Publications by authors named "Enam Alhagh Charkhat Gorgich"

7 Publications

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Active Tumor-Targeting by Smart Nanocarriers: A Potential Promising Approach to Overcome the Hurdles of Conventional Cancer Treatments.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2021 May 1;22(5):1331-1332. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.5.1331DOI Listing
May 2021

Withania coagulans extract attenuates oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis of cerebellar purkinje neurons after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.

Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, consequences of oxidative stress (OS), and neuronal death in the susceptible brain areas including the cerebellum. Newly, remarkable attention has been paid to a natural diet with the capability to scavenge ROS. Withania coagulans root extract (WCE) is rich in components with antioxidants properties. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of WCE on cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) against OS-mediated apoptosis after I/R injury. In this experimental study 64 male adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 16) as follows: control, sham, I/R, and WCE 1000 + I/R. I/R animals were pretreated with daily administration of hydro-alcoholic WCE (1000 mg/kg) or distilled water as a vehicle for 30 days before I/R injury. After 72 h, the animals were sacrificed, the cerebellum tissue was removed and used for biochemical (CAT, SOD, GPx, and MDA levels) and histopathological (Nissl and TUNEL staining) assays. Findings showed that the MDA level and the number of apoptotic neurons significantly increased and viable Purkinje neurons decreased in I/R injury (p < 0.05). Administration of 1000 mg/kg WCE reduced MDA level and enhanced antioxidants activity including CAT, SOD, and GPx significantly. In addition, intact surviving PCs increased. At the same time, TUNEL-positive neurons decreased significantly in the WCE pre-treated group (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that WCE can counteract cerebral I/R-induced OS and associated neuronal death by enhancement of ROS scavenging and antioxidant capacity. It appears that pre-treatment with 1000 mg/kg WCE for thirty days can protect PCs against OS-mediated apoptosis after I/R injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-021-00745-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Long-term administration of metformin ameliorates age-dependent oxidative stress and cognitive function in rats.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 18;410:113343. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Aging is an inevitable physiological process, associated with a decline in cognitive function. Recently, metformin, as the first-line treatment for type II diabetes, has been shown to increase the life expectancy of diabetic patients. Therefore, researchers are paying increasing attention to its anti-aging properties. Oxygen free radicals are responsible for oxidative stress, which is a prominent factor in age-associated diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term administration of metformin on age-dependent oxidative stress and cognitive function.

Methods: In this experimental study, 32 normal (nondiabetic) male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into control and metformin groups (n = 16 per group). The metformin group received 100 mg/kg of metformin in drinking water daily for six months. The shuttle box test was used for the passive avoidance task in 24-month-old rats. For the biochemical assay, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were measured. Nissl and TUNEL staining were also used for histopathological assessments. Data were analyzed using independent t-test.

Results: The present findings revealed that metformin significantly reduced the MDA level and increased the TAC in the hippocampus of the metformin group (p < 0.05). The survival of hippocampal CA1 neurons was significantly higher in the metformin group as compared to the control group, while the number of TUNEL-positive neurons decreased significantly (p < 0.05). On the other hand, metformin markedly improved the passive avoidance memory in the metformin group as compared to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: It can be concluded that long-term metformin intake, by modulating the oxidant/antioxidant mechanisms, prevents the loss of hippocampal neurons caused by age-dependent oxidative stress and improves memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113343DOI Listing
July 2021

Structural changes in the brain of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis compared to controls: a MRI-based stereological study.

Ir J Med Sci 2020 Nov 20;189(4):1421-1427. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system characterized by demyelination, inflammation, gliosis, and axonal loss. Nowadays, increasing scientific reports have focused on neurodegenerative processes and structural changes of the disease underlying pathogenesis.

Aim: The aim of this study is a structural analysis of brain magnetic resonance images (MRIs) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) comparing with normal individuals.

Methods: This case-control study was carried out on MRIs of 20 patients with RRMS and 20 healthy controls in Zahedan, Iran. MR images with 4-mm slice thickness and 0.5-mm intervals in three anatomical planes (coronal, sagittal, axial) were acquired. Then, stereological parameters, including volume and volume density of different parts of the brain, based on Cavalries' point counting method were measured in both groups. Data analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U and Pearson's correlation tests.

