Publications by authors named "Enmar Alharfoush"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Adenosine kinase: An epigenetic modulator in development and disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 5;147:105054. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102, USA; Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the key regulator of adenosine and catalyzes the metabolism of adenosine to 5'-adenosine monophosphate. The enzyme exists in two isoforms: a long isoform (ADK-long, ADK-L) and a short isoform (ADK-short, ADK-S). The two isoforms are developmentally regulated and are differentially expressed in distinct subcellular compartments with ADK-L localized in the nucleus and ADK-S localized in the cytoplasm. The nuclear localization of ADK-L and its biochemical link to the transmethylation pathway suggest a specific role for gene regulation via epigenetic mechanisms. Recent evidence reveals an adenosine receptor-independent role of ADK in determining the global methylation status of DNA and thereby contributing to epigenomic regulation. Here we summarize recent progress in understanding the biochemical interactions between adenosine metabolism by ADK-L and epigenetic modifications linked to transmethylation reactions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of ADK-associated changes in DNA methylation in developmental, as well as in pathological conditions including brain injury, epilepsy, vascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Challenges in investigating the epigenetic role of ADK for therapeutic gains are briefly discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178237PMC
July 2021

Developmental Role of Adenosine Kinase in the Cerebellum.

eNeuro 2021 May-Jun;8(3). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854

Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator and metabolic regulator of the brain through receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. In the brain, adenosine is tightly controlled through its metabolic enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK), which exists in a cytoplasmic (ADK-S) and nuclear (ADK-L) isoform. We recently discovered that ADK-L contributes to adult hippocampal neurogenesis regulation. Although the cerebellum (CB) is a highly plastic brain area with a delayed developmental trajectory, little is known about the role of ADK. Here, we investigated the developmental profile of ADK expression in C57BL/6 mice CB and assessed its role in developmental and proliferative processes. We found high levels of ADK-L during cerebellar development, which was maintained into adulthood. This pattern contrasts with that of the cerebrum, in which ADK-L expression is gradually downregulated postnatally and largely restricted to astrocytes in adulthood. Supporting a functional role in cell proliferation, we found that the ADK inhibitor 5-iodotubericine (5-ITU) reduced DNA synthesis of granular neuron precursors in a concentration-dependent manner In the developing CB, immunohistochemical studies indicated ADK-L is expressed in immature Purkinje cells and granular neuron precursors, whereas in adulthood, ADK is absent from Purkinje cells, but widely expressed in mature granule neurons and their molecular layer (ML) processes. Furthermore, ADK-L is expressed in developing and mature Bergmann glia in the Purkinje cell layer, and in astrocytes in major cerebellar cortical layers. Together, our data demonstrate an association between neuronal ADK expression and developmental processes of the CB, which supports a functional role of ADK-L in the plasticity of the CB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0011-21.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174006PMC
June 2021

Adenosine Kinase Expression Determines DNA Methylation in Cancer Cell Lines.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 16;4(2):680-686. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.

DNA methylation has a major role in cancer, and its inhibitors are used therapeutically. DNA methylation depends on methyl group flux through the transmethylation pathway, which forms adenosine. We hypothesized that an adenosine kinase isoform with nuclear expression (ADK-L) determines global DNA methylation in cancer cells. We quantified ADK-L expression (Western Blot) and global DNA methylation as percent 5-methyldeoxycytidine (5mdC, LC-MS/MS) in three cancer lines (HeLa, HepG2, and U373). ADK-L expression and global DNA methylation correlated positively with the highest levels in HeLa cells compared to U373 and HepG2 cells. To determine whether ADK increases global DNA methylation and to validate its potential therapeutics, we treated HeLa cells with potent ADK inhibitors MRS4203 and MRS4380 (IC 88 and 140 nM, respectively). Both nucleosides, but not a structurally related poor ADK inhibitor, significantly reduced global DNA methylation in HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, ADK-L is a potential target for the therapeutic manipulation of DNA methylation levels in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsptsci.1c00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033756PMC
April 2021

Role of Adenosine in Epilepsy and Seizures.

J Caffeine Adenosine Res 2020 Jun 4;10(2):45-60. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Deptartment of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.

Adenosine is an endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant of the brain. Seizure activity produces large quantities of adenosine, and it is this seizure-induced adenosine surge that normally stops a seizure. However, within the context of epilepsy, adenosine plays a wide spectrum of different roles. It not only controls seizures (ictogenesis), but also plays a major role in processes that turn a normal brain into an epileptic brain (epileptogenesis). It is involved in the control of abnormal synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration and plays a major role in the expression of comorbid symptoms and complications of epilepsy, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Given the important role of adenosine in epilepsy, therapeutic strategies are in development with the goal to utilize adenosine augmentation not only for the suppression of seizures but also for disease modification and epilepsy prevention, as well as strategies to block adenosine A receptor overfunction associated with neurodegeneration. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the role of adenosine in epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/caff.2019.0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7301316PMC
June 2020

Resection of a posterior fossa arteriovenous malformation complicated by leaked Onyx: a case report and review of literature.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 04 30;162(4):923-928. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School and University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Extravasation of Onyx is a rare complication during embolization of arteriovenous malformations (AVM). We present a case of embolization that was complicated by leakage of Onyx into the cerebellum which was later encountered during surgical excision of the AVM. Our goal is to report this rare event and to outline successful treatment of this complication. The patient's records were reviewed for medical history, laboratory and radiologic workup, and outpatient clinical follow-up. A 62-year-old female presented with Hunt Hess grade 2 and modified Fisher grade 2 subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysm associated with a superior cerebellar vermian AVM. Following endovascular intervention, the aneurysm was completely embolized; however, only 75% of the AVM could be safely obliterated. Extravasation of Onyx from the ruptured aneurysm was noted on her initial angiogram. Elective suboccipital craniectomy was subsequently planned for resection of the residual AVM where the extravasated Onyx posed an operative nuisance during resection. Post-op angiogram confirmed complete resection of the AVM, as well as the bulk of the extravasated Onyx. Patient did well post-operatively, remaining neurologically intact throughout her hospital course. Although infrequently reported in the literature, Onyx extravasation is a potential complication that neurosurgeons should be ready to face. Adherence of Onyx to surrounding parenchyma could hinder optimal surgical resection of AVM and increase complications. Therefore, careful surgical dissection should be performed with special care to delicate neurovasculature. In this case, complete resection of the AVM and Onyx mass was safely achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-04199-3DOI Listing
April 2020