38 mm; >70 mm 51 vs.10%), of more aggressive histology, collecting duct (0.4 vs. 0.2%) and sarcomatoid (2.3 vs.0.8%), of higher grade (51.0 vs. 37.5%). After PS-matching and OCM adjustment, 5-year CSM was 3-fold higher after RN than PN (p<0.01). Similarly, after PS matching and CSM adjustment, also 5-year OCM rates were higher after RN (HR: 1.59, p=0.0003).

Conclusions: PN does not appear to compromise the oncological outcomes in patients with pT3a or high-grade renal masses when compared with RN. Therefore, these concerns should not deter a surgeon from attempting PN when otherwise technically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.22.04680-8DOI Listing
February 2022

iTIND for BPH: Technique and procedural outcomes: A narrative review of current literature.

Turk J Urol 2021 11;47(6):470-481

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, University of Turin School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Italy.

In the last few years, new technologies have been developed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in order to offer valid surgical alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate with lower complications and hospitalization while maintaining satisfactory functional results. Among these new approaches, transurethral implantation of first- and second-generation temporary implantable nitinol device (TIND and iTIND, respectively) (Medi-TateVR ; Medi-Tate Ltd., Or Akiva, Israel) has been proposed. The aim of this work is to describe the surgical technique and to perform a systematic review of the available literature on follow-up of functional outcomes. A systematic research of the available literature on this topic was performed via Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases in April 2021. Current evidence regarding the implantation of iTIND to treat BPH-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) is still limited. Seven studies have been found. Only one randomized controlled trial has been published reporting short-term follow-up of implantation of iTIND versus sham procedure. All the studies reported that both procedures are safe, effective, and well-tolerated. Moreover, such treatment seems to not affect patient's sexual and ejaculatory functions. In conclusions, current clinical evidence suggests that temporary implantation of iTIND is a valid option for the minimally invasive surgical treatment of BPH-related LUTS. Further studies are required in order to confirm the functional results, especially over a long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/tud.2021.21145DOI Listing
November 2021

Indocyanine Green Drives Computer Vision Based 3D Augmented Reality Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: The Beginning of "Automatic" Overlapping Era.

Urology 2022 Jan 19. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy; EAU Section of Uro-Technology (ESUT).

Augmented reality robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (AR-RAPN) is limited by the need of a constant manual overlapping of the hyper-accuracy 3D (HA3D) virtual models to the real anatomy. To present our preliminary experience with automatic 3D virtual model overlapping during AR-RAPN. To reach a fully automated HA3D model overlapping, we pursued computer vision strategies, based on the identification of landmarks to link the virtual model. Due to the limited field of view of RAPN, we used the whole kidney as a marker. Moreover, to overcome the limit of similarity of colors between the kidney and its neighboring structures, we super-enhanced the organ, using the NIRF Firefly fluorescence imaging technology. A specifically developed software named "IGNITE" (Indocyanine GreeN automatIc augmenTed rEality) allowed the automatic anchorage of the HA3D model to the real organ, leveraging the enhanced view offered by NIRF technology. Ten automatic AR-RAPN were performed. For all the patients a HA3D model was produced and visualized as AR image inside the robotic console. During all the surgical procedures, the automatic ICG-guided AR technology successfully anchored the virtual model to the real organ without hand-assistance (mean anchorage time: 7 seconds), even when moving the camera throughout the operative field, while zooming and translating the organ. In 7 patients with totally endophytic or posterior lesions, the renal masses were correctly identified with automatic AR technology, performing a successful enucleoresection. No intraoperative or postoperative Clavien >2 complications or positive surgical margins were recorded. Our pilot study provides the first demonstration of the application of computer vision technology for AR procedures, with a software automatically performing a visual concordance during the overlap of 3D models and in vivo anatomy. Its actual limitations, related to the kidney deformations during surgery altering the automatic anchorage, will be overcome implementing the organ recognition with deep learning algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.10.053DOI Listing
January 2022

Diagnostic performance of fusion (US/MRI guided) prostate biopsy: propensity score matched comparison of elastic versus rigid fusion system.

