Publications by authors named "Enid Wai Yung Kwong"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Emergency nurses' perceptions regarding the risks appraisal of the threat of the emerging infectious disease situation in emergency departments.

Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being 2020 Dec;15(1):e1718468

Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, New Territories, Hong Kong.

Emerging infectious diseases are considered as a pressing challenge to global public health. Throughout public health response to emerging infectious diseases, emergency nurses are situated at the forefront of the healthcare system. The present study has explored emergency nurses' perceptions regarding the risks appraisal of the threat of the emerging infectious disease situation in emergency department context. The present study used a qualitative descriptive approach. A purposive sampling method was employed to recruit emergency nurses who worked in public hospitals in Hong Kong. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 24 emergency nurses. The data were interpreted using a thematic analysis strategy. Five overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) the novelty of an emerging infectious disease, (2) the severity of an emerging infectious disease, (3) the proximity to an emerging infectious disease, (4) the complexity of an emerging infectious disease situation, and (5) the response levels towards an emerging infectious disease situation. It is anticipated that the information may help to predict the attitudes and behaviours of emergency nurses in future impending epidemic events, enhancing emergency nurses' preparedness towards in such situations. EID: Emerging infectious disease; ED: Emergency department; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; WHO: World Health Organization; RN: Registered nurse; APN: Advanced practice nurse; NO: Nursing officer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
December 2020

Survival prediction among nursing home residents: A longitudinal study.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018 Mar 15;18(3):428-433. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.

Aim: To determine the survival time and predictors of survival of residents in a nursing home.

Methods: Nursing home residents admitted from June 2008 (when the nursing home started operating) to December 2012 (n = 230) to a new nursing home in Hong Kong were prospectively followed. The predictors of survival in the residents were assessed annually, with the exception of those who did not want to continue with the study, or were hospitalized, discharged from the nursing home or died, to compare changes occurring from 2008 to 2012. Cox's regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of survival.

Results: A total of 66 of the nursing home residents (28.7%) died during the study period. The median length of survival was 20.46 months. Sex, the number of diseases, depressive symptoms, cognitive status and nutritional status were found to be significant predictors of survival.

Conclusions: It is crucial for healthcare providers to offer quality care to residents in long-term care to enhance their well-being in the final sojourn of their lives. Although there are no consistent reports of predictors in the international literature, it is important to address the modifiable predictors, as this might lead to improvements in the quality of life of the residents. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 428-433.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2018

A Pilot Randomized, Controlled Study of Nanocrystalline Silver, Manuka Honey, and Conventional Dressing in Healing Diabetic Foot Ulcer.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 25;2017:5294890. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Ginger Knowledge Transfer and Consultancy Limited, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Nanocrystalline silver (nAg) and Manuka honey (MH) dressing have increasing popularity for treating diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial with three parallel groups' design in examining the preliminary effectiveness of nAg against MH and conventional dressing in healing DFU in terms of ulcer healing, ulcer infection, and inflammation. 31 participants (11 in the nAg group, 10 in the MH group, and 10 in the convention group) diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Wound cleaning, debridement, and topical dressing application were performed according to the group allocation in each visit at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. The results found that the proportions of complete ulcer healing were 81.8%, 50%, and 40% in the nAg, MH, and conventional groups, respectively. The ulcer size reduction rate was potentially higher in the nAg group (97.45%) than the MH group (86.21%) and the conventional group (75.17%). In bacteriology, nAg showed a greater rate of microorganism reduction although it was not significant. To conclude, nAg alginate was potentially superior to MH and conventional dressing in healing diabetic foot ulcer in terms of ulcer size reduction rate.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2017

A prediction model of blood pressure for telemedicine.

Health Informatics J 2018 09 4;24(3):227-244. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

This paper presents a new study based on a machine learning technique, specifically an artificial neural network, for predicting systolic blood pressure through the correlation of variables (age, BMI, exercise level, alcohol consumption level, smoking status, stress level, and salt intake level). The study was carried out using a database containing a variety of variables/factors. Each database of raw data was split into two parts: one part for training the neural network and the remaining part for testing the performance of the network. Two neural network algorithms, back-propagation and radial basis function, were used to construct and validate the prediction system. According to the experiment, the accuracy of our predictions of systolic blood pressure values exceeded 90%. Our experimental results show that artificial neural networks are suitable for modeling and predicting systolic blood pressure. This new method of predicting systolic blood pressure helps to give an early warning to adults, who may not get regular blood pressure measurements that their blood pressure might be at an unhealthy level. Also, because an isolated measurement of blood pressure is not always very accurate due to daily fluctuations, our predictor can provide the predicted value as another figure for medical staff to refer to.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2018

Study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a comprehensive pressure ulcer prevention programme for private for-profit nursing homes.