Results: The results of the study showed that there were no significant differences in total brain, hemispheres, gray matter, and basal nuclei volume and volume density between the two groups (p ˃ 0.05). However, the left hemisphere, cerebellum, lateral ventricles, brainstem, corpus callosum, and white matter volume in RRMS patients were significantly lower than those in controls (p ˂ 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings showed that quantitative assessments based on stereological method on brain MRIs facilitate clarifying neuropathology of the disease. Also, it can be helpful as a simple index for following up the clinical situation and assessing therapeutic efficiency in MS patients. It may provide a precise treatment approach and justification of symptoms in patients with MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02253-zDOI Listing
November 2020

P16ink4a Subcellular Expression Patterns in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma, Adenoma and Non-Neoplastic Tissue Samples

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2017 11 26;18(11):3049-3054. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms with high mortality at advanced stages worldwide. Thus diagnosis of CRC at an early stage with sensitive molecular methods is a high priority. The aim of this study was to evaluate P16ink4a subcellular expression patterns in colorectal adenocarcinoma, adenoma and non-neoplastic tissue samples. Methods: A total of 137 colorectal formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from the pathology archives of Ali-Ebne-Abitaleb central hospital, Zahedan, Iran, were examined in three groups: adenocarcinoma (n= 63), adenoma (n= 38) and non-neoplastic (n= 36). The subcellular expression pattern was determined by immunocytochemistry. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests with the significance level set as p˂0.05. Results: P16ink4a subcellular localization was observed in three different patterns, nuclear+cytoplasmic (73.33%), cytoplasmic (13.33%) and nuclear (13.33%). In most samples, nuclear+cytoplasmic was the predominant subcellular pattern. However, a significant difference in P16ink4a subcellular expression patterns was observed along the non-neoplastic, adenoma, adenocarcinoma sequence (p˂0.001). An association with the histological tumor type was also noted (p=0.021). Conclusion: Considering variation in localization of P16ink4a under different pathological conditions, P16ink4a night be sensitive prognostic biomarker for benign colon lesions. Its use may improve strategies for screening, prognostic assessment and management of patients with CRC. Further studies are recommended in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2017.18.11.3049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5773790PMC
November 2017

The neuroprotective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rat.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 02 16;33(1):79-88. Epub 2017 Oct 16.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IR, Iran.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related disease in which dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway are destroyed, resulting in movement and behavioral problems. Oxidative stress and the generation of reactive oxygen species play key roles in neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. Rotenone (ROT) is a common pesticide that induces oxidative stress. Olive leaves extract (OLE) has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of OLE on ROT-induced oxidative stress in the midbrain of a rat model of PD. Ninety-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following 6 groups (n = 16 rats/group): Control, Sham, ROT, and 3 ROT + OLE (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/daily) groups. ROT (2.5 mg/kg/48 h) was injected subcutaneously, and vehicle or OLE was orally administered for 30 days. The animals were then sacrificed, and their brains were removed. Biochemical measures, including the levels of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons were determined, and behavioral (rotarod and hanging) tests were conducted. The balance and muscle strength of the OLE (150 and 300 mg/kg)-treated groups were significantly improved. Treatment with OLE prevented the increases in the levels of MDA, significantly improved the SOD, CAT, and GPx levels in the midbrain, and prevented the depletion of the TH-positive neurons. These findings suggested that OLE has neuroprotective properties and that it might be useful for preventing the death of dopaminergic neurons in patients with PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-017-0131-0DOI Listing
February 2018

Investigating the Causes of Medication Errors and Strategies to Prevention of Them from Nurses and Nursing Student Viewpoint.

Glob J Health Sci 2016 8 1;8(8):54448. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Student Scientific Research Center, Pregnancy Health Research Center, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Introduction & Aim: Medication errors as a serious problem in world and one of the most common medical errors that threaten patient safety and may lead to even death of them. The purpose of this study was to investigate the causes of medication errors and strategies to prevention of them from nurses and nursing student viewpoint.

Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 327 nursing staff of khatam-al-anbia hospital and 62 intern nursing students in nursing and midwifery school of Zahedan, Iran, enrolled through the availability sampling in 2015. The data were collected by the valid and reliable questionnaire. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, T-test and ANOVA were applied by use of SPSS16 software.

Findings: The results showed that the most common causes of medications errors in nursing were tiredness due increased workload (97.8%), and in nursing students were drug calculation, (77.4%). The most important way for prevention in nurses and nursing student opinion, was reducing the work pressure by increasing the personnel, proportional to the number and condition of patients and also creating a unit as medication calculation. Also there was a significant relationship between the type of ward and the mean of medication errors in two groups.

Conclusion: Based on the results it is recommended that nurse-managers resolve the human resources problem, provide workshops and in-service education about preparing medications, side-effects of drugs and pharmacological knowledge. Using electronic medications cards is a measure which reduces medications errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n8p220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016359PMC
August 2016