World J Urol 2022 Apr 17;40(4):991-996. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Urology, "Regina Elena" National Cancer Institute, Via Elio Chianesi 53, 00144, Rome, RM, Italy.

Purpose: Many software for US/MRI guided fusion prostate biopsy (FPB), have been developed in the last years. However, there are few data comparing diagnostic accuracy of different fusion systems. We assessed diagnostic performance of elastic (EF) versus rigid fusion (RF) PB in a propensity score matched (PSM) analysis.

Methods: A total of 314 FPB were prospectively collected from two different centers. All patients were biopsy naïve and all mpMRI reported a single suspicious area. Overall, 211 PB were performed using a RF system and 103 using an EF software. The two groups were compared for the main clinical features. A 1:1 PSM analysis was employed to reduce covariate imbalance to < 10%. Detection rate (DR) for any prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa were compared and stratified for PI-RADS Score. A per target univariable and multivariable regression analyses were applied to identity predictors of anyPCa and csPCa.

Results: After applying the PSM, two cohorts of 83 cases were selected. DR of any PCa cancer and csPCa were comparable between the two cohorts (all p > 0.077) as well as DR of csPCa for every PIRADS score. At univariable regression analysis lesion size, PI-RADS Score, PSA Density and EF system were predictors of any PCa (all p < 0.001); however, at multivariable analysis only PI-RADS Score was independent predictor of any PCa (p = 0.027). At multivariable analysis only PI-RADS score was independent predictor of csPCa.

Conclusions: Fusion PB guarantees high diagnostic accuracy for csPCa, regardless of the fusion technology. Prospective randomized study is needed to confirm these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03921-0DOI Listing
April 2022

Contemporary Trends of Systemic Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Intravesical Chemotherapy in Patients With Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinomas Undergoing Minimally Invasive or Open Radical Nephroureterectomy: Analysis of US Claims on Perioperative Outcomes and Health Care Costs.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2022 Apr 24;20(2):198.e1-198.e9. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Urology, Stanford Medical Center, Stanford, CA.

Introduction: New evidence indicates that minimally invasive surgery (MIS) (laparoscopic or robotic-assisted [LNU, RANU]) reaches oncologic equivalence compared with Open Radical Nephroureterectomy (ORNU) for high-risk upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). Recently, European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines suggested implementing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to standard treatment to improve oncologic outcomes of high-risk UTUC. We aimed (1) To explore contemporary trends of MIS for RNU in the United States and to compare perioperative outcomes and costs with that of ORNU. (2) To determine the trends of NAC and postoperative intravesical chemotherapy (PIC) administration for high-risk UTUC and to assess their contribution to perioperative outcomes and costs.

Patients And Methods: The Optum Clinformatics Data Mart de-identified database was queried from 2003 to 2018 to retrospectively examine patients who had undergone LNU/RANU or ORNU with or without NAC and PIC. We evaluated temporal adoption trends, complications, and health care cost analyses. We obtained descriptive statistics and utilized multivariable regression modeling to assess outcomes.

Results: A total of n = 492 ORNU and n = 1618 LNU/RANU procedures were reviewed. The MIS approach was associated with a statistically significant lower risk of intraoperative complications (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR], 0.48, 95% CI:0.24-0.96), risk of hospitalization costs (aOR: 0.62, 95% CI:0.49-0.78), and shorter hospital stay (aOR: 0.20, 95% CI:0.15-0.26) when compared to ORNU. Overall, adoption of NAC and PIC accounted for only n = 81 and n < 37 cases respectively. The implementation of NAC and higher number of cycles were associated with an increased probability of any complication rate (aOR: 2.06, 95% CI:1.26-3.36) and hospital costs (aOR: 2.12, 95% CI:1.33-3.38).

