Publications by authors named "Enrica Menditto"

63 Publications

The value of the polypill in cardiovascular disease: an Italian multidisciplinary Delphi panel consensus.

J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2021 Apr;22(4):246-258

Helaglobe SRL, Firenze, Italy.

The purpose of this work was to reach the consensus of a multidisciplinary and multistakeholder Italian panel on the value of polypill in cardiovascular disease, with respect to the clinical, technological, economic and organizational dimension. A three-step modified Delphi method was used to establish consensus. Eleven experts in the area of cardiology, pharmaceutical technology, general practice, hospital pharmacy, pharmacology, and health economics participated in the expert panel. To identify existing evidence concerning the value of polypill in the prevention of patients with cardiovascular disease, a systematic literature review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement guidelines. In the first round, 22 statements were distributed to the panel. Panel members were asked to mark 'agree' or 'disagree' for each statement and provide any comments. The same voting method was again used for the second round. In the first round nine statements met consensus. In the second round, 10 statements reached consensus. Overall, consensus was reached for 19 statements representing five value polypill domains: clinical, technological, economic and organizational. During a final web meeting with all panel members consensus document open points were discussed. Panel members agreed to recognize polypill as effective in reducing cardiovascular events, blood pressure and lipids, cardiovascular risk and the weight of therapy, in therapeutic adherence improvement, in the absence of differences in bioavailability between drugs administered in fixed or free combinations and the better cost-effectiveness profile compared with standard care. This document represents a knowledge framework to inform decision makers of the value of polypill in cardiovascular prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2459/JCM.0000000000001159DOI Listing
April 2021

Development and validation of a clinical risk score to predict the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection from administrative data: A population-based cohort study from Italy.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(1):e0237202. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

National Centre for Healthcare Research & Pharmacoepidemiology, at the University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Background: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly worldwide increasing exponentially in Italy. To date, there is lack of studies describing clinical characteristics of the people at high risk of infection. Hence, we aimed (i) to identify clinical predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, (ii) to develop and validate a score predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and (iii) to compare it with unspecific scores.

Methods: Retrospective case-control study using administrative health-related database was carried out in Southern Italy (Campania region) among beneficiaries of Regional Health Service aged over than 30 years. For each person with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (case), up to five controls were randomly matched for gender, age and municipality of residence. Odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals for associations between candidate predictors and risk of infection were estimated by means of conditional logistic regression. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Score (SIS) was developed by generating a total aggregate score obtained from assignment of a weight at each selected covariate using coefficients estimated from the model. Finally, the score was categorized by assigning increasing values from 1 to 4. Discriminant power was used to compare SIS performance with that of other comorbidity scores.

Results: Subjects suffering from diabetes, anaemias, Parkinson's disease, mental disorders, cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases showed increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar estimates were recorded for men and women and younger and older than 65 years. Fifteen conditions significantly contributed to the SIS. As SIS value increases, risk progressively increases, being odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with the highest SIS value (SIS = 4) 1.74 times higher than those unaffected by any SIS contributing conditions (SIS = 1).

Conclusion: Conditions and diseases making people more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by the current study. Our results support decision-makers in identifying high-risk people and adopting of preventive measures to minimize the spread of further epidemic waves.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237202PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7816996PMC
January 2021

Treatment patterns and medication adherence among newly diagnosed patients with migraine: a drug utilisation study.

BMJ Open 2020 11 4;10(11):e038972. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Objectives: Prophylactic drugs currently used for migraine treatment are not specific. Furthermore, few studies in existing literature describe drugs utilisation patterns and adherence to migraine prophylactic treatment. This study is aimed to describe utilisation patterns of migraine drugs, evaluate adherence to prophylactic medications and investigate drug-related costs.

Design: Retrospective population-based study using an administrative health-related database.

Setting: Primary care setting in the Campania region, Southern Italy.

Participants: This study was carried out between 1 January 2016 and 31 December 2018, involving 12 894 subjects with any primary or secondary hospital discharge with migraine diagnosis, or at least two medical dispensations of migraine-specific acute or prophylactic medications (triptans or pizotifen). Subjects were classified into four treatment cohorts: no treatment, acute, prophylactic and both acute and prophylactic. Subjects were followed-up for 1 year.

Outcome Measures: Utilisation patterns of migraine drugs at treatment initiation; adherence to prophylactic treatment; discontinuation, restart and switching rates; annual migraine drug costs per patient.

Results: Overall, 81.1% of subjects received acute treatment as their initial migraine treatment regimen, 10.7% prophylactic treatment, 8.2% both acute and prophylactic treatment. 599 patients were treated prophylactically; of these, 26.2% adhered to their initial treatment while 73.8% reported interruptions in treatment. Among the latter, 46.4% of patients discontinued the treatment completely within 103 days (IQR 89.0), 31% restarted treatment 46 days after interruption (IQR 60.0) and 22.6% switched to another treatment within 98 days (IQR 57.5) (p<0.001). The median annual cost of drugs per patient was €103 for those treated acutely, €75 for those treated prophylactically, €163 for those treated both.

Conclusions: Migraine treatment with acute medications is still prevalent in Italy; only few patients received prophylactic treatment with poor adherence to treatment. These findings reflect an unmet need for improved prophylactic therapies in order to provide a better disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643506PMC
November 2020

Mapping the use of Group-Based Trajectory Modelling in medication adherence research: A scoping review protocol.

HRB Open Res 2020 5;3:25. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Division of Population Health Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaux Lane House, Lower Mercer's Street, Dublin 2, Dublin, D02 DH60, Ireland.

