Publications by authors named "En Ma"

54 Publications

Preliminary assessment of a portable Raman spectroscopy system for post-operative urinary stone analysis.

World J Urol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Urology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the reliability of a portable device that applies Raman spectroscopy at an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm for the post-operative analysis of urinary stone composition.

Materials And Methods: Urinary stone samples were obtained post-operatively from 300 patients. All samples were analyzed by the portable Raman spectroscopy system at an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm as well as by infrared spectroscopy (IR), and the results were compared.

Results: Both Raman spectroscopy and IR could detect multiple stone components, including calcium oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, calcium phosphate, uric acid, cystine, and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate. The results from 1064-nm Raman analysis matched those from IR analysis for 96.0% (288/300) of cases. Although IR detected multiple components within samples more often than Raman analysis (239 vs 131), the Raman analysis required less time to complete than IR data acquisition (5 min vs 30 min).

Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that 1064-nm Raman spectroscopy can be applied in a portable and automated analytical system for rapid detection of urinary stone composition in the post-operative clinical setting.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trail Register ID: ChiCTR2000039810 (approved WHO primary register) http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=63662 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03838-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Relative mobility of screw versus edge dislocations controls the ductile-to-brittle transition in metals.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(37)

Center for Advancing Materials Performance from the Nanoscale, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, People's Republic of China;

Body-centered cubic metals including steels and refractory metals suffer from an abrupt ductile-to-brittle transition (DBT) at a critical temperature, hampering their performance and applications. Temperature-dependent dislocation mobility and dislocation nucleation have been proposed as the potential factors responsible for the DBT. However, the origin of this sudden switch from toughness to brittleness still remains a mystery. Here, we discover that the ratio of screw dislocation velocity to edge dislocation velocity is a controlling factor responsible for the DBT. A physical model was conceived to correlate the efficiency of Frank-Read dislocation source with the relative mobility of screw versus edge dislocations. A sufficiently high relative mobility is a prerequisite for the coordinated movement of screw and edge segments to sustain dislocation multiplication. Nanoindentation experiments found that DBT in chromium requires a critical mobility ratio of 0.7, above which the dislocation sources transition from disposable to regeneratable ones. The proposed model is also supported by the experimental results of iron, tungsten, and aluminum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2110596118DOI Listing
September 2021

Network pharmacology-based analysis in determining the mechanisms of Huoxin pill in protecting against myocardial infarction.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):1191-1202

Fujian Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Geriatric, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Context: Huoxin pill (HXP) is a commonly used TCM prescription for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, its mechanism in protecting against myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown.

Objective: We performed a network pharmacology analysis to explore the bioactive ingredients, therapeutic effects, and mechanisms of HXP in protecting against MI.

Materials And Methods: HPLC was used to identify major bioactive compounds, and overlap with MI target genes were visualised. 10-Week old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned as: Sham-operated control, MI + Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), and MI + HXP (3 mg/mL and 9 mg/mL) treatment groups, received oral gavage administration once every two-days starting from 1-week prior to MI, and subsequently MI models were established for one-week before sacrifice.

Results: AKT1, VEGFA, TNF and RELA were identified as core target proteins among eighty-five candidate bioactive compounds identified in HXP with overlapping MI-related genes. HXP protection against MI was mainly via regulation of inflammatory pathways, notably TNF signalling pathway. Mouse models of MI and cardiac myoblasts demonstrated that HXP improved MI-induced injury via improving regulation of inflammatory response.

Discussion And Conclusion: Stellasterol, deoxycholic acid, kaempferol, and quercetin are important active compounds contained in HXP with anti-inflammatory properties in the therapeutic treatment of MI. Due to the straightforward nature and effectiveness of taking oral HXP medications, our findings provide a theoretical basis for the clinical application of HXP in treating patients with angina or myocardial ischaemia. Future research into the combination of surgical procedures or medications that restore blood flow together with HXP as supportive medication would be worthwhile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1964542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8425702PMC
December 2021

Unusual Temperature Dependence of Bandgap in 2D Inorganic Lead-Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Aug 11:e2100084. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

CAS Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, and Fujian Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China.

Understanding the origin of temperature-dependent bandgap in inorganic lead-halide perovskites is essential and important for their applications in photovoltaics and optoelectronics. Herein, it is found that the temperature dependence of bandgap in CsPbBr perovskites is variable with material dimensionality. In contrast to the monotonous redshift ordinarily observed in bulk-like CsPbBr nanocrystals (NCs), the bandgap of 2D CsPbBr nanoplatelets (NPLs) exhibits an initial blueshift then redshift trend with decreasing temperature (290-10 K). The Bose-Einstein two-oscillator modeling manifests that the blueshift-redshift crossover of bandgap in the NPLs is attributed to the significantly larger weight of contribution from electron-optical phonon interaction to the bandgap renormalization in the NPLs than in the NCs. These new findings may gain deep insights into the origin of bandgap shift with temperature for both fundamentals and applications of perovskite semiconductor materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100084DOI Listing
August 2021

Babao Dan is a robust anti-tumor agent via inhibiting wnt/β-catenin activation and cancer cell stemness.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Nov 28;280:114449. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Geriatric, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is being increasingly used worldwide due to its diverse efficacy and relatively low side effects. Babao Dan (BBD) is a well-known TCM formula that is currently used for the effective treatment of various cancers, however its underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown.