Conclusion: MIS has become the approach of choice for RNU in the US. Although recommended by guidelines, neither NAC nor postoperative bladder instillation of chemotherapy has been routinely incorporated into the clinical practice of patients with UTUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2021.11.016DOI Listing
April 2022

Robot-assisted-radical-cystectomy with total intracorporeal Y neobladder: Analysis of postoperative complications and functional outcomes with urodynamics findings.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2022 Mar 16;48(3):694-702. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Objectives: To describe our robotic Y intracorporeal neobladder (ICNB) technique and to report its post-operative complications and urodynamics (UD) findings.

Subjects: and Methods: In this prospective study we enrolled patients affected by MIBC (T1-T4N0-N1M0) from 01/2017 to 06/2021 at our Centers. All the patients underwent robotic radical cystectomy (RARC) with Y-ICNB reconfiguration. Early and late complications were collected and classified according to Clavien-Dindo. Continence and potency at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months were evaluated. At the 3rd month of follow-up patients underwent UD. Finally, in a retrospective match paired analysis the functional outcomes of Y RARC patients were compared with a cohort of open Y radical cystectomy.

Results: 45 patients were enrolled. Overall 30-day complications were observed in 25 (55,5%) patients and 30 to 90-days complications in 4 (8,9%). 9 patients (20%) had Clavien ≥3 complications. UDs revealed median neobladder capacity of 268 cc, with a median compliance of 13 ml/cm H20; the voiding phase showed a voiding volume and a post void residual (PVR) of 154 cc and 105 cc respectively. At 12 months of follow-up 4.4%, 15.5% and 4.4% of the patients experienced urge, stress and mix urinary incontinence respectively. The comparison between Y RARC and Y open RC revealed a higher neobladder capacity with open approach (p = 0.049) with subsequent better findings during the voiding phase in terms of maximum flow (p = 0.002), voiding volume (p = 0.001) and PVR (p = 0.01). Focusing on continence recovery, a slight trend in favor of RARC was shown without reaching the statistical significance.

Conclusions: Robotic Y-ICNB is feasible and safe as shown by the low rate of postoperative complications. Satisfying UD functional outcomes are achievable, both during filling and voiding phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.12.014DOI Listing
March 2022

Three-dimensional Model Reconstruction: The Need for Standardization to Drive Tailored Surgery.

Eur Urol 2022 02 30;81(2):129-131. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Uro-technology and SoMe Working Group of the Young Academic Urologists, European Association of Urology, Arnhem, The Netherlands; ORSI Academy, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Urology, OLV Hospital Aalst, Aalst, Belgium.

The clinical utility of three-dimensional virtual models has been widely explored for preoperative planning, patient counseling, surgical training, and intraoperative navigation. There is now a need for standardized methodology for construction of these models so that their utility can be realized in routine practice to achieve the goal of individualized treatment for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.11.010DOI Listing
February 2022

Treatment of Ureteral Stent-Related Symptoms.

Urol Int 2021 Nov 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the main classes of drugs used at reducing morbidity related to ureteric stents.

Summary: After establishing a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in July 2019. The randomized clinical trials (RCTs) selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO ID 178130). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included RCTs were performed. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL) were pooled for meta-analysis. Mean difference and risk difference were calculated as appropriate for each outcome to determine the cumulative effect size. Fourteen RCTs were included in the analysis accounting for 2,842 patients. Alpha antagonist, antimuscarinic, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors significatively reduced all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS and QoL scores relative to placebo. Conversely, combination therapy (alpha antagonist plus antimuscarinic) showed in all indexes of the USSQ, IPSS, and QoL over alpha antagonist or antimuscarinic alone. On comparison with alpha blockers, PDE inhibitors were found to be equally effective for urinary symptoms, general health, and body pain parameters, but sexual health parameters improved significantly with PDE inhibitors. Finally, antimuscarinic resulted in higher decrease in all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS, and QoL relative to alpha antagonist. Key message: Relative to placebo, alpha antagonist alone, antimuscarinics alone, and PDE inhibitors alone have beneficial effect in reducing stent-related symptoms. Furthermore, there are significant advantages of combination therapy compared with monotherapy. Finally, PDE inhibitors are comparable to alpha antagonist, and antimuscarinic seems to be more effective than alpha antagonist alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518387DOI Listing
November 2021

Percutaneous Kidney Puncture with Three-dimensional Mixed-reality Hologram Guidance: From Preoperative Planning to Intraoperative Navigation.

