Publications by authors named "Enno Krauss"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanoscale Electrical Excitation of Distinct Modes in Plasmonic Waveguides.

Nano Lett 2021 May 30;21(10):4225-4230. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

NanoOptics & Biophotonics Group, Experimental Physics 5, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

The electrical excitation of guided plasmonic modes at the nanoscale enables integration of optical nanocircuitry into nanoelectronics. In this context, exciting plasmons with a distinct modal field profile constitutes a key advantage over conventional single-mode integrated photonics. Here, we demonstrate the selective electrical excitation of the lowest-order symmetric and antisymmetric plasmonic modes in a two-wire transmission line. We achieve mode selectivity by precisely positioning nanoscale excitation sources, i.e., junctions for inelastic electron tunneling, within the respective modal field distribution. By using advanced fabrication that combines focused He-ion beam milling and dielectrophoresis, we control the location of tunnel junctions with sub-10 nm accuracy. At the far end of the two-wire transmission line, the guided plasmonic modes are converted into far-field radiation at separate spatial positions showing two distinct orthogonal polarizations. Hence, the resulting device represents the smallest electrically driven light source with directly switchable polarization states with possible applications in display technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c00182DOI Listing
May 2021

The patterning toolbox FIB-o-mat: Exploiting the full potential of focused helium ions for nanofabrication.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2021 6;12:304-318. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Corelab Correlative Microscopy and Spectroscopy, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin, Germany.

Focused beams of helium ions are a powerful tool for high-fidelity machining with spatial precision below 5 nm. Achieving such a high patterning precision over large areas and for different materials in a reproducible manner, however, is not trivial. Here, we introduce the Python toolbox FIB-o-mat for automated pattern creation and optimization, providing full flexibility to accomplish demanding patterning tasks. FIB-o-mat offers high-level pattern creation, enabling high-fidelity large-area patterning and systematic variations in geometry and raster settings. It also offers low-level beam path creation, providing full control over the beam movement and including sophisticated optimization tools. Three applications showcasing the potential of He ion beam nanofabrication for two-dimensional material systems and devices using FIB-o-mat are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.12.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042487PMC
April 2021

Space- and time-resolved UV-to-NIR surface spectroscopy and 2D nanoscopy at 1 MHz repetition rate.

Rev Sci Instrum 2019 Nov;90(11):113103

Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

We describe a setup for time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy with aberration correction enabling 3 nm spatial resolution and sub-20 fs temporal resolution. The latter is realized by our development of a widely tunable (215-970 nm) noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) at 1 MHz repetition rate. We discuss several exemplary applications. Efficient photoemission from plasmonic Au nanoresonators is investigated with phase-coherent pulse pairs from an actively stabilized interferometer. More complex excitation fields are created with a liquid-crystal-based pulse shaper enabling amplitude and phase shaping of NOPA pulses with spectral components from 600 to 800 nm. With this system we demonstrate spectroscopy within a single plasmonic nanoslit resonator by spectral amplitude shaping and investigate the local field dynamics with coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy at the nanometer length scale ("2D nanoscopy"). We show that the local response varies across a distance as small as 33 nm in our sample. Further, we report two-color pump-probe experiments using two independent NOPA beamlines. We extract local variations of the excited-state dynamics of a monolayered 2D material (WSe) that we correlate with low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and reflectivity measurements. Finally, we demonstrate the in situ sample preparation capabilities for organic thin films and their characterization via spatially resolved electron diffraction and dark-field LEEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5115322DOI Listing
November 2019

Nonclassical Optical Properties of Mesoscopic Gold.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Jun;122(24):246802

Nano-Optics and Biophotonics Group, Department of Experimental Physics 5, Wilhelm-Conrad-Röntgen-Center for Complex Material Systems (RCCM), University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

Gold nanostructures have important applications in nanoelectronics, nano-optics, and in precision metrology due to their intriguing optoelectronic properties. These properties are governed by the bulk band structure but to some extent are tunable via geometrical resonances. Here we show that the band structure of gold itself exhibits significant size-dependent changes already for mesoscopic critical dimensions below 30 nm. To suppress the effects of geometrical resonances and grain boundaries, we prepared atomically flat ultrathin films of various thicknesses by utilizing large chemically grown single-crystalline gold platelets. We experimentally probe thickness-dependent changes of the band structure by means of two-photon photoluminescence and observe a surprising 100-fold increase of the nonlinear signal when the gold film thickness is reduced below 30 nm allowing us to optically resolve single-unit-cell steps. The effect is well explained by density functional calculations of the thickness-dependent 2D band structure of gold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.246802DOI Listing
June 2019

Spatial Variations in Femtosecond Field Dynamics within a Plasmonic Nanoresonator Mode.

Nano Lett 2019 Jul 17;19(7):4651-4658. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie , Universität Würzburg , Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg , Germany.

Plasmonic resonators can be designed to support spectrally well-separated discrete modes. The associated characteristic spatial patterns of intense electromagnetic hot-spots can be exploited to enhance light-matter interaction. Here, we study the local field dynamics of individual hot-spots within a nanoslit resonator by detecting characteristic changes of the photoelectron emission signal on a scale of ∼12 nm using time-resolved photoemission electron microscopy (TR-PEEM) and by excitation with the output from a 20 fs, 1 MHz noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Surprisingly, we detect apparent spatial variations of the -factor and resonance frequency that are commonly considered to be global properties for a single mode. By using the concept of quasinormal modes we explain these local differences by crosstalk of adjacent resonator modes. Our findings are important in view of time-domain studies of plasmon-mediated strong light-matter coupling at ambient conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01672DOI Listing
July 2019

Reversible Mapping and Sorting the Spin of Photons on the Nanoscale: A Spin-Optical Nanodevice.