Aim Of The Study: Tumor growth and tumor recurrence are characterized by two distinct populations of cells, namely the well-differentiated cancer cells composing the majority of tumor bulk, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) involved in tumor relapse, which are both strongly associated with excessive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our study aims to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the anti-tumor proliferative effects of Babao Dan (BBD).

Materials And Methods: We used a hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 with stem cell-like traits that harbors a constitutively active mutant of β-catenin in order to study the anti-tumor ability of BBD via targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Results: BBD robustly attenuated both the intrinsic and extrinsic activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, as well as Wnt target genes. Moreover, BBD significantly inhibited both the proliferation of well-differentiated cancer cells, as well as the stem-like property of CSCs as evidenced by EpCAM, a Wnt target gene and a novel marker of cancer cell stemness. In addition, mice administered with BBD using HepG2 cell line derived xenograft model had marked reductions in tumor size and weight, as well as significantly decreased expressions of Wnt target genes and cancer cell stemness.

Conclusion: Our findings elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with the robust anti-tumor effects of BBD via potent inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and implicate its use in the clinical treatment of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114449DOI Listing
November 2021

On the exciton-assisted radiative recombination via impurity trap levels in AlGaN deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 25;32(37). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Xiamen Yankon Energetic Lighting Co., Ltd Xiamen, People's Republic of China.

For decades, problems of parasitic emissions have been ubiquitously encountered in nearly all deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs). In this work, 450 nm parasitic peaks in 275 nm AlGaN DUV-LEDs have been studied in details. Upon careful comparisons and analyses on the electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra at various injection levels and different temperatures, we have discovered a mechanism of exciton-assisted radiative recombination, namely, the reinforcement on radiative recombination via other impurity-trap levels (ITLs) by excitons that are generated in the midst of the band gap. For DUV-LED samples under investigation herein, a system of radiative ITLs within the band gap cannot be neglected. It includes two types of impurities located at two different energy levels, 3.80 eV and 2.75 eV, respectively. The former, establishing a sub-band edge, which behaves like an energy entrance to this system, contains a series of hydrogen-like excitons at a temperature lower than 100 K, which behaves like an energy entrance to this system. On the one hand, these excitons absorb carriers from band-edge and reduce the band-edge recombination. On the other hand they transfer the energy to lower impurity levels, enhancing the radiative recombination and giving rise to the 450 nm parasitic peak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0930DOI Listing
June 2021

Tension-compression asymmetry in amorphous silicon.

Nat Mater 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center for Advancing Materials Performance from the Nanoscale and Hysitron Applied Research Center in China, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Hard and brittle materials usually exhibit a much lower strength when loaded in tension than in compression. However, this common-sense behaviour may not be intrinsic to these materials, but arises from their higher flaw sensitivity to tensile loading. Here, we demonstrate a reversed and unusually pronounced tension-compression asymmetry (tensile strength exceeds compressive strength by a large margin) in submicrometre-sized samples of isotropic amorphous silicon. The abnormal asymmetry in the yield strength and anelasticity originates from the reduction in shear modulus and the densification of the shear-activated configuration under compression, altering the magnitude of the activation energy barrier for elementary shear events in amorphous Si. In situ coupled electrical tests corroborate that compressive strains indeed cause increased atomic coordination (metallization) by transforming some local structures from sp-bonded semiconducting motifs to more metallic-like sites, lending credence to the mechanism we propose. This finding opens up an unexplored regime of intrinsic tension-compression asymmetry in materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41563-021-01017-zDOI Listing
May 2021

Preparation and Characterization of Crystalline Silicon by Electrochemical Liquid-Liquid-Solid Crystal Growth in Ionic Liquid.

ACS Omega 2021 May 27;6(18):11935-11942. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Research Center of Resource Recycling Science and Engineering, Shanghai Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China.

The electrodeposition at low temperature for the direct growth of crystalline thin films without any templating agent in ionic liquid (IL) is a relatively new electrochemical synthetic strategy. This work studied the role of the deposition temperature, deposition time, and different working electrodes in the electrodeposition of crystalline Si thin films from the byproduct silicon tetrachloride in IL at low temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the as-deposited Si films were crystalline at the temperature of 80 °C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy further indicated that the crystalline quality of the as-deposited silicon film was relatively the best when the electrodeposition time reached 1 h at the temperature of 100 °C; excessive electrodeposition would yield amorphous silicon on the surface of the as-deposit crystalline Si, which decreased the crystal quality of the Si film. The SEM and XRD, respectively, revealed that the crystal structure of Si yielded on e-InGa was significantly different from that produced on Ga and more impurities existed in the film. Research on the influence of these parameters on crystallinity and morphological characteristics of Si gives better control over the growth of crystalline Si thin films for specific applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154031PMC
May 2021

Direct observation of chemical short-range order in a medium-entropy alloy.