Eur Urol 2021 Nov 16. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Division of Urology, Department Of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Despite technical and technological innovations, percutaneous puncture still represents the most challenging step when performing percutaneous nephrolithotomy. This maneuver is characterized by the steepest learning curve and a risk of injuring surrounding organs and kidney damage.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional mixed reality (3D MR) holograms in establishing the access point and guiding the needle during percutaneous kidney puncture.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective study included ten patients who underwent 3D MR endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS) for kidney stones from July 2019 to January 2020. A retrospective series of patients who underwent a standard procedure were selected for matched pair analysis.

Surgical Procedure: For patients who underwent 3D MR ECIRS, holograms were overlapped on the real anatomy to guide the surgeon during percutaneous puncture. In the standard group, the procedures were only guided by ultrasound and fluoroscopy.

Measurements: Differences in preoperative and postoperative patient characteristics between the groups were tested using a χ test and a Kruskal-Wallis test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results are reported as the median and interquartile range for continuous variables and as the frequency and percentage for categorical variables.

Results And Limitations: Ten patients underwent 3D MR ECIRS. In all cases, the inferior calyx was punctured correctly, as planned using the overlapping hologram. The median puncture and radiation exposure times were 27 min and 120 s, respectively. No intraoperative or major postoperative complications occurred. Matched pair analysis with the standard ECIRS group revealed a significantly shorter radiation exposure time for the 3D MR group (p < 0.001) even though the puncture time was longer in comparison to the standard group (p < 0.001). Finally, use of 3D MR led to a higher success rate for renal puncture at the first attempt (100% vs 50%; p = 0.032). The main limitations of the study are the small sample size and manual overlapping of the rigid hologram models.

Conclusions: Our experience demonstrates that 3D MR guidance for renal puncture is feasible and safe. The procedure proved to be effective, with the inferior calyx correctly punctured in all cases, and was associated with a low intraoperative radiation exposure time because of the MR guidance.

Patient Summary: Three-dimensional virtual models visualized as holograms and intraoperatively overlapped on the patient's real anatomy seem to be a valid new tool for guiding puncture of the kidney through the skin for minimally invasive treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.10.023DOI Listing
November 2021

New Ultra-minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Nov 22;33:28-41. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr.

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezūm, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses.

Evidence Synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire.

Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezūm, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation.

Patient Summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function.

Take Home Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473553PMC
November 2021

A Nomogram for the Prediction of Intermediate Significant Renal Function Loss After Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy for Localized Renal Tumors: A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study (RECORd2 Project).

Eur Urol Focus 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Urology, Unit of Oncologic Minimally-Invasive Urology and Andrology, Careggi Hospital, University of Florence, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is increasingly adopted for the treatment of localized renal tumors; however, rates and predictors of significant renal function (RF) loss after RAPN are still poorly investigated, especially at a long-term evaluation.

Objective: To analyze the predictive factors and develop a clinical nomogram for predicting the likelihood of ultimate RF loss after RAPN.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We prospectively evaluated all patients treated with RAPN in a multicenter series (RECORd2 project).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Significant RF loss was defined as >25% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from preoperative assessment at 48th month follow-up after surgery. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses for RF loss were performed. The area under the receiving operator characteristic curve (AUC) was used to quantify predictive discrimination. A nomogram was created from the multivariable model.

