Publications by authors named "Enes Ugur"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Loss-of-function mutations in the histone methyltransferase EZH2 promote chemotherapy resistance in AML.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5838. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine III, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Chemotherapy resistance is the main impediment in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Despite rapid advances, the various mechanisms inducing resistance development remain to be defined in detail. Here we report that loss-of-function mutations (LOF) in the histone methyltransferase EZH2 have the potential to confer resistance against the chemotherapeutic agent cytarabine. We identify seven distinct EZH2 mutations leading to loss of H3K27 trimethylation via multiple mechanisms. Analysis of matched diagnosis and relapse samples reveal a heterogenous regulation of EZH2 and a loss of EZH2 in 50% of patients. We confirm that loss of EZH2 induces resistance against cytarabine in the cell lines HEK293T and K562 as well as in a patient-derived xenograft model. Proteomics and transcriptomics analysis reveal that resistance is conferred by upregulation of multiple direct and indirect EZH2 target genes that are involved in apoptosis evasion, augmentation of proliferation and alteration of transmembrane transporter function. Our data indicate that loss of EZH2 results in upregulation of its target genes, providing the cell with a selective growth advantage, which mediates chemotherapy resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84708-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955088PMC
March 2021

Identification of permissive amber suppression sites for efficient non-canonical amino acid incorporation in mammalian cells.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Biology II and Center for Molecular Biosystems (BioSysM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich 81377, Germany.

The genetic code of mammalian cells can be expanded to allow the incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) by suppressing in-frame amber stop codons (UAG) with an orthogonal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS)/tRNAPylCUA (PylT) pair. However, the feasibility of this approach is substantially hampered by unpredictable variations in incorporation efficiencies at different stop codon positions within target proteins. Here, we apply a proteomics-based approach to quantify ncAA incorporation rates at hundreds of endogenous amber stop codons in mammalian cells. With these data, we compute iPASS (Identification of Permissive Amber Sites for Suppression; available at www.bultmannlab.eu/tools/iPASS), a linear regression model to predict relative ncAA incorporation efficiencies depending on the surrounding sequence context. To verify iPASS, we develop a dual-fluorescence reporter for high-throughput flow-cytometry analysis that reproducibly yields context-specific ncAA incorporation efficiencies. We show that nucleotides up- and downstream of UAG synergistically influence ncAA incorporation efficiency independent of cell line and ncAA identity. Additionally, we demonstrate iPASS-guided optimization of ncAA incorporation rates by synonymous exchange of codons flanking the amber stop codon. This combination of in silico analysis followed by validation in living mammalian cells substantially simplifies identification as well as adaptation of sites within a target protein to confer high ncAA incorporation rates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab132DOI Listing
March 2021

HP1β carries an acidic linker domain and requires H3K9me3 for phase separation.

Nucleus 2021 Dec;12(1):44-57

Center for Molecular Biosystems (BioSysM), Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) mediated formation of membraneless organelles has been proposed to coordinate biological processes in space and time. Previously, the formation of phase-separated droplets was described as a unique property of HP1α. Here, we demonstrate that the positive net charge of the intrinsically disordered hinge region (IDR-H) of HP1 proteins is critical for phase separation and that the exchange of four acidic amino acids is sufficient to confer LLPS properties to HP1β. Surprisingly, the addition of mono-nucleosomes promoted H3K9me3-dependent LLPS of HP1β which could be specifically disrupted with methylated but not acetylated H3K9 peptides. HP1β mutants defective in H3K9me3 binding were less efficient in phase separationand failed to accumulate at heterochromatin . We propose that multivalent interactions of HP1β with H3K9me3-modified nucleosomes via its chromodomain and dimerization via its chromoshadow domain enable phase separation and contribute to the formation of heterochromatin compartments .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19491034.2021.1889858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939559PMC
December 2021

Recent evolution of a TET-controlled and DPPA3/STELLA-driven pathway of passive DNA demethylation in mammals.

Nat Commun 2020 11 24;11(1):5972. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Genome-wide DNA demethylation is a unique feature of mammalian development and naïve pluripotent stem cells. Here, we describe a recently evolved pathway in which global hypomethylation is achieved by the coupling of active and passive demethylation. TET activity is required, albeit indirectly, for global demethylation, which mostly occurs at sites devoid of TET binding. Instead, TET-mediated active demethylation is locus-specific and necessary for activating a subset of genes, including the naïve pluripotency and germline marker Dppa3 (Stella, Pgc7). DPPA3 in turn drives large-scale passive demethylation by directly binding and displacing UHRF1 from chromatin, thereby inhibiting maintenance DNA methylation. Although unique to mammals, we show that DPPA3 alone is capable of inducing global DNA demethylation in non-mammalian species (Xenopus and medaka) despite their evolutionary divergence from mammals more than 300 million years ago. Our findings suggest that the evolution of Dppa3 facilitated the emergence of global DNA demethylation in mammals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19603-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686362PMC
November 2020

Distinct and stage-specific contributions of TET1 and TET2 to stepwise cytosine oxidation in the transition from naive to primed pluripotency.

Sci Rep 2020 07 21;10(1):12066. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Cytosine DNA bases can be methylated by DNA methyltransferases and subsequently oxidized by TET proteins. The resulting 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) are considered demethylation intermediates as well as stable epigenetic marks. To dissect the contributions of these cytosine modifying enzymes, we generated combinations of Tet knockout (KO) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and systematically measured protein and DNA modification levels at the transition from naive to primed pluripotency. Whereas the increase of genomic 5-methylcytosine (5mC) levels during exit from pluripotency correlated with an upregulation of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, the subsequent oxidation steps turned out to be far more complex. The strong increase of oxidized cytosine bases (5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) was accompanied by a drop in TET2 levels, yet the analysis of KO cells suggested that TET2 is responsible for most 5fC formation. The comparison of modified cytosine and enzyme levels in Tet KO cells revealed distinct and differentiation-dependent contributions of TET1 and TET2 to 5hmC and 5fC formation arguing against a processive mechanism of 5mC oxidation. The apparent independent steps of 5hmC and 5fC formation suggest yet to be identified mechanisms regulating TET activity that may constitute another layer of epigenetic regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68600-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374584PMC
July 2020

Locus-Specific Chromatin Proteome Revealed by Mass Spectrometry-Based CasID.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2175:109-121

Department of Biology II and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Human Biology and BioImaging, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Biotin proximity labeling has largely extended the toolbox of mass spectrometry-based interactomics. To date, BirA, engineered BirA variants, or other biotinylating enzymes have been widely applied to characterize protein interactions. By implementing chromatin purification-based methods the genome-wide interactome of proteins can be defined. However, acquiring a high-resolution interactome of a single genomic locus preferably by multiplexed measurements of several distinct genomic loci in parallel remains challenging. We recently developed CasID, a novel approach where the catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) is coupled to the promiscuous biotin ligase BirA (BirA∗). With CasID, first the local proteome at repetitive telomeric, major satellite, and minor satellite regions was determined. With more efficient biotin ligases and sensitive mass spectrometry, others have successfully identified the chromatin composition at even smaller genomic, non-repetitive regions of a few hundred base pairs in length. Here, we summarize the most recent developments towards interactomics at a single genomic locus and provide a step-by-step protocol based on the CasID approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0763-3_9DOI Listing
March 2021