Nature 2021 Apr 28;592(7856):712-716. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Alloy Innovation and Design (CAID), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Complex concentrated solutions of multiple principal elements are being widely investigated as high- or medium-entropy alloys (HEAs or MEAs), often assuming that these materials have the high configurational entropy of an ideal solution. However, enthalpic interactions among constituent elements are also expected at normal temperatures, resulting in various degrees of local chemical order. Of the local chemical orders that can develop, chemical short-range order (CSRO) is arguably the most difficult to decipher and firm evidence of CSRO in these materials has been missing thus far. Here we discover that, using an appropriate zone axis, micro/nanobeam diffraction, together with atomic-resolution imaging and chemical mapping via transmission electron microscopy, can explicitly reveal CSRO in a face-centred-cubic VCoNi concentrated solution. Our complementary suite of tools provides concrete information about the degree/extent of CSRO, atomic packing configuration and preferential occupancy of neighbouring lattice planes/sites by chemical species. Modelling of the CSRO order parameters and pair correlations over the nearest atomic shells indicates that the CSRO originates from the nearest-neighbour preference towards unlike (V-Co and V-Ni) pairs and avoidance of V-V pairs. Our findings offer a way of identifying CSRO in concentrated solution alloys. We also use atomic strain mapping to demonstrate the dislocation interactions enhanced by the CSROs, clarifying the effects of these CSROs on plasticity mechanisms and mechanical properties upon deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03428-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Validation of Michigan risk score and D-dimer to predict peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis: A study of 206,132 catheter days.

J Vasc Access 2021 Apr 16:11297298211008772. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: The Michigan Risk Score (MRS) was the only predicted score for peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) associated upper extremity venous thrombosis (UEVT). Age-adjusted D-dimer increased the efficiency for UEVT. There were no external validations in an independent cohort.

Method: A retrospective study of adult patients with PICC insertion was performed. The primary objective was to evaluate the performance of the MRS and age-adjusted D-dimer in estimating risk of PICC-related symptomatic UEVT. The sensitivity, specificity and areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of MRS and age-adjusted D-dimer were calculated.

Results: Two thousand one hundred sixty-three patients were included for a total of 206,132 catheter days. Fifty-six (2.6%) developed PICC-UEVT. The incidences of PICC-UEVT were 4.9% for class I, 7.5% for class II, 2.2% for class III, 0% for class IV of MRS ( = 0.011). The incidences of PICC-UEVT were 4.5% for D-dimer above the age-adjusted threshold and 1.5% for below the threshold ( = 0.001). The areas under ROC of MRS and age-adjusted D-dimer were 0.405 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.303-0.508) and 0.639 (95% CI 0.547-0.731). The sensitivity and specificity of MRS were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69-0.91), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.11), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of age-adjusted D-dimer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.79) and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.61-0.66), respectively.

Conclusions: MRS and age-adjusted D-dimer have low accuracy to predict PICC-UEVT. Further studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211008772DOI Listing
April 2021

Materials Screening for Disorder-Controlled Chalcogenide Crystals for Phase-Change Memory Applications.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 25;33(9):e2006221. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute for Theoretical Solid-State Physics, JARA-FIT and JARA-HPC, RWTH Aachen University, 52056, Aachen, Germany.

Tailoring the degree of disorder in chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs) plays an essential role in nonvolatile memory devices and neuro-inspired computing. Upon rapid crystallization from the amorphous phase, the flagship Ge-Sb-Te PCMs form metastable rocksalt-like structures with an unconventionally high concentration of vacancies, which results in disordered crystals exhibiting Anderson-insulating transport behavior. Here, ab initio simulations and transport experiments are combined to extend these concepts to the parent compound of Ge-Sb-Te alloys, viz., binary Sb Te , in the metastable rocksalt-type modification. Then a systematic computational screening over a wide range of homologous, binary and ternary chalcogenides, elucidating the critical factors that affect the stability of the rocksalt structure is carried out. The findings vastly expand the family of disorder-controlled main-group chalcogenides toward many more compositions with a tunable bandgap size for demanding phase-change applications, as well as a varying strength of spin-orbit interaction for the exploration of potential topological Anderson insulators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202006221DOI Listing
March 2021

Co-pyrolysis of monobasic potassium phosphate and plastic processing sludge: Characteristics and environmental risks of potentially toxic elements.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 9;208:111434. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

WEEE Research Centre of Shanghai Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China.

A high concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) can be frequently observed in the plastic processing sludge (PPS), thereby restricting its environmental applications. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the co-pyrolysis of PPS and KHPO (0, 5, 10 and 20 wt%) on the characteristics and environmental risks associated with the PTEs in PPS and derived chars. General characteristic analysis revealed that the char yield, ash content, pH, and particle size of the chars prepared with KHPO were greater than those of the char prepared without KHPO by 3.13-4.89 wt%, 2.95-4.4 wt%, 0.77-0.93, and 9.64-30.07 µm, respectively. The results of sequential extraction indicated that co-pyrolysis with KHPO could considerably increase the distribution of PTEs in the F4 fraction (non-bioavailable) in PPS by 1.30-65.90% when compared with that obtained via co-pyrolysis with 5 wt% of KHPO. The toxic leaching tests indicated that the leaching concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the char prepared without KHPO decreased to different extents when PPS was subjected to co-pyrolysis with KHPO, especially in case of co-pyrolysis with 5 wt% of KHPO. The range of decrease was 26.40-88.34%. However, in case of Cu, Zn, and Pb, the leaching concentration of the chars prepared with more than 10 wt% of KHPO increased owing to the decomposition of (Cu Zn)PbVO(OH) in an acidic environment. The results obtained using Hakanson's equations revealed that the potential ecological risk associated with the PTEs in chars obtained by co-pyrolysis with KHPO decreased, with a minimum decrease of 38.17%. In addition, the risk level associated with PPS reduced from considerable to low after co-pyrolysis with KHPO. The observations of this study imply that the co-pyrolysis of PPS with KHPO can be a promising treatment for PTE immobilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111434DOI Listing
January 2021