BMC Geriatr 2016 Jan 18;16:20. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Princess Margret Hospital, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Background: Because the demand for government-subsidized nursing homes in Hong Kong outstrips the supply, the number of for-profit private nursing homes has been increasing rapidly. However, the standard of care in such homes is always criticized. Pressure ulcers are a major long-term care issue that is closely associated with the quality of care delivered in nursing home settings. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention programme for residents in private for-profit nursing homes.

Methods/design: This is a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial with an estimated sample size of 1088 residents and 74 care staff from eight for-profit private nursing homes. Eligible nursing homes will be those classified as category A2 homes in the Enhanced Bought Place Scheme (EBPS), having a capacity of around 130-150 beds, and no structured PU prevention protocol and/or programmes in place. Care staff will be health workers, personal care workers, and nurses who are front-line staff providing direct care to residents. Eight nursing homes will be randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. The experimental group will be provided with an intensive training programme and will be involved in the implementation of a 16-week pressure ulcer prevention protocol, while the control group will deliver the usual pressure ulcer prevention care. The study outcomes are the pressure ulcer prevention knowledge and skills of the care staff and the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers. Data on the knowledge and skills of care staff, and prevalence of pressure ulcer will be collected at the base line, and then at the 8(th) week and at completion of the implementation of the protocol. The assessment of the incidence of pressures will start from before the commencement of the intensive training course to the end of the implementation of the protocol.

Discussion: In view of the negative impact of pressure ulcers, it is important to have an effective and evidence-based pressure ulcer prevention programme to improve preventive care in private for-profit nursing homes. The programme will potentially improve the knowledge and skills of care staff on the prevention of pressure ulcers and also lead to a reduction in the development of pressure ulcers in nursing homes.

Trial Registration: The Current Controlled Trial is NCT02270385, 18 October 2014.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2016

The Anti-Inflammatory and Antibacterial Action of Nanocrystalline Silver and Manuka Honey on the Molecular Alternation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Comprehensive Literature Review.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2015 28;2015:218283. Epub 2015 Jul 28.

Ginger Knowledge Transfer and Consultancy Limited, Hong Kong.

Honey and silver have been used since ancient times for treating wounds. Their widespread clinical application has attracted attention in light of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. While there have been a number of studies exploring the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of manuka honey and nanocrystalline silver, their advantages and limitations with regard to the treatment of chronic wounds remain a subject of debate. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence on the use of nanocrystalline silver and manuka honey for treating diabetic foot ulcers through a critical and comprehensive review of in vitro studies, animal studies, and in vivo studies. The findings from the in vitro and animal studies suggest that both agents have effective antibacterial actions. Their anti-inflammatory action and related impact on wound healing are unclear. Besides, there is no evidence to suggest that any topical agent is more effective for use in treating diabetic foot ulcer. Overall, high-quality, clinical human studies supported by findings from the molecular science on the use of manuka honey or nanocrystalline silver are lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed human clinical studies on the subject to fill this knowledge gap and guide clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
August 2015

Topical Agents and Dressings for Pilonidal Sinus Wound Healing by Secondary Intention: A Scoping Review.

Surg Technol Int 2015 May;26:57-63

Skin and Wound Care Halton Healthcare Services, Oakville, Ontario.

Pilonidal disease (PD) is a chronic and debilitating condition. The overall aim of the scoping review is to map and summarize a wide range of evidence to examine which topical agent or dressing is effective in promoting pilonidal wound healing by secondary intention. Review of this cumulative body of evidence will inform care and guide dressing selection for PD related wounds and delineate future research priorities based on identified knowledge gaps and clinical practice issues. Overall, there is some evidence to suggest that topical applications of hydrogel, silver, honey, zinc, selected foam materials, negative pressure wound therapy, platelet rich plasma, and plant extracts may promote wound healing. Topical treatment using polyhexamethylene biguanide and silver may be beneficial in reducing bacterial burden. Finally, silver, honey, and hydrocolloid dressings may help alleviate wound related pain. However, evidence remains insufficient in light of methodological limitations and biases of the studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