The use of group-based trajectory modelling (GBTM) within the medication adherence literature is rapidly growing. Researchers are adopting enhanced methods to analyse and visualise dynamic behaviours, such as medication adherence, within 'real-world' populations. Application of GBTM based on longitudinal adherence behaviour allows for the identification of adherence trajectories or groups.  A group is conceptually thought of a collection of individuals who follow a similar pattern of adherence behaviour over a period of time. A common obstacle faced by researchers when implementing GBTM is deciding on the number of trajectory groups that may exist within a population. Decision-making can introduce subjectivity, as there is no 'gold standard' for model selection criteria. This study aims to examine the extent and nature of existing evidence on the application of GBTM for medication adherence assessment, providing an overview of the different GBTM techniques used in the literature. The methodological framework will consist of five stages: i) identify the research question(s); ii) identify relevant studies; iii) select studies; iv) chart the data and finally, v) collate, summarise and report the results. Original peer-reviewed articles, published in English, describing observational and interventional studies including both concepts and/or sub-concepts of GBTM and medication adherence or any other similar terms, will be included. The following databases will be queried: PubMed/MEDLINE; Embase (Ovid); SCOPUS; ISI Web of Science and PsychInfo. This scoping review will utilise the PRISMA extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) tool to report results. This scoping review will collect and schematise different techniques in the application of GBTM for medication adherence assessment available in the literature to date, identifying research and knowledge gaps in this area. This review can represent an important tool for future research, providing methodological support to researchers carrying out a group-based trajectory analysis to assess medication adherence in a real-world context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.13056.2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265572PMC
August 2020

The Need to Develop Standard Measures of Patient Adherence for Big Data: Viewpoint.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 27;22(8):e18150. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

AARDEX Group, Seraing, Belgium.

Despite half a century of dedicated studies, medication adherence remains far from perfect, with many patients not taking their medications as prescribed. The magnitude of this problem is rising, jeopardizing the effectiveness of evidence-based therapies. An important reason for this is the unprecedented demographic change at the beginning of the 21st century. Aging leads to multimorbidity and complex therapeutic regimens that create a fertile ground for nonadherence. As this scenario is a global problem, it needs a worldwide answer. Could this answer be provided, given the new opportunities created by the digitization of health care? Daily, health-related information is being collected in electronic health records, pharmacy dispensing databases, health insurance systems, and national health system records. These big data repositories offer a unique chance to study adherence both retrospectively and prospectively at the population level, as well as its related factors. In order to make full use of this opportunity, there is a need to develop standardized measures of adherence, which can be applied globally to big data and will inform scientific research, clinical practice, and public health. These standardized measures may also enable a better understanding of the relationship between adherence and clinical outcomes, and allow for fair benchmarking of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adherence-targeting interventions. Unfortunately, despite this obvious need, such standards are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to call for a consensus on global standards for measuring adherence with big data. More specifically, sound standards of formatting and analyzing big data are needed in order to assess, uniformly present, and compare patterns of medication adherence across studies. Wide use of these standards may improve adherence and make health care systems more effective and sustainable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/18150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7484771PMC
August 2020

Geographical Variation in Medication Prescriptions: A Multiregional Drug-Utilization Study.

Front Pharmacol 2020 5;11:418. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Background: Studies have emphasized the importance of geographical factors and general practitioner (GP) characteristics in influencing drug prescriptions.

Objectives: To: (i) ascertain the prevalence rate (PR) of use of drugs in six therapeutic categories used for chronic conditions; (ii) assess how geographical characteristics and GP characteristics may influence drug prescribing.

Methods: This study is part of the EDU.RE.DRUG Project, a national collaborative project founded by Italian Medicine Agency (AIFA). Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken employing the pharmacy-claim databases of four local health units (LHUs) located in two Italian regions: Lombardy and Campania. Six drug categories were evaluated: proton-pump inhibitors; antibiotics; respiratory-system drugs; statins; agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system; psychoanaleptic drugs. The PR was estimated according to drug categories at the LHU level. A linear multivariate regression analysis was undertaken to evaluate the association between the PR and geographical area, age and sex of GPs, number of patients, and percentage of patients aged >65 per GP.

Results: LHUs in Campania showed a PR that was significantly higher than that in Lombardy. Antibiotics showed the highest PR in all the LHUs assessed, ranging from 32.5% in Lecco (Lombardy) to 59.7% in Naples-2 (Campania). Multivariate linear regression analysis confirmed the association of the PR with geographical area for all drug categories. Being located in Campania increased the possibility of receiving a drug prescription from the categories considered, with estimates more marked for antibiotics, proton-pump-inhibitors, and respiratory-system drugs.