Results And Limitations: A total of 981 patients were included. The median age at surgery was 64.2 (interquartile range [IQR] 54.3-71.4) yr, and 62.4% of patients were male. The median Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 1 (IQR 0-2), 12.9% of patients suffered from diabetes mellitus, and 18.6% of patients showed peripheral vascular disease (PVD). The median Preoperative Aspects and Dimensions Used for an Anatomical (PADUA) score was 7 (IQR 7-9). Imperative indications to partial nephrectomy were present in 3.6% of patients. Significant RF loss at 48th month postoperative evaluation was registered in 108 (11%) patients. At multivariable analysis, age (p = 0.04), female gender (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), CCI (p < 0.0001), diabetes (p < 0.0001), PVD (p < 0.0001), eGFR (p = 0.02), imperative (p = 0.001) surgical indication, and PADUA score (p < 0.0001) were found to be predictors of RF loss. The developed nomogram including these variables showed an AUC of 0.816.

Conclusions: We developed a clinical nomogram for the prediction of late RF loss after RAPN using preoperative and surgical variables from a large multicenter dataset.

Patient Summary: We developed a nomogram that could represent a clinical tool for early detection of patients at the highest risk of significant renal function impairment after robotic conservative surgery for renal tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2021.09.012DOI Listing
September 2021

An Algorithm to Personalize Nerve Sparing in Men with Unilateral High-Risk Prostate Cancer.

J Urol 2022 Feb 22;207(2):350-357. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Urology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Purpose: Current guidelines do not provide strong recommendations on preservation of the neurovascular bundles during radical prostatectomy in case of high-risk (HR) prostate cancer and/or suspicious extraprostatic extension (EPE). We aimed to evaluate when, in case of unilateral HR disease, contralateral nerve sparing (NS) should be considered or not.

Materials And Methods: Within a multi-institutional data set we selected patients with unilateral HR prostate cancer, defined as unilateral EPE and/or seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) on multiparametric (mp) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or unilateral International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) 4-5 or prostate specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml. To evaluate when to perform NS based on the risk of contralateral EPE, we relied on chi-square automated interaction detection, a recursive machine-learning partitioning algorithm developed to identify risk groups, which was fit to predict the presence of EPE on final pathology, contralaterally to the prostate lobe with HR disease.

Results: A total of 705 patients were identified. Contralateral EPE was documented in 87 patients (12%). Chi-square automated interaction detection identified 3 groups, consisting of 1) absence of SVI on mpMRI and index lesion diameter ≤15 mm, 2) index lesion diameter ≤15 mm and contralateral ISUP 2-3 or index lesion diameter >15 mm and negative contralateral biopsy or ISUP 1, and 3) SVI on mpMRI or index lesion diameter >15 mm and contralateral biopsy ISUP 2-3. We named those groups as low, intermediate and high-risk, respectively, for contralateral EPE. The rate of EPE and positive surgical margins across the groups were 4.8%, 14% and 26%, and 5.6%, 13% and 18%, respectively.

Conclusions: Our study challenges current guidelines by proving that wide bilateral excision in men with unilateral HR disease is not justified. Pending external validation, we propose performing NS and incremental NS in case of contralateral low and intermediate EPE risk, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JU.0000000000002205DOI Listing
February 2022

Functional and sexual outcomes recovery after simple prostatectomy: the past, the present, the future of the surgical technique.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug;73(4):554-556

School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04633-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Artificial intelligence for target prostate biopsy outcomes prediction the potential application of fuzzy logic.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: In current precision prostate cancer (PCa) surgery era the identification of the best patients candidate for prostate biopsy still remains an open issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the prostate target biopsy (TB) outcomes could be predicted by using artificial intelligence approach based on a set of clinical pre-biopsy.

Methods: Pre-biopsy characteristics in terms of PSA, PSA density, digital rectal examination (DRE), previous prostate biopsies, number of suspicious lesions at mp-MRI, lesion volume, lesion location, and Pi-Rads score were extracted from our prospectively maintained TB database from March 2014 to December 2019. Our approach is based on Fuzzy logic and associative rules mining, with the aim to predict TB outcomes.