May 2015

Beliefs and knowledge about vaccination against AH1N1pdm09 infection and uptake factors among Chinese parents.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2014 Feb 14;11(2):1989-2002. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

School of Nursing, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Vaccination against AH1N1pdm09 infection (human swine infection, HSI) is an effective measure of preventing pandemic infection, especially for high-risk groups like children between the ages of 6 months and 6 years. This study used a cross-sectional correlation design and aimed to identify predicting factors of parental acceptance of the HSI vaccine (HSIV) and uptake of the vaccination by their preschool-aged children in Hong Kong. A total of 250 parents were recruited from four randomly selected kindergartens. A self-administered questionnaire based on the health belief framework was used for data collection. The results showed that a number of factors significantly affected the tendency toward new vaccination uptake; these factors included parental age, HSI vaccination history of the children in their family, preferable price of the vaccine, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and motivating factors for taking new vaccines. Using these factors, a logistic regression model with a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.63 was generated to explain vaccination acceptance. A strong correlation between parental acceptance of new vaccinations and the motivating factors of vaccination uptake was found, which indicates the importance of involving parents in policy implementation for any new vaccination schemes. Overall, in order to fight against pandemics and enhance vaccination acceptance, it is essential for the government to understand the above factors determining parental acceptance of new vaccinations for their preschool-aged children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
February 2014

Influenza vaccine preference and uptake among older people in nine countries.

J Adv Nurs 2010 Oct 16;66(10):2297-308. Epub 2010 Aug 16.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Aim: This paper is a report of a study delineating factors that influence older people's preferences and uptake of the influenza vaccine in nine countries.

Background: Vaccination uptake for the aging population in many countries still remains below the World Health Organization recommended rate. Older people who perceive higher susceptibility to and severity of influenza, and more benefits from vaccination and action cues prompting vaccination, tend to accept the vaccine, but those with more perceived barriers to vaccination are less likely to accept it.

Method: A total of 208 older people from China, Indonesia, Turkey, Korea, Greece, Canada, the United Kingdom, Brazil and Nigeria were recruited to 14 vaccinated and 12 unvaccinated focus groups. They shared their experiences of influenza, and influenza vaccination, and promotion of influenza vaccination in focus groups. The data were collected in 2007.

Findings: We identified five themes and generated a hypothetical framework for in-depth understanding of vaccination behaviour among older people. Participants' vaccine preferences were determined by their behavioural beliefs in vaccination, which were based on their probability calculation of susceptibility to and severity of influenza and vaccine effectiveness, and their utility calculation of vaccine, healthcare and social costs. Action cues prompting vaccination and vaccine access further affected the vaccine uptake of participants with vaccine preferences. Vaccination coverage was likely to be higher in the countries where normative beliefs in favour of vaccination had formed.

Conclusion: The hypothetical framework can be used to guide healthcare providers in developing strategies to foster normative beliefs of older people in vaccination, provide effective action cues and promote vaccine access.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2010

The effect of Chinese food therapy on community dwelling Chinese hypertensive patients with Yin-deficiency.

J Clin Nurs 2010 Apr;19(7-8):1008-20

School of Nursing, The Zhe Jiang Chinese Medical University, Hang Zhou, China 310053.

Objectives: The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese food therapy in correcting the Yin-deficiency and to examine its impact on the patients' quality of life and hypertension control.

Background: Epidemiological studies have shown 14-50% of people with hypertension have Yin-deficiency. Whether restoring the Yin-Yang balance by means of Chinese food therapy can help to better manage patients with hypertension has yet to be examined.

Design: Two groups randomised controlled trial.

Methods: Eighty-five hypertensive patients recruited from two community health service centre were divided into two groups. The intervention group (n = 48) received specific dietary instructions and corresponding management of their antihypertensive medication if indicated and brief health education, whilst the control group (n = 37) received routine support involving only brief health education. Data were collected at baseline, after intervention at four, eight, 12 and 16 weeks follow-up. Comparisons were made to examine the effects of Chinese food therapy on Yin-deficiency symptoms, blood pressure and quality of life of hypertensive patients.

Results: The intervention group had reduction in the numbers of antihypertensive medication taken as well as improvement in most of the Yin-deficiency symptoms after 12 weeks of Chinese food therapy and mean scores of several SF-36 dimensions were higher than that of in the control group after 12 and 16 weeks follow-up. Significant difference was found in systolic blood pressure in the intervention group when it was compared from baseline to after four and eight weeks respectively.