Conclusions: This study provides information about the PR of medications used for treating common and costly conditions in Italy and highlighted a significant geographical variation. These insights could help to develop area-specific strategies to optimize prescribing behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269055PMC
May 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Gender Differences in Medication Use: A Drug Utilization Study Based on Real World Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 1;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics and Drug utilization Research, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

A gender-specific drug utilization study was performed in the Campania region, Southern Italy. Data were based on outpatient drug prescriptions collected from administrative databases. The study population included all patients with at least one drug prescription in 2018. Prevalence was used as a measure to estimate the degree of exposure to drugs. A total of 3,899,360 patients were treated with at least one drug (54.2% females). The number of prescriptions was higher in females than males (55.6% vs. 44.4%). Females recorded higher prevalence for the majority of therapeutic groups (ATC II-anatomical therapeutic chemical), as well as for anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products drugs (M01) (25.6% vs. 18.7%, risk ratio (RR): 0.73), beta blocking agents (C07) (14.5% vs. 11.6%, RR: 0.80), psychoanaleptics (N06) (7.1% vs. 3.7%, RR: 0.52), and antianemic preparations (B03) (2.8% vs. 6.7%, RR: 0.4). Higher prevalence was identified for males only for drugs used in diabetes (A10) (6.8% vs. 6.2%, RR: 1.1), particularly for biguanides (A10BA). Conversely, treatment duration was longer among males, explaining the higher mean cost per treated patient. This real-world study showed substantial gender differences in terms of medication use and duration of treatment and costs. These results are relevant to promoting and supporting the emerging role of precision and personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312791PMC
June 2020

Initial Therapy, Regimen Change, and Persistence in a Spanish Cohort of Newly Treated Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Retrospective, Observational Study Using Real-World Data.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 25;17(10). Epub 2020 May 25.

EpiChron Research Group, Aragon Health Sciences Institute (IACS), IIS Aragón, Miguel Servet University Hospital, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.

The World Health Organization considers the non-adherence to medication a significant issue with global impact, especially in chronic conditions such as type 2 diabetes. We aim to study antidiabetic treatment initiation, add-on, treatment switching, and medication persistence. We conducted an observational study on 4247 individuals initiating antidiabetic treatment between 2013 and 2014 in the EpiChron Cohort (Spain). We used Cox regression models to estimate the likelihood of non-persistence after a one-year follow-up, expressed as hazard ratios (HRs). Metformin was the most frequently used first-line antidiabetic (80% of cases); combination treatment was the second most common treatment in adults aged 40-79 years, while dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors were the second most common in individuals in their 80s and over, and in patients with renal disease. Individuals initiated on metformin were less likely to present addition and switching events compared with any other antidiabetic. Almost 70% of individuals initiated on monotherapy were persistent. Subjects aged 40 and over (HR 0.53-0.63), living in rural (HR 0.79) or more deprived areas (HR 0.77-0.82), or receiving polypharmacy (HR 0.84), were less likely to show discontinuation. Our findings could help identify the population at risk of discontinuation, and offer them closer monitoring for proper integrated management to improve prognosis and health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277774PMC
May 2020

Managing Allergic Rhinitis in the Pharmacy: An ARIA Guide for Implementation in Practice.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2020 May 16;8(2). Epub 2020 May 16.

MACVIA-France, 34295 Montpellier, France.

The paradigm of how we manage allergic rhinitis is shifting with a growing understanding that it is a complex process, requiring a coordinated effort from healthcare providers and patients. Pharmacists are key members of these integrated care pathways resolving medication-related problems, optimizing regimens, improving adherence and recommending therapies while establishing liaisons between patients and physicians. Community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals to the public and allergic rhinitis is one of the most common diseases managed by pharmacists. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines developed over the past 20 years have improved the care of allergic rhinitis patients through an evidence-based, integrated care approach. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach to allergic rhinitis management in community pharmacy following the 2019 ARIA in the pharmacy guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355936PMC
May 2020

Drug Utilization Pattern of Antibiotics: The Role of Age, Sex and Municipalities in Determining Variation.

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2020 29;13:63-71. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose was to analyze drug prescription and antibiotic use by age and sex in Italy's Campania Region, and to estimate the distribution of prescription rates in children (≤14 years old), adults (between 15 and 65 years old), and older adults (≥65 years old) at a municipality level.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of pharmacy records in Campania (Southern Italy), in 2016. Difference in antibiotic prescriptions in different age groups was assessed by prevalence rates. Age-adjusted prevalence rates were categorized into quintiles and mapped by the patient's municipality of residence. Relationship between prevalence rates for the different age groups was estimated using the non-parametric Spearman rank correlation test.

Results: There were 2,738,118 were patients with at least one antibiotic prescription. Antibiotics prescription was higher in children aged <5 years and in the older adults aged >70 years. Prevalence rate distribution was different among municipalities in all age groups. A positive correlation between the rank distribution of prevalence rates at municipality level was identified for children and adults (rs=0.56; <0.01), adults and the older adults (rs=0.79; <0.01), and children and the older adults (rs=0.46; <0.01). Among the studied age groups, the most prescribed antibiotic class was penicillin (except the older adults aged ≥85 years) ranging from 45% in children to 27.2% in the older adults. Fluoroquinolones were the least prescribed antibiotic class, ranging from 0.2% in children to 30.2% in the older adults.

Conclusion: A considerably high use of antibiotic drugs has been detected in Campania Region, with values exceeding the regional and national average. Prescriptions at municipal level differ from one age group to another. Antibiotic use is often unjustified, and to decrease the number of prescriptions and improve their appropriateness, several measures at territorial level are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S223042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6996207PMC
January 2020

Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design-The Impact on Medication Adherence.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Jan 3;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

UCIBIO/REQUIMTE, MedTech-Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Drug Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Medication adherence is a growing concern for public health and poor adherence to therapy has been associated with poor health outcomes and higher costs for patients. Interventions for improving adherence need to consider the characteristics of the individual therapeutic regimens according to the needs of the patients. In particular, geriatric and paediatric populations as well as dermatological patients have special needs/preferences that should be considered when designing drug products. Patient Centric Drug Product Pharmaceutical Design (PCDPD) offers the opportunity to meet the needs and preferences of patients. Packaging, orodispersible formulations, fixed dose combinations products, multiparticulate formulations, topical formulations and 3D printing are of particular relevance in a PCDPD process. These will be addressed in this review as well as their impact on medication adherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12010044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023035PMC
January 2020

Fixed Versus Free Combinations Of Antihypertensive Drugs: Analyses Of Real-World Data Of Persistence With Therapy In Italy.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2019 11;13:1961-1969. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Purpose: To analyse the pattern of use and cost of antihypertensive drugs in new users in an Italian population, and explore the patient/treatment factors associated with the risk of therapy discontinuation.