Results: A total of 1448 patients were included. Using the Frequent-Pattern growth algorithm we extracted 875 rules and used to build the fuzzy classifier. 963 subjects were classified whereas for the remaining 484 subjects were not classified since no rules matched with their input variables. Analyzing the classified subjects we obtained a specificity of 59.2% and sensitivity of 90.8% with a negative and the positive predictive values of 81.3% and 76.6%, respectively. In particular, focusing on ISUP ≥ 3 PCa, our model is able to correctly predict the biopsy outcomes in 98.1% of the cases.

Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated that the possibility to look at several pre-biopsy variables simultaneously with artificial intelligence algorithms can improve the prediction of TB outcomes, outclassing the performance of PSA, its derivates and MRI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00441-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413110PMC
September 2021

Urology Residency Training at the Time of COVID-19 in Italy: 1 Year After the Beginning.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Sep 17;31:37-40. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU), Arnhem, The Netherlands.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant changes in urology practice and residency programs. One year ago, the first nationwide survey on this topic showed a dramatic impact of the acute phase of the pandemic on residents' training activities. Aiming to assess for the first time how the COVID-19 scenario reshaped the pattern of urology training over a whole pandemic year, a cross-sectional, 38-item, web-based survey was developed. Residents scored the percentage decrease of their involvement in various clinical and surgical activities during the period of March 2020-March 2021 (as compared with the pre-COVID period). Overall, 312/585 (53.3%) residents from 27 schools of urology were included. The proportions of those experiencing a significant decrease of training exposure were 13.6%, 28.8%, 26.7%, 46.9%, 37.6%, and 33.3% (as compared with 40.2%, 85.8%. 82.3%, 69.7%, 59.7%, and 50.2% in the previous survey) for on-call activities, outpatient visits, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic surgery, open surgery, and minimally invasive surgery, respectively. The most impactful reductions in training activities were reached by final-year residents. Our findings highlight that, even if less burdensome than expected, urology residency training (especially in endoscopic surgery) was highly affected throughout the whole past year. This critical gap of skills may jeopardize residents' training even beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.

Patient Summary: In this study, we assessed whether the training activities of Italian urology residents were impacted negatively by a whole year of COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-March 2021). We also compared our results with those reported in a previous survey evaluating how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic changed the training pattern of urology residents during the peak of the outbreak in March 2020. We found a critical decrease in residents' activities (especially for those in their final years of residency and for surgical procedures) that, even if lower than expected, might negatively impact their education and training in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.07.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342892PMC
September 2021

Beyond the Learning Curve of Prostate MRI/TRUS Target Fusion Biopsy after More than 1000 Procedures.

Urology 2021 09 2;155:39-45. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Turin, 10043.

Objective: To evaluate the learning curve (LC) of two urology residents in the execution of fusion biopsy (FB) in terms of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa detection rate (DR) and according to different characteristics of the lesions on MRI MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from our prospective maintained FB database between January 2015 and December 2019. FB was performed using the BioJet fusion system (D&K Technologies, Barum, Germany) with a transrectal or transperineal approach. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate the homogeneity of our cohort. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between operator experience and DR for PCa and csPCa. Then, the postprocedural complication rate trend was evaluated.

Results: 1005 patients were included. The overall DR of PCa was 61.2% (615/1005) [IC 0.58 - 0.64]; whilst DR for csPCA was 54.6% (549/1005) [IC 0.51 - 0.57]. Operator experience does not seem to influence the DR of overall PCa and csPCa; whilst for lesions <8 mm in diameter, PCa and csPCa DR increased significantly with operator experience (P = 0.048 and P = 0.038, respectively). Postprocedural complications remained stable during the whole study period (P = 0.75).

Conclusion: A standardized FB approach turned out to be feasible, safe, and effective since the beginning of the residents' LC. PCa and csPCa DR remained stable, at 60% and 55% respectively, after more than 1,000 biopsies. However, for lesions smaller than 8 mm, at least 100 FB of experience is needed to correctly sample the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.06.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Retroperitoneal versus transepritoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy for postero-lateral renal masses: an international multicenter analysis.