Conclusion: Chinese Food Therapy can restore body constitution with Yin-Yang imbalance and may potentially improve hypertensive patients' quality of life. It is also beneficial in controlling blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: Chinese food therapy may become a complementary therapy in health care and it should be a component of nursing education and health education.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2010

Pressure ulcer development in older residents in nursing homes: influencing factors.

J Adv Nurs 2009 Dec 12;65(12):2608-20. Epub 2009 Oct 12.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Aim: This paper is a report of a study assessing pressure ulcer incidence and factors affecting pressure ulcer development among older nursing home residents.

Background: Previous researchers have shown that demographic, clinical, health status, risk and human resources factors affect pressure ulcer development among older people in various healthcare settings, but none has investigated their interactive effects among older nursing home residents.

Method: This was a prospective cohort study involving 346 residents aged 65 years or over from four private nursing homes in Hong Kong. We collected information on participant demographics and assessed their clinical characteristics, health status and pressure ulcer risk factors. Subsequently, we assessed their skin condition every 2 days for 4 weeks to detect pressure ulcers that developed after the initial assessment. The data were collected between December 2006 and September 2007.

Results: The pressure ulcer incidence was 25.16%. The model in which the factors of clinical characteristics, health status, pressure ulcer risk and human resources were controlled was more reliable in predicting pressure ulcer development than the other two models. It showed that bedfast or chairfast residents, especially those with co-morbidities (renal failure and stroke) and living in nursing homes where there were no nurses but more nursing assistants, were at higher risk for pressure ulcer development.

Conclusion: Evidence-based interventions should be adopted to minimize the possible problems of pressure, malnutrition, friction and shear force, and the decreased pain perception of bedfast or chairfast residents in nursing homes, especially those with renal failure or stroke.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
December 2009

Assessing predictive validity of the modified Braden scale for prediction of pressure ulcer risk of orthopaedic patients in an acute care setting.

J Clin Nurs 2009 Jun;18(11):1565-73

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Aims And Objectives: To assess and compare the predictive validity of the modified Braden and Braden scales and to identify which of the modified Braden subscales are predictive in assessing pressure ulcer risk among orthopaedic patients in an acute care setting.

Background: Although the Braden scale has better predictive validity, literature has suggested that it can be used in conjunction with other pressure ulcer risk calculators or that some other subscales be added. To increase the predictive power of the Braden scale, a modified Braden scale by adding body build for height and skin type and excluding nutrition was developed.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Method: A total of 197 subjects in a 106-bed orthopaedic department of an acute care hospital in Hong Kong were assessed for their risk for pressure ulcer development by the modified Braden and Braden scales. Subsequently, daily skin assessment was performed to detect pressure ulcers. Cases were closed when pressure ulcers were detected.

Results: Out of 197 subjects, 18 patients (9.1%) developed pressure ulcers. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the modified Braden scale was 0.736 and for the Braden scale was 0.648. The modified Braden cut-off score of 19 showed the best balance of sensitivity (89%) and specificity (62%). Sensory perception (Beta = -1.544, OR=0.214, p = 0.016), body build for height (Beta = -0.755, OR = 0.470, p = 0.030) and skin type (Beta = -1.527, OR = 0.217, p = 0.002) were significantly predictive of pressure ulcer development.

Conclusion: The modified Braden scale is more predictive of pressure ulcer development than the Braden scale.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: The modified Braden scale can be adopted for predicting pressure ulcer development among orthopaedic patients in an acute care setting. Specific nursing interventions should be provided, with special attention paid to orthopaedic patients with impaired sensory perception, poor skin type and abnormal body build for height.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2009

What factors affect influenza vaccine uptake among community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong general outpatient clinics?

J Clin Nurs 2009 Apr 8;18(7):960-71. Epub 2009 Jan 8.

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Yuk Choi Road, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China.

Aim: This study aimed to identify the influenza vaccination rate among community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong general outpatient clinics and to identify the factors affecting their vaccine uptake.

Background: Community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong underuse influenza vaccination. The first step to increase their vaccination rates is to understand the factors affecting their influenza vaccine uptake.

Design: This was a retrospective and descriptive study.

Methods: The sample comprised 197 subjects from five general outpatient clinics in the Kowloon East cluster of Hong Kong. A self-report questionnaire was used for data collection via individual face-to-face interviews.