Patients And Methods: In this retrospective study, information was collected from a population-based electronic primary-care database. Persistence with medication use 1 year from therapy initiation was evaluated for each user using the gap method. Each new user was classified according to his/her pattern of use as: "continuer", "discontinuer" "switching" or "add-on". A Cox regression model was used to analyse the factors influencing therapy discontinuation. Primary-care costs comprised specialists' visits, diagnostic procedures and pharmacologic therapies.

Results: Among 14,999 subjects included in persistence analyses, 55.1% of cases initially started on monotherapy were classified as discontinuers vs 36.5% of cases taking combination therapy (42.3% vs 32.7%, respectively, for free and fixed combinations, P < 0.01). Old age, high cardiovascular risk and being in receipt of fixed-combination therapy were associated with greater persistence. Overall, the primary-care cost/person/year of hypertension management was ~€95.3 (IQR, 144.9). The monotherapy cost was €88 per patient (IQR, 132.9), and that for combination therapy was €151±148.3. The median cost/patient with a fixed combination was lower than that for a free combination (€98.4 (IQR, 155.3) and €154.9 (IQR, 182.6), respectively).

Conclusion: The initial type of therapy prescribed influences persistence. Prescribing fixed combinations might be a good choice as initial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S225444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858287PMC
November 2019

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 2).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Sep;11(9):4072-4084

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.09.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790426PMC
September 2019

Next-generation Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for allergic rhinitis based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and real-world evidence.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Akdis Togias Claus Bachert Martina Erhola Peter W Hellings Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Dana Wallace Ignacio Ansotegui Ioana Agache Anna Bedbrook Karl-Christian Bergmann Mike Bewick Philippe Bonniaud Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bossé Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Moises A Calderon Walter G Canonica Luis Caraballo Vicky Cardona Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Derek K Chu Elisio M Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Gennaro D'Amato Philippe Devillier Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Jean-Louis Fauquert Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Bilun Gemicioglu Roy Gerth van Wijk Tari Haahtela Susanne Halken Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Jorg Kleine Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Stefania La Grutta Désirée Larenas-Linnemann Susanne Lau Daniel Laune Lan Le Philipp Lieberman Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Gert Marien Pedro Carreiro-Martins Erik Melén Enrica Menditto Hugo Neffen Gregoire Mercier Ralph Mosgues Joaquim Mullol Antonella Muraro Leyla Namazova Ettore Novellino Robyn O'Hehir Yoshitaka Okamoto Ken Ohta Hae Sim Park Petr Panzner Giovanni Passalacqua Nhan Pham-Thi David Price Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Christine Rolland Nelson Rosario Dermot Ryan Boleslaw Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Glenis K Scadding Mohamed H Shamji Aziz Sheikh Ana-Maria Todo Bom Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioana Tsiligianni Marylin Valentin-Rostan Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Susan Waserman Arzu Yorgancioglu Torsten Zuberbier

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 01 15;145(1):70-80.e3. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, member of GA(2)LEN, Berlin, Germany.

The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis aims to control the disease and depends on many factors. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines have considerably improved the treatment of allergic rhinitis. However, there is an increasing trend toward use of real-world evidence to inform clinical practice, especially because randomized controlled trials are often limited with regard to the applicability of results. The Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif (MACVIA) algorithm has proposed an allergic rhinitis treatment by a consensus group. This simple algorithm can be used to step up or step down allergic rhinitis treatment. Next-generation guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of allergic rhinitis were developed by using existing GRADE-based guidelines for the disease, real-world evidence provided by mobile technology, and additive studies (allergen chamber studies) to refine the MACVIA algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.06.049DOI Listing
January 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 1).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Aug;11(8):3633-3642

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.08.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753463PMC
August 2019

Analgesic drug use in elderly persons: A population-based study in Southern Italy.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(9):e0222836. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Introduction: Analgesics such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), weak and strong opioids are commonly used among elderly persons. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of elderly analgesic users and to measure the frequency of analgesic use, including the frequency of potentially inappropriate analgesic use.

Methods: The Arianna database was used to carry out this study. This database contains prescription data with associated indication of use for 1,076,486 inhabitants registered with their general practitioners (GPs) in the Caserta Local Health Unit (Caserta district, Campania region in Italy). A cohort of persons aged ≥65 years old with >1 year of database history having at least one analgesic drug (NSAIDs, strong or weak opioids) between 2010 and 2014 were identified. The date of the first analgesic prescription in the study period was considered the index date (ID).

Results: From a source population of 1,076,486 persons, 116,486 elderly persons were identified. Of these, 94,820 elderly persons received at least one analgesic drug: 36.6% were incident NSAID users (N = 36,629), while 13.2% were incident weak opioid users (N = 12,485) and 8.1% were incident strong opioid users (N = 7,658). In terms of inappropriate analgesic use, 9.2% (N = 10,763) of all elderly users were prescribed ketorolac/indomethacin inappropriately, since these drugs should not be prescribed to elderly persons. Furthermore, at least half all elderly persons with chronic kidney disease or congestive heart failure were prescribed NSAIDs, while these drugs should be avoided.