World J Urol 2021 Nov 29;39(11):4175-4182. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Urology, VCU Health, Richmond, VA, 23298-0118, USA.

Purpose: To assess the outcomes of retroperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (r-RAPN) in a large cohort of patients with postero-lateral renal masses comparing to those of transperitoneal RAPN (t-RAPN).

Methods: Patients with posterior (R.E.N.A.L. score grading P) or lateral (grading X) renal mass who underwent RAPN in six high-volume US and European centers were identified and stratified into two groups according to surgical approach: r-RAPN ("study group") and t-RAPN ("control group"). Baseline characteristics, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected and compared.

Results: Overall, 447 patients were identified for the analysis. 231 (51.7%) and 216 (48.3%) patients underwent r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively. Baseline characteristics were not statistically significantly different between the groups. r-RAPN group reported lower median operative time (140 vs. 170 min, p < 0.001). No difference was found in ischemia time, estimated blood loss, and intraoperative complications. Overall, 47 and 54 postoperative complications were observed in r-RAPN and t-RAPN groups, respectively (20.3 vs. 25.1%, p = 0.9). 1 and 2 patients reported major complications (Clavien-Dindo ≥ III grade) in the retroperitoneal and transperitoneal groups (0.4 vs. 0.9%, p = 0.9). There was no difference in hospital re-admission rate, median length of stay, and PSM rate. Trifecta criteria were achieved in 90.3 and 89.2% of r-RAPN and t-RAPN, respectively (p = 0.7).

Conclusion: r-RAPN and t-RAPN offer similar postoperative, functional, and oncological outcomes for patients with postero-lateral renal tumors. Our analysis suggests an advantage for r-RAPN in terms of shorter operative time, whereas it does not confirm a difference in terms of length of stay, as suggested by previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03741-2DOI Listing
November 2021

The real-time intraoperative guidance of the new HIFU Focal-One platform allows to minimize the perioperative adverse events in salvage setting.

J Ultrasound 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To assess the use of the new Focal-One HIFU platform in salvage setting to evaluate the occurrence of postoperative complications.

Methods: Patients who underwent salvage HIFU (sHIFU) with Focal-One platform were enrolled prospectively (Candiolo cancer institute-FPO IRCCS; registry number: 258/2018). Perioperative and postoperative outcomes (in terms of oncological and functional ones) were recorded during the first year of follow-up. In particular postoperative complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo system.

Results: 20 patients were enrolled. No grade 3 complications were recorded. Referring to grade 2 complications, eight patients reported urgency after 3 months of follow-up, and in 4 cases, a low urinary tract infection occurred. Evaluating the impact of sHIFU on patients' sexual potency, micturition and quality of life, no significant deterioration was recorded during the follow-up as proven using the ANOVA analysis for repeated measurements. Only two patient had a biochemical failure after 12 months of follow-up.

Conclusions: The real-time intraoperative guidance with Focal-One platform, allows a continuous monitoring and tailoring of the treatment, with a minimization of the adverse events even in a salvage setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40477-021-00594-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Three-dimensional Virtual Models' Assistance During Minimally Invasive Partial Nephrectomy Minimizes the Impairment of Kidney Function.