IGFBP-4 enhances VEGF-induced angiogenesis in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 08 28;24(16):9466-9471. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Geriatric, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, China.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a well-known angiogenic factor, however its ability in promoting therapeutic angiogenesis following myocardial infarction (MI) is limited. Here, we aimed to investigate whether dual treatment with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), an agent that protects against early oxidative damage, can be effective in enhancing the therapeutic effect of VEGF following MI. Combined treatment with IGFBP-4 enhanced VEGF-induced angiogenesis and prevented cell damage via enhancing the expression of a key angiogenic factor angiopoietin-1. Dual treatment with the two agents synergistically decreased cardiac fibrosis markers collagen-I and collagen-III following MI. Importantly, while the protective action of IGFBP-4 occurs at an early stage of ischemic injury, the action of VEGF occurs at a later stage, at the onset angiogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that VEGF treatment alone is often not enough to protect against oxidative stress and promote post-ischemic angiogenesis, whereas the combined treatment with IGFBP4 and VEGF can utilize the dual roles of these agents to effectively protect against ischemic and oxidative injury, and promote angiogenesis. These findings provide important insights into the roles of these agents in the clinical setting, and suggest new strategies in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417680PMC
August 2020

Deletion of low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 5 inhibits liver Cancer cell proliferation via destabilizing Nucleoporin 37.

Cell Commun Signal 2019 12 27;17(1):174. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Integrative Medicine on Geriatric, Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1 Qiuyang Road, Minhou Shangjie, Fuzhou, 350122, Fujian, China.

Background: LRP5/6 are co-receptors in Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Recently, we discovered multiple β-catenin independent functions of LRP5/6 in tumor cells and in the diseased heart. Nucleoporin 37 (NUP37) is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), whose elevated expression is associated with worsened prognosis in liver cancer. Previous studies have shown that NUP37 interacted with YAP and activated YAP/TEAD signaling in liver cancer. Our preliminary findings showed a nuclear location of LRP5. We thus tested the hypothesis that LRP5 may act as a genuine regulator of YAP/TEAD signaling via modulating NUP37 in a β-catenin-independent way.

Methods: We performed siRNA knockdown of LRP5, LRP6, or β-catenin in liver cancer HepG2 cells to determine the effect on tumor cell proliferation. Protein expressions and interaction between LRP5 and NUP37 were determined using immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses.

Results: HepG2 cell proliferation was markedly inhibited by knockdown of LRP5 but not LRP6 or β-catenin, suggesting that LRP5 has a specific, β-catenin-independent role in inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation. Knockdown of NUP37 by siRNA inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, whereas overexpression of NUP37 reversed the decrease in cell proliferation induced by LRP5 knockdown. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LRP5 bound to NUP37. Furthermore, LRP5 overexpression restored NUP37 knockdown-induced downregulation of YAP/TEAD pathway.

Conclusions: LRP5 deletion attenuates cell proliferation via destabilization of NUP37, in a β-catenin-independent manner. LRP5 therefore acts as a genuine regulator of YAP/TEAD signaling via maintaining the integrity of the NPC, and implicates a therapeutic strategy in targeting LRP5 for inhibiting liver cancer cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-019-0495-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935199PMC
December 2019

Microplastics in the surface water of small-scale estuaries in Shanghai.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Dec 26;149:110569. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Research Center of Resource Recycling Science and Engineering, Shanghai Polytechnic University, No. 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209, China; Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Centre for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Recycling, Shanghai Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209, China.

This study involved an assessment of the levels of microplastic pollution in seven small-scale estuaries in Shanghai for the first time. The abundance of microplastics ranged from 13.53 ± 4.6 to 44.93 ± 9.41 particles L, with a mean abundance of 27.84 ± 11.81 particles L. Microplastics collected from samples were classified into four types (fiber, film, granule, and fragment), and granules were the most abundant type. Up to 99.5% of microplastics were <2 mm in diameter. The microplastics had a variety of colors, with black being the dominant color. Polypropylene (37.5%) and polyethylene (50%) were the main types of microplastic component validated. Our study showed severe microplastic pollution in small-scale estuaries, and the associated rivers need urgent attention for microplastic pollution prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110569DOI Listing
December 2019

Thermal treatment of liquid crystal display panel scraps: The metals migration and potential environmental risk in solid residue.

Waste Manag 2019 Jul 30;94:49-57. Epub 2019 May 30.