Conclusion: Analgesics are commonly used inappropriately among elderly persons, suggesting that prescribing practice in the catchment area may yet be improved.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0222836PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752879PMC
March 2020

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Treatment Patterns of Diabetes in Italy: A Population-Based Study.

Front Pharmacol 2019 6;10:870. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolism research group, Department of clinical Medicine and Surgery, Frederico II Universityn, Naples, Italy.

The steady increase in type 2 diabetes prevalence and the availability of new antidiabetic drugs (AD) have risen the use of these drugs with a change in the patterns of specific drug utilization. The complexity of this treatment is due to successive treatment initiation, switching and addition in order to maintain glycaemic control. The aim of this study was to describe the utilization patterns of ADs at initiation, treatment addition, and switching profiles and to measure factors influencing persistence to therapy. Retrospective observational study. Data were retrieved from the Campania Regional Database for Medication Consumption. Population consisted of patients receiving at least one prescription of ADs between January 1 and December 31, 2016. We calculated time to treatment switching or add-on as median number of days and interquartile range (IQR). Persistence rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. We used Cox regression models to estimate the likelihood of non-persistence over 1 year of follow-up. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of 14,679 patients, 86.9% started with monotherapy and 13.1% with combination therapy. Most common initial treatment was metformin in both monotherapy and combination therapy. First-line prescription of sulfonylurea was observed in 6.9% of patients aged 60-79 years and in 10.8% of patients aged ≥80 years. Patients starting with metformin showed fewer treatment modifications (10.4%) compared to patients initiating with sulfonylureas (35.2%). Newer ADs were utilized during treatment progression. Patients who initiated with sulfonylurea were approximately 70% more likely to discontinue treatment compared to those initiated on metformin. Oldest age group (≥80 years) was more likely to be non-persistent, and likelihood of non-persistence was highest in polymedicated patients. Patients changing therapy were more likely to be persistent. Our results show that treatment of T2D in Italy is consistent with clinical guidelines. Even if newer ADs were utilized during disease progression, they seem not to be preferred in patients with a higher comorbidity score, although these patients could benefit from this kind of treatment. Our study highlights patients' characteristics that might help identify those who would benefit from counselling from their health-care practitioner on better AD usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6691351PMC
August 2019

2019 ARIA Care pathways for allergen immunotherapy.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Oliver Pfaar Alkis Togias Holger J Schünemann Ignacio Ansotegui Nikolaos G Papadopoulos Ioanna Tsiligianni Ioana Agache Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Anna Bedbrook Karl-Christian Bergmann Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Jan Brozek Moises A Calderon Giorgio W Canonica Luigi Caraballo Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Derek Chu Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Stephen R Durham George Du Toit Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Jean Luc Fauquert Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas Wytske J Fokkens João Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Roy Gerth van Wijk Tari Haahtela Susanne Halken Peter W Hellings Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Juan Carlos Ivancevich Lars Jacobsen Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Jörg Kleine Tebbe Ludger Klimek Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Stefania La Grutta Désirée Larenas-Linemann Susanne Lau Daniel Laune Lan Le Karin Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Hans-Jørgen Malling Gert Marien Enrica Menditto Gregoire Mercier Joaquim Mullol Antonella Muraro Robyn O'Hehir Yoshitaka Okamoto Giovanni B Pajno Hae-Sim Park Petr Panzner Giovanni Passalacqua Nhan Pham-Thi Graham Roberts Ruby Pawankar Christine Rolland Nelson Rosario Dermot Ryan Bolesław Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Glenis Scadding Mohamed H Shamji Aziz Sheikh Gunter J Sturm Ana Todo Bom Sanna Toppila-Salmi Maryline Valentin-Rostan Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Ulrich Wahn Samantha Walker Dana Wallace Susan Waserman Arzu Yorgancioglu Torsten Zuberbier

Allergy 2019 11 15;74(11):2087-2102. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy Centre, Member of GA2LEN, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a proven therapeutic option for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma. Many guidelines or national practice guidelines have been produced but the evidence-based method varies, many are complex and none propose care pathways. This paper reviews care pathways for AIT using strict criteria and provides simple recommendations that can be used by all stakeholders including healthcare professionals. The decision to prescribe AIT for the patient should be individualized and based on the relevance of the allergens, the persistence of symptoms despite appropriate medications according to guidelines as well as the availability of good-quality and efficacious extracts. Allergen extracts cannot be regarded as generics. Immunotherapy is selected by specialists for stratified patients. There are no currently available validated biomarkers that can predict AIT success. In adolescents and adults, AIT should be reserved for patients with moderate/severe rhinitis or for those with moderate asthma who, despite appropriate pharmacotherapy and adherence, continue to exhibit exacerbations that appear to be related to allergen exposure, except in some specific cases. Immunotherapy may be even more advantageous in patients with multimorbidity. In children, AIT may prevent asthma onset in patients with rhinitis. mHealth tools are promising for the stratification and follow-up of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13805DOI Listing
November 2019

Mobile technology offers novel insights into the control and treatment of allergic rhinitis: The MASK study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 07 3;144(1):135-143.e6. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

MACVIA-France, Fondation partenariale FMC VIA-LR, Montpellier, France; University Hospital, Montpellier, France; INSERM U 1168, VIMA: Ageing and chronic diseases Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, Villejuif, Université Versailles St-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny le Bretonneux, and Euforea, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Mobile health can be used to generate innovative insights into optimizing treatment to improve allergic rhinitis (AR) control.