Results: Out of 197 subjects, 64.47% reported having received the vaccine within the previous 12 months. The regression model revealed that perceived benefits including 'vaccination prevents me from catching influenza (OR = 12.18, CI = 3.61-41.07, p < 0.001)', 'If I get vaccinated, I will decrease the frequency of medical consultation (OR = 8.12, CI = 2.70-24.38, p = 0.001)' and 'If I am vaccinated and still get flu, I will not be as sick with it (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.24-0.76, p = 0.004)', perceived barriers, which are 'the side-effects of influenza vaccination interfere with my usual activities (OR = 0.04, CI = 0.01-0.13, p < 0.001)', 'influenza vaccination is painful (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.55-4.81, p = 0.001)' and 'I am scared of needles (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.23-0.79, p = 0.007)' and recommendations from doctors (OR = 14.18, CR = 4.09-49.16, p < 0.001) and families (OR = 3.67, CR = 1.24-10.83, p = 0.019) interactively influenced the subjects' vaccine uptake.

Conclusion: Specific benefits and barriers affecting the influenza uptake of community-dwelling older Chinese people in general outpatient clinics have been identified. Specifically, recommendation from families plays a significant role in motivating the uptake of this Chinese ageing group.

Relevance To Clinical Practice: We adopt strategies including personal invitation and reminders of influenza vaccination by doctors and educating doctors, older people and their families on influenza vaccination to increase the uptake of community-dwelling Chinese older people in general outpatient clinics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
April 2009

Chinese older people in Hong Kong: health beliefs about influenza vaccination.

Nurs Older People 2008 Sep;20(7):29-33

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

A health belief survey of 70 community-dwelling Chinese older people was carried out in five general outpatient clinics in the Kowloon East hospital cluster of Hong Kong. Subjects were asked about their susceptibility to influenza, their perceptions of its severity, and benefits of and barriers to vaccination. Beliefs in their own good health, the effectiveness of cultural measures adopted to prevent influenza and its curability may be among the reasons why those who decline the vaccination thought they were unlikely to catch the virus. Community nurses should help modify people's health beliefs to motivate them to take up vaccination.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
September 2008

Participation in health-promoting behaviour: influences on community-dwelling older Chinese people.

J Adv Nurs 2007 Mar;57(5):522-34

School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hunghom, Hong Kong.

Aim: This paper reports a study to determine the factors affecting community-dwelling older Chinese people's health-promoting behaviour in the domains of physical activity, healthy dietary practices and stress management, and to identify any barriers to these behaviours.

Background: Previous studies have identified factors affecting different types of health-promoting behaviours, including perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits and five individual characteristics (age, sex, marital status, education and perceived health) of older non-Chinese people. However, few studies have simultaneously taken these factors into account in examining community-dwelling Chinese older people's health-promoting behaviour.

Method: Individual face-to-face interviews were completed in 2002-2003 with a convenience sample of 896 community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong aged between the ages of 60 and 98 (years mean 76). Participants had no apparent communication and cognition impairments. A structured interview schedule was used to collect the data.

Results: Multiple regression analysis showed that perceived self-efficacy, perceived benefits and sex together explained 38.4% of health-promoting behaviour among community-dwelling older Chinese people in Hong Kong. Fatigue during and after physical activity, enjoyment of unhealthy foods and inadequate family and peer support were the most frequently reported barriers to health-promoting behaviour.

Conclusion: When developing health promotion programmes to motivate community-dwelling older Chinese clients to participate in health-promoting behaviour and to minimize barriers, community nurses should include some activities to increase both the perceived self-efficacy and perceived benefits of health-promoting behaviour. Future studies should include more critical factors based on theories, empirical evidence and knowledge of culture with samples that are random and from more diverse community settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2007

Stress-management methods of the community-dwelling elderly in Hong Kong: implications for tailoring a stress-reduction program.

Geriatr Nurs 2004 Mar-Apr;25(2):102-6

School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hum, Hong Kong.

This study aims to explore the preferences of the elderly in adopting five stress-management methods and to identify the reasons for nonadoption. A convenience sample of 212 community-dwelling elders age 60 or older was obtained from four multiservice centers for the elderly in Hong Kong. The findings suggest that the elderly prefer to manage stress on their own rather than rely on social support from family, friends, and professionals. The notion of saving face in the Chinese culture and an inadequate supply of social support are possible explanations why the elderly do not like to seek help from others to reduce stress. This study offers a model for a stress-reduction program for community-dwelling elderly people in Hong Kong to enhance their ability to cope with stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2004

How older people manage stress.

Nurs Older People 2003 May;15(3):18-21

School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
May 2003