Eur Urol Oncol 2022 02 24;5(1):104-108. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Three-dimensional virtual models (3DVMs) are nowadays under scrutiny to improve partial nephrectomy (PN) outcomes. This report aims to analyze their impact on renal function preservation after minimally invasive PN. A total of 100 patients treated with minimally invasive PN with contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained, and having undergone baseline and 3rd month postoperative renal scans were prospectively enrolled and compared with a control group of 251 patients without 3DVMs. Weighted differential of pre- and postoperative renal scan-based effective renal plasmatic flow (b-WD ERPF) was calculated, according to the availability of 3DVMs and PADUA risk category. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models predicting a significant loss of renal function (LORF; ERPF drop >20%) were performed, overall and according to PADUA risk categories. The b-WD ERPF of the 3DVM group showed significantly lower LORF (-10%) than that of the control group (-19.6%, p =  0.02). In MLR, the availability of a 3DVM was found to be the only protective factor against a significant LORF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, p =  0.002). Moreover, after stratification as per tumor surgical complexity, this protective role was observed in both PADUA 8-9 and ≥10 category risk patients (OR = 0.3, p =  0.03 and OR = 0.1, p =  0.01). PATIENT SUMMARY: The drop in operated kidney function was significantly lower in surgeries assisted by three-dimensional virtual models (3VDMs), indicating that the availability of a 3VDM is the only protective factor against a significant functional damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.04.001DOI Listing
February 2022

Comparison between minimally-invasive partial and radical nephrectomy for the treatment of clinical T2 renal masses: results of a 10-year study in a tertiary care center.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug 22;73(4):509-517. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Even if partial nephrectomy (PN) is nowadays considered the standard for managing cT1 renal masses, its role in the management of cT2 kidney tumors is controversial. We aimed to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (RN) and PN in cT2 renal masses.

Methods: Patients with cT2 renal masses underwent minimally-invasive PN or RN performed by a highly experienced single surgeon from 2009 to 2019 were considered. Demographic, perioperative and functional variables were compared. Cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) models were used to test differences in 5-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and 5-year other-cause mortality (OCM) rates. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model was used to test differences in 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates.

Results: Overall, 52 PN vs. 64 RN patients were identified. Relative to RN, PN patients recorded higher rates of complications (25% vs. 7.8%, P=0.02) but lower upstaging rate (≥pT3a 64.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.0001). Functional outcomes were in favor of PN (all P<0.001). No differences were recorded between 5-year CSM and OCM according to nephrectomy type. At CRR models, older age and upstaging were independent predictors of 5-year OCM and CSM, respectively (all P<0.01). Finally, only upstaging, high grade tumors and presence of positive surgical margins were identified as independent predictors of 5-year PFS (all P<0.01).

Conclusions: In experienced hands the treatment of cT2 renal neoplasms with minimally-invasive PN is feasible, providing perioperative and oncological safety profiles comparable to RN, with advantages in terms of functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04390-1DOI Listing
August 2021

3D imaging technologies in minimally invasive kidney and prostate cancer surgery: which is the urologists' perception?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2022 Apr 26;74(2):178-185. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Medicine, Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Many specific 3D imaging technologies are currently available for the practising urologists. The aim of the study was to assess their perception about different 3D imaging tools in the field of prostate and kidney cancer surgery.

Methods: All the attendees of the 8th Techno-Urology-Meeting were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the role of 3D virtual reconstruction PDFs, 3D printing models, augmented-reality (AR) and mixed reality technology in the setting of surgical planning, patient counselling, intraoperative guidance and training for kidney and prostate cancer surgery; Moreover the different materials used for 3D printing were compared to assess the most suitable in reproducing the organ and tumor features, as well as their estimated cost and production time.

Results: The population consisted of 180 attendees. Overall, AR was the preferred option for intraoperative guidance and training, in both prostate (55% and 38.3%) and kidney cancer surgery (58.3% and 40%). HoloLens (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) was perceived as the best imaging technology for the surgical planning (50% for prostate and 60% for kidney), whereas printed models for patients counselling (66.7% for prostate and 61.7% for kidney). Fused deposition models were deemed as the best printing technology in representing kidney anatomy and renal tumor location (40%), while silicon (46.7%) and Polyjet (36.7%) models for prostate anatomy and cancer location. Finally, attendees demonstrated poor knowledge of 3D printing costs and production times.

Conclusions: Our study shows the perceptions of a heterogeneous surrogate of practicing urologists about the role and potential applications of 3D imaging technologies in daily surgical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04131-XDOI Listing
April 2022
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