Objectives: A cross-sectional real-world observational study was undertaken in 22 countries to complement a pilot study and provide novel information on medication use, disease control, and work productivity in the everyday life of patients with AR.

Methods: A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, which is freely available on Google Play and Apple stores) was used to collect the data of daily visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for (1) overall allergic symptoms; (2) nasal, ocular, and asthma symptoms; (3) work; and (4) medication use by using a treatment scroll list including all allergy medications (prescribed and over-the-counter) customized for 22 countries. The 4 most common intranasal medications containing intranasal corticosteroids and 8 oral H-antihistamines were studied.

Results: Nine thousand one hundred twenty-two users filled in 112,054 days of VASs in 2016 and 2017. Assessment of days was informative. Control of days with rhinitis differed between no (best control), single (good control for intranasal corticosteroid-treated days), or multiple (worst control) treatments. Users with the worst control increased the range of treatments being used. The same trend was found for asthma, eye symptoms, and work productivity. Differences between oral H-antihistamines were found.

Conclusions: This study confirms the usefulness of the Allergy Diary in accessing and assessing behavior in patients with AR. This observational study using a very simple assessment tool (VAS) on a mobile phone had the potential to answer questions previously thought infeasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.01.053DOI Listing
July 2019

Patterns of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in young and adult population: Systematic associations among chronic diseases and drugs using factor analysis.

PLoS One 2019 6;14(2):e0210701. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Aragon Health Sciences Institute (IACS), IIS Aragón, REDISSEC ISCIII, Miguel Servet University Hospital, Zaragoza, Spain.

Objectives: The objective was to identify the systematic associations among chronic diseases and drugs in the form of patterns and to describe and clinically interpret the constituted patterns with a focus on exploring the existence of potential drug-drug and drug-disease interactions and prescribing cascades.

Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study used the demographic and clinical information from electronic medical databases and the pharmacy billing records of all users of the public health system of the Spanish region of Aragon in 2015. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted based on the tetra-choric correlations among the diagnoses of chronic diseases and the dispensed drugs in 887,572 patients aged ≤65 years. The analysis was stratified by age and sex. To name the constituted patterns, assess their clinical nature, and identify potential interactions among diseases and drugs, the associations found in each pattern were independently reviewed by two pharmacists and two doctors and tested against the literature and the information reported in the technical medicinal forms.

Results: Six multimorbidity-polypharmacy patterns were found in this large-scale population study, named as respiratory, mental health, cardiometabolic, endocrinological, osteometabolic, and mechanical-pain. The nature of the patterns in terms of diseases and drugs differed by sex and age and became more complex as age advanced.

Conclusions: The six clinically sound multimorbidity-polypharmacy patterns described in this non-elderly population confirmed the existence of systematic associations among chronic diseases and medications, and revealed some unexpected associations suggesting the prescribing cascade phenomenon as a potential underlying factor. These findings may help to broaden the focus and orient the early identification of potential interactions when caring for multimorbid patients at high risk of adverse health outcomes due to polypharmacy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210701PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364882PMC
November 2019

Prescribing pattern of antihypertensive drugs in two European cohorts: a population-based database study.

Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2019 Aug 29;19(4):463-471. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

b Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF) , University of Naples Federico II , Naples , Italy.

: Antihypertensive drugs play a crucial role in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Variability in prescribing patterns constitutes a major challenge for current healthcare systems. This study aimed to compare patterns of use of antihypertensives in general practice in two southern European populations. : Observational study. Data on antihypertensive drugs consumption in primary care setting (2016) were obtained from pharmacy refill records in Campania (Italy) and Aragon (Spain). Prescribing rates and the number of defined daily doses [DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day (DID)] were calculated, and the Drug Utilization 90% (DU90%) approach used to reveal differences in prescribing patterns in both regions. : Antihypertensive prescribing rates in Campania and Aragon were 250.8 (95%CI: 250.2-251.3) and 201.7 (95%CI: 200.9-202.5) users/1,000 inhabitants/year. Overall consumption was of 310.1 and 256.8 DID, respectively. Spanish users, especially women and the elderly, consumed a greater volume of diuretics. Conversely, other therapeutic subgroups were more consumed in Campania. However, the most prescribed subgroups accounted for comparable proportions of the total consumption in each region. : Both prescribing rates and intensity of antihypertensive use were higher in Campania. Pharmacy refill records in cross-country comparisons allow to know the factors influencing variability in prescribing habits with a view to improving prescribing quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737167.2019.1567338DOI Listing
August 2019

Adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis using mobile technology. The MASK Study.

Clin Exp Allergy 2019 04 12;49(4):442-460. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

MACVIA-France, Fondation partenariale FMC VIA-LR, Montpellier, France.

Background: Mobile technology may help to better understand the adherence to treatment. MASK-rhinitis (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a patient-centred ICT system. A mobile phone app (the Allergy Diary) central to MASK is available in 22 countries.

Objectives: To assess the adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis patients using the Allergy Diary App.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on all users who filled in the Allergy Diary from 1 January 2016 to 1 August 2017. Secondary adherence was assessed by using the modified Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and the Proportion of days covered (PDC) approach.