Research Center of Resource Recycling Science and Engineering, Shanghai Polytechnic University, No. 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209, PR China; Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Centre for WEEE Recycling, No. 2360 Jinhai Road, Shanghai 201209, PR China.

Thermal treatment has been proved to be an efficient and promising method for organics removal from LCD panels and for resource recycling. Considering with the toxic metals contained in LCD panels and their potential risk, it is necessary to study and evaluate the metals behavior and potential risk associated with the thermal treatment of LCD panels. In this study, the migration and transformation behavior of ten metals (Cr, As, Al, In, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, Sn) in LCD panels were investigated during thermal treatment, as well as their potential environmental risk and leaching toxicity in solid residue were evaluated. Results showed that Cr, Ni, In, Cu and Fe exhibit obvious migration behavior from solid into gas phase/fly ash during thermal treatment, with the maximum migration rate of 52.8%, 54.7%, 37.7%, 30.8%, and 34.9% respectively under the experimental condition. Speciation transformation for the metals of Cr, Ni, In, Cu, Fe and Zn was also observed in solid residue after thermal treatment, which leads to the ecological risk increase of Cu, In and contamination risk increase of Fe. Meanwhile, the leachable concentration and leaching toxicity of Cu and Ni in solid residue showed increasing trend after thermal treatment. The results indicate that attentions should be paid on the emission control of Cr, Ni, In, Cu, Fe during thermal treatment of LCD panel scraps. Environmental risk of Cu, In, Fe and the leaching toxicity of Ni in solid residue after thermal treatment should also be concerned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.05.037DOI Listing
July 2019

LRP6 Ectodomain Prevents SDF-1/CXCR4-Induced Breast Cancer Metastasis to Lung.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 08 22;25(15):4832-4845. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Clinical and Translational Research Center, Research Institute of Heart Failure Shanghai East Hospital, Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias of Ministry of Education, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: Lung metastasis is an important cause of breast cancer-related deaths, in which SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling pathway plays a critical role. Single transmembrane protein LRP6 is viewed as an oncogene via activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our work aims to investigate the relationship between SDF-1/CXCR4 and LRP6 in breast cancer lung metastasis.

Experimental Design: We examined the expressions and functions of SDF-1/CXCR4 and LRP6 as well as their relationship in breast cancer and .

Results: LRP6 ectodomain (LRP6N) directly bound to CXCR4 and competitively prevented SDF-1 binding to CXCR4. LRP6N prevented SDF-1/CXCR4-induced metastasis to lung and prolonged survival in mice bearing breast tumors, whereas LRP6 knockdown activated SDF-1/CXCR4 signal transduction and promoted lung metastasis and tumor death. Furthermore, patients with breast cancer with high CXCR4 expression had poor prognosis, which was exacerbated by low LRP6 expression but improved by high LRP6 expression. Interestingly, a secreted LRP6N was found in the serum of mice and humans, which was downregulated by the onset of cancer metastasis in both mice bearing breast cancer as well as in patients with breast cancer.

Conclusions: LRP6N might be a promising diagnostic marker for the early detection of breast cancer metastasis as well as an inhibitor of SDF-1/CXCR4-induced breast cancer metastasis. LRP6N also provides an interesting link between Wnt signaling and SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling, the two key pathways involved in cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3557DOI Listing
August 2019

Pollution analysis of soil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from informal electronic waste dismantling areas in Xinqiao, China.

Waste Manag Res 2019 Apr 8;37(4):394-401. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

1 WEEE Research Centre of Shanghai Polytechnic University, Shanghai, China.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are considered to be persistent organic pollutants, which pose a great threat to human health and the surrounding environment. In order to explore the influence of informal electronic waste (e-waste) dismantling activities on inhabitants who live nearby, soil samples were collected from informal e-waste dismantling areas in Xinqiao, China and analysed for 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. Results indicated that the 16 USEPA priority PAHs were found at all seven sampling locations. Sampling location 3, which was only 10 m away from a residential area, had 1053.69 μg kg of PAHs and seriously exceeded the standard value specified by the Netherlands. The total percents of 4-ring and 5-ring PAHs accounted for 61.74 and 71.70%, respectively, indicating that most of the detected PAHs belonged to high-ring PAHs. The informal e-waste dismantling activities are the major sources of soil PAHs in Xinqiao. Furthermore, the concentration of seven carcinogenic PAHs was 114.76 μg kg and represented a potential health risk to humans. Thereinto, benzo[a]pyrene contributed the most, accounting for more than 50% in these locations. Our results may provide a reference about the influence of informal e-waste dismantling activities on the surrounding inhabitants and suggest that e-waste dismantling activities must be conducted in a formal enterprise which is far away from residential areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0734242X19826369DOI Listing
April 2019

Opposing Roles of Wnt Inhibitors IGFBP-4 and Dkk1 in Cardiac Ischemia by Differential Targeting of LRP5/6 and β-catenin.

Circulation 2016 Dec 1;134(24):1991-2007. Epub 2016 Nov 1.