Nano Lett 2019 05 29;19(5):3364-3369. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

NanoOptics and Biophotonics Group, Experimental Physics 5 , University of Würzburg , Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg , Germany.

The photon spin is an important resource for quantum information processing as is the electron spin in spintronics. However, for subwavelength confined optical excitations, polarization as a global property of a mode cannot be defined. Here, we show that any polarization state of a plane-wave photon can reversibly be mapped to a pseudospin embodied by the two fundamental modes of a subwavelength plasmonic two-wire transmission line. We design a device in which this pseudospin evolves in a well-defined fashion throughout the device reminiscent of the evolution of photon polarization in a birefringent medium and the behavior of electron spins in the channel of a spin field-effect transistor. The significance of this pseudospin is enriched by the fact that it is subject to spin-orbit locking. Combined with optically active materials to exert external control over the pseudospin precession, our findings could enable spin-optical transistors, that is, the routing and processing of quantum information with light on a subwavelength scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b01162DOI Listing
May 2019

Cavity-assisted ultrafast long-range periodic energy transfer between plasmonic nanoantennas.

Light Sci Appl 2017 Nov 3;6(11):e17111. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

Fachbereich Physik and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 46, Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/lsa.2017.111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6062045PMC
November 2017

Normal-Incidence PEEM Imaging of Propagating Modes in a Plasmonic Nanocircuit.

Nano Lett 2016 11 14;16(11):6832-6837. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern , Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 46, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

The design of noble-metal plasmonic devices and nanocircuitry requires a fundamental understanding and control of the interference of plasmonic modes. Here we report the first visualization of the propagation and interference of guided modes in a showcase plasmonic nanocircuit using normal-incidence nonlinear two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). We demonstrate that in contrast to the commonly used grazing-incidence illumination scheme, normal-incidence PEEM provides a direct image of the structure's near-field intensity distribution due to the absence of beating patterns and despite the transverse character of the plasmonic modes. Based on a simple heuristic numerical model for the photoemission yield, we are able to model all experimental findings if global plane wave illumination and coupling to multiple input/output ports, and the resulting interference effects are accounted for.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02569DOI Listing
November 2016

Silica-gold bilayer-based transfer of focused ion beam-fabricated nanostructures.

Nanoscale 2015 Oct;7(39):16427-33

Nano-Optics and Biophotonics Group, Experimentelle Physik 5, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

The demand for using nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) on delicate substrates or as building blocks for complex devices motivates the development of protocols that allow FIB-fabricated nanostructures to be transferred from the original substrate to the desired target. However, transfer of FIB-fabricated nanostructures is severely hindered by FIB-induced welding of structure and substrate. Here we present two (ex and in situ) transfer methods for FIB-fabricated nanostructures based on a silica-gold bilayer evaporated onto a bulk substrate. Utilizing the poor adhesion between silica and gold, the nanostructures can be mechanically separated from the bulk substrate. For the ex situ transfer, a spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) film is used to carry the nanostructures so that the bilayer can be etched away after being peeled off. For the in situ transfer, using a micro-manipulator inside the FIB machine, a cut-out piece of silica on which a nanostructure has been fabricated is peeled off from the bulk substrate and thus carries the nanostructure to a target substrate. We demonstrate the performance of both methods by transferring plasmonic nano-antennas fabricated from single-crystalline gold flakes by FIB milling to a silicon wafer and to a scanning probe tip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr04262cDOI Listing
October 2015

Shaping and spatiotemporal characterization of sub-10-fs pulses focused by a high-NA objective.

Opt Express 2014 Dec;22(25):31496-510

We describe a setup consisting of a 4f pulse shaper and a microscope with a high-NA objective lens and discuss the aspects most relevant for an undistorted spatiotemporal profile of the focused beam. We demonstrate shaper-assisted pulse compression in focus to a sub-10-fs duration using phase-resolved interferometric spectral modulation (PRISM). We introduce a nanostructure-based method for sub-diffraction spatiotemporal characterization of strongly focused pulses. The distortions caused by optical aberrations and space-time coupling from the shaper can be reduced by careful setup design and alignment to about 10 nm in space and 1 fs in time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.22.031496DOI Listing
December 2014

Multimode plasmon excitation and in situ analysis in top-down fabricated nanocircuits.

Phys Rev Lett 2013 Nov 28;111(18):183901. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

NanoOptics and Biophotonics Group, Experimentelle Physik 5, Physikalisches Institut, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg, Germany.

We experimentally demonstrate synthesis and in situ analysis of multimode plasmonic excitations in two-wire transmission lines supporting a symmetric and an antisymmetric eigenmode. To this end we irradiate an incoupling antenna with a diffraction-limited excitation spot exploiting a polarization- and position-dependent excitation efficiency. Modal analysis is performed by recording the far-field emission of two mode-specific spatially separated emission spots at the far end of the transmission line. To illustrate the power of the approach we selectively determine the group velocities of symmetric and antisymmetric contributions of a multimode ultrafast plasmon pulse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.183901DOI Listing
November 2013
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