Results: A total of 12 143 users were registered. A total of 6 949 users reported at least one VAS data recording. Among them, 1 887 users reported ≥7 VAS data. About 1 195 subjects were included in the analysis of adherence. One hundred and thirty-six (11.28%) users were adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC ≤1.25), 51 (4.23%) were partly adherent (MPR ≥70% and PDC = 1.50) and 176 (14.60%) were switchers. On the other hand, 832 (69.05%) users were non-adherent to medications (MPR <70%). Of those, the largest group was non-adherent to medications and the time interval was increased in 442 (36.68%) users.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Adherence to treatment is low. The relative efficacy of continuous vs on-demand treatment for allergic rhinitis symptoms is still a matter of debate. This study shows an approach for measuring retrospective adherence based on a mobile app. This also represents a novel approach for analysing medication-taking behaviour in a real-world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13333DOI Listing
April 2019

ARIA pharmacy 2018 "Allergic rhinitis care pathways for community pharmacy": AIRWAYS ICPs initiative (European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing, DG CONNECT and DG Santé) POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis) GARD Demonstration project.

Authors:
Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Elisio Costa Enrica Menditto Olga Lourenço Ettore Novellino Slawomir Bialek Vitalis Briedis Roland Buonaiuto Henry Chrystyn Biljana Cvetkovski Stefania Di Capua Vicky Kritikos Alpana Mair Valentina Orlando Ema Paulino Johanna Salimäki Rojin Söderlund Rachel Tan Dennis M Williams Piotr Wroczynski Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Anna Bedbrook Claus Bachert Mike Bewick Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Jan L Brozek Giorgio Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Warner Carr Thomas B Casale Niels H Chavannes Jaime Correia de Sousa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Giuseppe De Carlo Pascal Demoly Philippe Devillier Mark S Dykewicz Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal João Fonseca Wytske J Fokkens Maria Antonieta Guzmán Tari Haahtela Peter W Hellings Maddalena Illario Juan Carlos Ivancevich Jocelyne Just Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Thomas Keil Ludger Klimek Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Lan T T Le Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Bassam Mahboub Dieter Maier Joao Malva Patrick J Manning Mário Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Joaquim Mullol Lars Münter Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Leyla Namazova-Baranova Kristof Nekam Tshipukane Dieudonné Nyembue Kimi Okubo Robyn E O'Hehir Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Gabrielle L Onorato Susanna Palkonen Petr Panzner Nikolaos G Papadopoulos Hae-Sim Park Ruby Pawankar Oliver Pfaar Jim Phillips Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Paul C Potter Emmanuel P Prokopakis Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Bolesław Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Holger J Schunemann Aziz Sheikh Juan Carlos Sisul David Somekh Cristiana Stellato Teresa To Ana Maria Todo-Bom Peter Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Antonio Valero Arunas Valiulis Errka Valovirta Maria Teresa Ventura Martin Wagenmann Dana Wallace Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier Jean Bousquet

Allergy 2019 07 30;74(7):1219-1236. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

MACVIA-France, Fondation Partenariale FMC VIA-LR, Montpellier, France.

Pharmacists are trusted health care professionals. Many patients use over-the-counter (OTC) medications and are seen by pharmacists who are the initial point of contact for allergic rhinitis management in most countries. The role of pharmacists in integrated care pathways (ICPs) for allergic diseases is important. This paper builds on existing studies and provides tools intended to help pharmacists provide optimal advice/interventions/strategies to patients with rhinitis. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)-pharmacy ICP includes a diagnostic questionnaire specifically focusing attention on key symptoms and markers of the disease, a systematic Diagnosis Guide (including differential diagnoses), and a simple flowchart with proposed treatment for rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. Key prompts for referral within the ICP are included. The use of technology is critical to enhance the management of allergic rhinitis. However, the ARIA-pharmacy ICP should be adapted to local healthcare environments/situations as regional (national) differences exist in pharmacy care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.13701DOI Listing
July 2019

Adherence to treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes in an elderly population of a Spanish cohort.

Med Clin (Barc) 2019 07 29;153(1):1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Grupo EpiChron de Investigación en Enfermedades Crónicas, Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS), IIS Aragón, REDISSEC ISCIII, Zaragoza, España.

Background And Objective: Sub-optimal adherence to treatment in the general population has been highlighted in several studies, especially in the elderly and/or chronic patients. This study aims to describe the adherence to treatment of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, and to identify the factors that influence adherence.

Material And Method: Retrospective, cross-sectional observational study on 16,208 patients aged ≥65 years from the EpiChron Cohort who initiated monotherapy treatment of an antidiabetic, a lipid-lowering or an antihypertensive medication in 2010. Adherence was measured by calculating the medication possession ratio during one year, considering those cases with medication possession ratio ≥80% to be adherent. We performed a descriptive study, and a logistic regression model was used to identify the predictors of low adherence.

Results: Adherence to antidiabetics, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs was 72.4%, 50.7% and 44.3%, respectively. An increase in adherence of 3-8% was observed for each additional chronic disease suffered by the patient. The presence of mental illness did not affect adherence, and sex, age and number of prescribed drugs did not present consistent effects.

Conclusion: The results obtained show a sub-optimal adherence to treatment for the 3chronic diseases studied. Adherence increased with the number of chronic diseases, while sex, age and number of drugs did not show a consistent effect. It is necessary to investigate if there are other factors that may influence therapeutic adherence, since improving adherence may have a greater impact on health than any progress in therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2018.10.023DOI Listing
July 2019

Predictors of new oral anticoagulant drug initiation as opposed to warfarin in elderly adults: a retrospective observational study in Southern Italy.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2018 8;14:1907-1914. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF), University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy,

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive role of age, gender, and number and type of co-treatments for new oral anticoagulant (NOAC) vs warfarin prescription in elderly patients naïve for the aforementioned drugs.