From Clinical and Translational Research Center Shanghai East Hospital, Key Laboratory of Arrhythmias, Ministry of Education, Tongji University School of Medicine, China (D.W., Jinhui Peng, D.-n.R., J.C., Y. Zhu, Y.Y., H.Y., E.M., Y.C., Zhongmin Liu, S.L., L.A., W.Z.); Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai, China (Jinhui Peng, Q.Q.); Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, Fujian, China (L.Q., Jun Peng); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, The School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, China (Zhenping Liu, C.J.); State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Y.Y., T.Z.); and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (J.W., Y. Zou).

Background: Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, triggering irreversible myocardial cell damage and heart failure. The role of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) as coreceptors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the adult heart remain unknown. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 and dickkopf-related protein 1 (Dkk1) are 2 secreted LRP5/6 binding proteins that play a crucial role in heart development through preventing Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. However, their roles in the adult heart remain unexplored.

Methods: To understand the role of LRP5/6 and β-catenin in the adult heart, we constructed conditional cardiomyocyte-specific LRP5/6 and β-catenin knockout mice and induced surgical myocardial infarction. We also directly injected recombinant proteins of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 and Dkk1 into the heart immediately following myocardial infarction to further examine the mechanisms through which these proteins regulate LRP5/6 and β-catenin.

Results: Deletion of LRP5/6 promoted cardiac ischemic insults. Conversely, deficiency of β-catenin, a downstream target of LRP5/6, was beneficial in ischemic injury. It is interesting to note that although both insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 and Dkk1 are secreted Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 protected the ischemic heart by inhibiting β-catenin, whereas Dkk1 enhanced the injury response mainly through inducing LRP5/6 endocytosis and degradation.

Conclusions: Our findings reveal previously unidentified dual roles of LRP5/6 involved in the cardiomyocyte response to ischemic injury. These findings suggest new therapeutic strategies in ischemic heart disease by fine-tuning LRP5/6 and β-catenin signaling within the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.024441DOI Listing
December 2016

Polarized three-photon-pumped laser in a single MOF microcrystal.

Nat Commun 2016 Mar 17;7:11087. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Higher order multiphoton-pumped polarized lasers have fundamental technological importance. Although they can be used to in vivo imaging, their application has yet to be realized. Here we show the first polarized three-photon-pumped (3PP) microcavity laser in a single host-guest composite metal-organic framework (MOF) crystal, via a controllable in situ self-assembly strategy. The highly oriented assembly of dye molecules within the MOF provides an opportunity to achieve 3PP lasing with a low lasing threshold and a very high-quality factor on excitation. Furthermore, the 3PP lasing generated from composite MOF is perfectly polarized. These findings may eventually open up a new route to the exploitation of multiphoton-pumped solid-state laser in single MOF microcrystal (or nanocrystal) for future optoelectronic and biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4800435PMC
March 2016

Persistent luminescence from Eu(3+) in SnO2 nanoparticles.

Nanoscale 2015 Jul 5;7(25):11048-54. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Persistent luminescence phosphors, which are capable of emitting light for a long time after ceasing excitation, have shown great promise in diverse areas as bioprobes, lighting and displays. Exploring new materials to realize efficient persistent luminescence is a goal of general concern. Herein, we report a novel persistent luminescence phosphor based on Eu(3+)-doped SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The afterglow decay behaviour, the trap depth distribution as well as the underlying mechanism for persistent luminescence of the NPs were comprehensively surveyed by means of thermoluminescence and temperature-dependent afterglow decay measurements. It was found that the thermal activation mechanism is responsible for the afterglow decay of the NPs with an inverse power-law exponent of 1.0 (or 1.7) in the temperature region below (or above) 220 K. In particular, the co-existence of uniform and exponential distributions in trap depths may result in such a unique afterglow decay behaviour. These results reveal the great potential of SnO2 NPs as an excellent host material for Eu(3+) doping for the generation of efficient persistent luminescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5nr01961cDOI Listing
July 2015

Upconversion effective enhancement by producing various coordination surroundings of rare-Earth ions.

Inorg Chem 2015 Mar 27;54(6):2643-51. Epub 2015 Feb 27.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University , Fuzhou, Fujian 350108, China.

In this manuscript, we present a simple route to enhance upconversion (UC) emission by producing two different coordination sites of trivalent cations in a matrix material and adjusting crystal field asymmetry by Hf(4+) co-doping. A cubic phase, Y3.2Al0.32Yb0.4Er0.08F12, with these structural characteristics was synthesized successfully by introducing a small ion (Al(3+)) into YF3. X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray spectroscopy (XPS), and fluorescence spectrophotometry (FS) were employed for its crystalline structure and luminescent property analysis. As a result, the coordination environments of the rare-earth ions were varied more obviously than a hexagonal NaYF4 matrix with the same Hf(4+) co-doping concentration, with vertical comparison, UC luminescent intensities of cubic Y3.2Al0.32Yb0.4Er0.08F12 were largely enhanced (∼32-80 times greater than that of different band emissions), while the maximum enhancement of hexagonal NaYF4 was by a factor of ∼12. According to our experimental results, the mechanism has been demonstrated involving the crystalline structure, crystal field asymmetry, luminescence lifetime, hypersensitive transition, and so on. The study may be helpful for the design and fabrication of high-performance UC materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic5027976DOI Listing
March 2015

Dissolution-enhanced luminescent bioassay based on inorganic lanthanide nanoparticles.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2014 Nov 11;53(46):12498-502. Epub 2014 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics and Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry and Danish-Chinese Centre for Proteases and Cancer, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China).

Conventional dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluoroimmunoassays (DELFIA) using molecular probes suffer from a low labeling ratio of lanthanide ions (Ln(3+) ) per biomolecule. Herein, we develop a unique bioassay based on the dissolution-enhanced luminescence of inorganic lanthanide nanoparticles (NPs). As a result of the highly concentrated Ln(3+)  ions in a single Ln(3+)  NP, an extremely high Ln(3+)  labeling ratio can be achieved, which amplifies significantly the luminescence signal and thus improves the detection sensitivity compared to DELFIA. Utilizing sub-10 nm NaEuF4  NPs as dissolution-enhanced luminescent nanoprobes, we demonstrate the successful in vitro detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, an important tumor marker) in human serum samples with a record-low detection limit of 0.1 pg mL(-1) (0.5 fM). This value is an improvement of approximately 3 orders of magnitude relative to that of DELFIA. The dissolution-enhanced luminescent bioassay shows great promise in versatile bioapplications, such as ultrasensitive and multiplexed in vitro detection of disease markers in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201405937DOI Listing
November 2014

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nano-bioprobes: electronic structures, optical properties, and biodetection.

Chem Soc Rev 2015 Mar;44(6):1379-415

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, and Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have attracted considerable interest due to their superior physicochemical features, such as large anti-Stokes shifts, low autofluorescence background, low toxicity and high penetration depth, which make them extremely suitable for use as alternatives to conventional downshifting luminescence bioprobes like organic dyes and quantum dots for various biological applications. A fundamental understanding of the photophysics of lanthanide-doped UCNPs is of vital importance for discovering novel optical properties and exploring their new applications. In this review, we focus on the most recent advances in the development of lanthanide-doped UCNPs as potential luminescent nano-bioprobes by means of our customized lanthanide photophysics measurement platforms specially designed for upconversion luminescence, which covers from their fundamental photophysics to bioapplications, including electronic structures (energy levels and local site symmetry of emitters), excited-state dynamics, optical property designing, and their promising applications for in vitro biodetection of tumor markers. Some future prospects and efforts towards this rapidly growing field are also envisioned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cs00178hDOI Listing
March 2015

Grain rotation mediated by grain boundary dislocations in nanocrystalline platinum.

Nat Commun 2014 Jul 17;5:4402. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Institute of Microstructure and Property of Advanced Materials, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Grain rotation is a well-known phenomenon during high (homologous) temperature deformation and recrystallization of polycrystalline materials. In recent years, grain rotation has also been proposed as a plasticity mechanism at low temperatures (for example, room temperature for metals), especially for nanocrystalline grains with diameter d less than ~15 nm. Here, in tensile-loaded Pt thin films under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, we show that the plasticity mechanism transitions from cross-grain dislocation glide in larger grains (d>6 nm) to a mode of coordinated rotation of multiple grains for grains with d<6 nm. The mechanism underlying the grain rotation is dislocation climb at the grain boundary, rather than grain boundary sliding or diffusional creep. Our atomic-scale images demonstrate directly that the evolution of the misorientation angle between neighbouring grains can be quantitatively accounted for by the change of the Frank-Bilby dislocation content in the grain boundary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109021PMC
July 2014

Highly efficient non-rare-earth red emitting phosphor for warm white light-emitting diodes.

Nat Commun 2014 Jul 8;5:4312. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Mn(4+)-activated fluoride compounds, as an alternative to commercial (oxy)nitride phosphors, are emerging as a new class of non-rare-earth red phosphors for high-efficacy warm white LEDs. Currently, it remains a challenge to synthesize these phosphors with high photoluminescence quantum yields through a convenient chemical route. Herein we propose a general but convenient strategy based on efficient cation exchange reaction, which had been originally regarded only effective in synthesizing nano-sized materials before, for the synthesis of Mn(4+)-activated fluoride microcrystals such as K2TiF6, K2SiF6, NaGdF4 and NaYF4. Particularly we achieve a photoluminescence quantum yield as high as 98% for K2TiF6:Mn(4+). By employing it as red phosphor, we fabricate a high-performance white LED with low correlated colour temperature (3,556 K), high-colour-rendering index (Ra=81) and luminous efficacy of 116 lm W(-1). These findings show great promise of K2TiF6:Mn(4+) as a commercial red phosphor in warm white LEDs, and open up new avenues for the exploration of novel non-rare-earth red emitting phosphors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5312DOI Listing
July 2014

Lanthanide-doped Sr2YF7 nanoparticles: controlled synthesis, optical spectroscopy and biodetection.