Materials And Methods: Data collected in the period from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, in Caserta Local Health Unit administrative databases (Campania Region, Italy) were screened to identify new users of oral anticoagulants (OACs) who were 75 years or older and whose OAC prescriptions amounted to >90 days of treatment. Age, gender, and number and type of concomitant medications at the time of first OAC dispensation were retrieved. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of the aforementioned predictors for NOAC initiation as opposed to warfarin.

Results: Overall, 2,132 incident users of OAC were identified, of whom 967 met all inclusion criteria. In all, 490 subjects (50.7%) received an NOAC and 477 (49.3%) received warfarin. Age >75 years was positively associated with lower odds of NOAC initiation (OR: 0.969, 95% CI: 0.941-0.998, =0.038). Similarly, multiple concomitant medication was negatively associated with NOAC initiation compared to warfarin (OR [five to nine drugs] group: 0.607, 95% CI: 0.432-0.852, =0.004; OR [ten+ drugs] group: 0.372, 95% CI: 0.244-0.567, <0.001). Prior exposure to platelet aggregation inhibitor drugs was associated with the initiation of NOACs (OR: 3.474, 95% CI: 2.610-4.625).

Conclusion: Age and multiple co-medication were negatively associated with NOAC initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S171346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6183659PMC
October 2018

Adherence to chronic medication in older populations: application of a common protocol among three European cohorts.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2018 5;12:1975-1987. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Aragon Health Sciences Institute (IACS), IIS Aragón, REDISSEC ISCIII, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare medication adherence to chronic therapies in older populations across different regions in Europe.

Methods: This explorative study applied a harmonized method of data extraction and analysis from pharmacy claims databases of three European countries to compare medication adherence at a cross-country level. Data were obtained for the period between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2011. Patients (aged ≥65 years) who newly initiated to oral antidiabetics, antihyperlipidemics, or antiosteoporotics were identified and followed for over a 12-month period. Main outcome measures were medication adherence (medication possession ratio, [MPR]; implementation) and persistence on index treatment. All country-specific data sets were prepared by employing a common data input model. Outcome measures were calculated for each country and pooled using random effect models.

Results: In total, 39,186 new users were analyzed. In pooled data from the three countries, suboptimal implementation (MPR <80%) was 52.45% (95% CI: 33.43-70.79) for antihy-perlipidemics, 61.35% (95% CI: 52.83-69.22) for antiosteoporotics, and 30.33% (95% CI: 25.53-35.60) for oral antidiabetics. Similarly, rates of non-persistence (discontinuation) were 55.63% (95% CI: 35.24-74.29) for antihyperlipidemics, 60.24% (95% CI: 45.35-73.46) for antiosteoporotics, and 46.80% (95% CI: 36.40-57.4) for oral antidiabetics.

Conclusion: Medication adherence was suboptimal with >50% of older people non-adherent to antihyperlipidemics and antiosteoporotics in the three European cohorts. However, the degree of variability in adherence rates among the three countries was high. A harmonized method of data extraction and analysis across health-related database in Europe is useful to compare medication-taking behavior at a cross-country level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S164819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179242PMC
October 2018

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Phase 4 (2018): Change management in allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity using mobile technology.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Peter W Hellings Ioana Agache Flore Amat Isabella Annesi-Maesano Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Eric D Bateman Anna Bedbrook Kazi Bennoor Mickael Bewick Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Jan Brozek Luisa Brussino Giorgio W Canonica Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Lorenzo Cecchi Jaime Correia de Sousa Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Giuseppe De Carlo Giulia De Feo Pascal Demoly Philippe Devillier Mark S Dykewicz Yehia El-Gamal Esben E Eller Joao A Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Wytske J Fokkens Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Jocelyne Just Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Thomas Keil Ludger Klimek Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Lan T T Le Karin Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Bassam Mahboub Alpana Mair Enrica Menditto Branislava Milenkovic Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Joaquim Mullol Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Leyla Namazova-Baranova Ettore Novellino Robyn E O'Hehir Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Susanna Palkonen Petr Panzner Nikos G Papadopoulos Hae-Sim Park Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Oliver Pfaar Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Paul Potter Emmanuel P Prokopakis Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Boleslaw Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Holger J Schunemann Aziz Sheikh Juan-Carlos Sisul Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Talant Sooronbaev Cristiana Stellato Teresa To Ana-Maria Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Antonio Valero Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Dana Wallace Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Arzu Yorgancioglu Luo Zhang Nanshan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn Torsten Zuberbier

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 03 29;143(3):864-879. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Comprehensive Allergy Center Charité, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN), Berlin, Germany.

Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline by using the best approach to integrated care pathways using mobile technology in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. The proposed next phase of ARIA is change management, with the aim of providing an active and healthy life to patients with rhinitis and to those with asthma multimorbidity across the lifecycle irrespective of their sex or socioeconomic status to reduce health and social inequities incurred by the disease. ARIA has followed the 8-step model of Kotter to assess and implement the effect of rhinitis on asthma multimorbidity and to propose multimorbid guidelines. A second change management strategy is proposed by ARIA Phase 4 to increase self-medication and shared decision making in rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity. An innovation of ARIA has been the development and validation of information technology evidence-based tools (Mobile Airways Sentinel Network [MASK]) that can inform patient decisions on the basis of a self-care plan proposed by the health care professional.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.08.049DOI Listing
March 2019

Some reflections concerning the assessment of patient adherence and persistence to medication.

Curr Med Res Opin 2019 01 29;35(1):3-4. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

CIRFF, Center of Pharmacoeconomics, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2018.1528216DOI Listing
January 2019