Nanoscale 2014 Oct;6(19):11098-105

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, and Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Sr2YF7, as an important matrix for trivalent lanthanide (Ln(3+)) ions to fabricate upconversion (UC) or downshifting (DS) phosphors, has been rarely reported. Herein, monodisperse and size-controllable tetragonal-phase Ln(3+)-doped Sr2YF7 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method. Upon excitation at 980 nm, UC luminescence properties of Sr2YF7:Ln(3+)/Yb(3+) (Ln = Tm, Er) NPs were systematically surveyed. Particularly, after coating an inert Sr2YF7 shell, the UC luminescence intensities of Sr2YF7:Tm(3+)/Yb(3+) and Sr2YF7:Er(3+)/Yb(3+) NPs were enhanced by ∼22 and 4 times, respectively. Furthermore, intense multicolor DS luminescence was also achieved in Ce(3+)/Tb(3+) or Eu(3+) doped Sr2YF7 NPs, with absolute quantum yields of 55.1% (Tb(3+)) and 11.2% (Eu(3+)). The luminescence lifetimes of (5)D4 (Tb(3+)) and (5)D0 (Eu(3+)) were determined to be 3.7 and 8.1 ms, respectively. By utilizing the long-lived luminescence of Ln(3+) in these Sr2YF7 NPs, we demonstrated their application as sensitive heterogeneous time-resolved photoluminescence bioprobes to detect the protein of avidin and the tumor marker of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) with their limits of detection down to 40.6 and 94.9 pM, and thus reveal the great potential of these Sr2YF7:Ln(3+) nanoprobes in cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4nr02540gDOI Listing
October 2014

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles electrostatically coupled with photosensitizers for near-infrared-triggered photodynamic therapy.

Nanoscale 2014 Jul;6(14):8274-82

Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials Chemistry and Physics, Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002, China.

Lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have recently shown great promise in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Herein, we report a facile strategy to fabricate an efficient NIR-triggered PDT system based on LiYF4:Yb/Er UCNPs coupled with a photosensitizer of a β-carboxyphthalocyanine zinc (ZnPc-COOH) molecule via direct electrostatic interaction. Due to the close proximity between UCNPs and ZnPc-COOH, we achieved a high energy transfer efficiency of 96.3% from UCNPs to ZnPc-COOH, which facilitates a large production of cytotoxic singlet oxygen and thus an enhanced PDT efficacy. Furthermore, we demonstrate the high efficacy of such a NIR-triggered PDT agent for the inhibition of tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo, thereby revealing the great potential of the UCNP-based PDT systems as noninvasive NIR-triggered PDT agents for deep cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4nr01826eDOI Listing
July 2014

A novel tumor targeting drug carrier for optical imaging and therapy.

Theranostics 2014 24;4(6):642-59. Epub 2014 Mar 24.

1. State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian, 350002, China; ; 4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Human serum albumin (HSA), a naturally abundant protein in blood plasma and tissue fluids, has an extraordinary ligand-binding capacity and is advocated as a drug carrier to facilitate drug delivery. To render it tumor targeting specificity, we generated a recombinant HSA fused with the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase, allowing the fusion protein to bind to urokinase receptor (uPAR), which is shown to have a high expression level in many tumors, but not in normal tissues. To test the efficacy of this bifunctional protein (ATF-HSA), a hydrophobic photosensitizer (mono-substituted β-carboxy phthalocyanine zinc, CPZ) was chosen as a cytotoxic agent. A dilution-incubation-purification (DIP) strategy was developed to load the ATF-HSA with this CPZ, forming a 1:1 molecular complex (ATF-HSA:CPZ). We demonstrated that CPZ was indeed embedded inside ATF-HSA at the fatty acid binding site 1 (FA1) of HSA, giving a hydrodynamic radius of 7.5 nm, close to HSA's (6.5 nm). ATF-HSA:CPZ showed high stability and remarkable optical and photophysical properties in aqueous solution. In addition, the molecular complex ATF-HSA:CPZ can bind to recombinant uPAR in vitro and uPAR on tumor cell surfaces, and was efficient in photodynamic killing of tumor cells. The tumor-killing potency of this molecular complex was further demonstrated in a tumor-bearing mouse model at a dose of 0.080 μmol / kg, or 0.050 mg CPZ / kg of mouse body weight. Using fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT), ATF-HSA:CPZ was shown to accumulate specifically in tumors, and importantly, such tumor retention was higher than that of HSA:CPZ. Together, these results indicate that ATF-HSA:CPZ is not only an efficient tumor-specific cytotoxic agent, but also an useful tumor-specific imaging probe. This bifunctional protein ATF-HSA can also be used as a drug carrier for other types of cytotoxic or imaging agents to render them specificity for uPAR-expressing tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.8527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3982134PMC
January 2015

Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction.

J Hazard Mater 2014 Mar 13;268:185-90. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study investigated the recovery of indium from waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel using vacuum carbon-reduction. First of all, high purity In2O3 was investigated. The results indicated that indium can be reclaimed from In2O3 using vacuum carbon-reduction in thermodynamics and dynamics. The conditions of 1223K, 50wt% carbon addition, 30min, and 1Pa were confirmed as the optimal conditions for pure In2O3 and high purity indium could be selectively recovered on condensing zone. Based on this, the experiment of the recovery of indium from waste LCD power was performed. The best parameters were confirmed as 1223K and 1Pa with 30wt% carbon addition for 30min. The recovery rate of indium from LCD powder could reach to 90wt%. No hazardous materials produced in this process. Therefore, this technique provides the possibility of reutilization of LCD in an environmentally friendly way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.01.011DOI Listing
March 2014
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