Publications by authors named "En Li"

210 Publications

Comparison of Survival and Patterns of Recurrence in Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma, Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma, and Adenocarcinoma.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Jul 1;4(7):e2114180. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Importance: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma are rare pathological types of gastric cancer, and there is a lack of multicenter studies comparing the prognosis and recurrence patterns of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Objective: To compare the differences in long-term survival and patterns of recurrence among gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included patients with resectable gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma at 23 hospitals in China from January 2006 to December 2016. In addition, patients with gastric adenocarcinoma were selected as controls. Propensity score-matched analysis was used to match pathological stage among the different pathological types, and disease-free survival (DFS), postrecurrence survival (PRS), and patterns of recurrence were examined. Data analysis was conducted from July 15, 2020, to October 21, 2020.

Exposures: Curative resection for gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcomes were DFS and patterns of recurrence.

Results: A total of 3689 patients were analyzed (median [interquartile range] age, 62 [55-69] years; 2748 [74.5%] men), including 503 patients (13.6%) with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, 401 patients (10.9%) with gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, and 2785 patients (75.5%) with gastric adenocarcinoma. After propensity score matching, 5-year DFS was 47.6% (95% CI, 42.7%-52.5%) for patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma, compared with 57.6% (95% CI, 55.1%-60.1%) with gastric adenocarcinoma (P < .001) and 51.1% (95% CI, 46.0%-56.2%) for patients with gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, compared with 57.8% (95% CI, 55.1%-60.5%) patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = .02). Multivariable analyses found that, compared with gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% CI, 1.40-1.93) and gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.05-1.49) were independent risk factors associated with worse DFS. Compared with matched patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma were more likely to have distant recurrence (268 patients [17.2%] vs 101 patients [23.7%]; P = .002), as were patients with gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (232 patients [17.3%] vs 76 patients [22.8%]; P = .02). In multivariate analysis, gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.66-2.98) and gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.24-2.34) were independent risk factors associated with distant recurrence. Additionally, T3 to T4 stage (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.57-5.14; P = .001) and lymph node metastasis (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.31-3.10; P = .002) were independent risk factors associated with distant recurrence of gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.

Conclusions And Relevance: This cohort study found that patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma or gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma had worse prognoses and were more prone to distant recurrence than those with gastric adenocarcinoma. Thus, different follow-up and treatment strategies should be developed to improve the long-term survival of patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma or gastric mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma, especially patients with tumors penetrating into the subserosa or deeper layers or with lymph node metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.14180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317013PMC
July 2021

Cross-Cultural Studies Into Gambling Consumption Behavior: Eyeing Eye-Tracking Measures.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:646007. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.646007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222542PMC
June 2021

Asymmetric Superhydrophobic Textiles for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding, Photothermal Conversion, and Solar Water Evaporation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 8;13(24):28996-29007. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Advanced Polymer Processing Technology, Henan Province Industrial Technology Research Institute of Resources and Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Material Processing & Mold (Ministry of Education), Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450002, China.

Flexible and multifunctional textiles have potential applications in self-cleaning and portable electronic product applications, but the current problem that needs to be solved is to maintain their inherent breathability and flexibility while expanding other functional applications. Herein, we adopt the layer-by-layer assembly method to develop a multifunctional textile with superior asymmetric superhydrophobicity, excellent electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, outstanding photothermal conversion, and solar water evaporation. The synergistic effect of SiO nanoparticles/poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and 1,1,2,2-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES) endows the textile with a water contact angle of 160°. MXene provides high conductivity (1200 S/m) and EMI shielding effects (36 dB) for multifunctional textiles. In addition, the multifunctional textile exhibits excellent photothermal conversion, and satisfactory solar water evaporation efficiency (80%) and rate (1.22 kg/(m h)) under 1 sun. Therefore, the prepared multifunctional textile has great potential in multiscene applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07976DOI Listing
June 2021

Diagnostic values of MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-11, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, CEA, and CA19-9 in patients with colorectal cancer.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211012570

Research and Experimental Center, Meizhou People's Hospital (Huangtang Hospital), Meizhou Academy of Medical Sciences, Meizhou Hospital Affiliated to Sun Yat-sen University, Meizhou, China.

Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and lethal malignancies. The identification of precise and noninvasive biomarkers is urgently needed to aid the early diagnosis and clinical management of CRC.

Methods: A total of 112 patients with CRC and 115 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, MMP-9, MMP-11, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2 were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9 levels were measured using an automatic immunoassay analyzer.

Results: MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-11, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, CEA, and CA19-9 levels were all significantly higher in CRC patients compared with healthy controls. MMP-7, TIMP-1, and CEA levels were also closely related to clinicopathologic features in patients with CRC. The combination of serum CEA, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 significantly improved the diagnostic value compared with any single marker (area under the curve 0.858-0.890). Furthermore, a combined detection model including MMP-7, TIMP-1, and CEA improved both the specificity and sensitivity for detecting CRC.

Conclusions: The results showed that combined detection of CEA, MMP-7, and TIMP-1 in serum could provide a specific and sensitive biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211012570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144491PMC
May 2021

Molecular cloning, immunological characterization, and expression analysis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the brain of the Chinese alligator during different stages of reproductive cycle.

Gene 2021 Jul 18;789:145672. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Key Laboratory for Conservation and Use of Important Biological Resources of Anhui Province, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000, China. Electronic address:

The neurohormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an essential role in the control of reproductive functions in vertebrates. However, the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the GnRHs precursor and it role in the reproductive cycles regulating has not been illustrated in crocodilian species. In the present study, full-length cDNAs encoding GnRH1 forms, its predominant localization within brain and peripheral tissues, and GnRH1 peptide concentrations in the hypothalamus and pituitary in relation to seasonal gonadal development of Chinese alligator were investigated. The cDNA of GnRH1 is consisted of 282 bp open reading frame encoding 93 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of alligator GnRH1 contains several conserved regions and shows a closer genetic relationship to the avian species than to other reptile species. The GnRH1 immunopositive cells were not only detected widely in cerebrum, diencephalon, medulla oblongata but also observed in peripheral tissues, these widespread distribution characteristics indicated that GnRH1 possibly possess the multi-functionality in Chinese Alligator. GnRH1 peptide concentration within hypothalamus were observed be the highest in RP group (P < 0.05), in association with an peak value in GSI and emerging of late vitellogenic follicles in the ovary. Taken together, our results suggested that GnRH1 was predominantly involved in the vitellogenesis process of seasonal gonadal development of Chinese Alligator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145672DOI Listing
July 2021

Calmodulin-Binding Protein 60b is a central transcriptional activator of immunity.

Plant Physiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Plants use a dual defense system to cope with microbial pathogens. The first involves pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) which is conferred by membrane receptors, and the second involves effector-triggered immunity (ETI), which is conferred by disease-resistance proteins (nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat containing proteins; NLRs). Calmodulin-Binding Protein 60 (CBP60) family transcription factors are crucial for pathogen defense: CBP60g and Systemic Acquired Resistance Deficient 1 (SARD1) positively regulate immunity, whereas CBP60a negatively regulates immunity. The roles of other Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CBP60s remain unclear. We report that CBP60b positively regulates immunity, and is redundant with-yet distinct from-CBP60g and SARD1. By combining ChIP-PCRs and luciferase (LUC) reporter assays, we demonstrate that CBP60b is a transcriptional activator of immunity genes. Surprisingly, CBP60b loss-of-function results in autoimmunity, exhibiting a phenotype similar to that of CBP60b gain-of-function. Mutations at the EDS1-PAD4-dependent (ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1- PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT 4) ETI pathway fully suppressed the defects of CBP60b loss-of-function but not those of CBP60b gain-of-function, suggesting that CBP60b is monitored by NLRs. Functional loss of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1, CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1), an R-gene, partially rescued the phenotype of cbp60b, further supporting that CBP60b is a protein targeted by pathogen effectors, i.e., a guardee. Unlike CBP60g and SARD1, CBP60b is constitutively and highly expressed in unchallenged plants. Transcriptional and genetic studies further suggest that CBP60b plays a role redundant with CBP60g and SARD1 in pathogen-induced defense, whereas CBP60b has a distinct role in basal defense, partially via direct regulation of CBP60g and SARD1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiab164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260125PMC
April 2021

Highly Degenerate Ground States in a Frustrated Antiferromagnetic Kagome Lattice in a Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 12;12(15):3733-3739. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physics, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong, China.

Realization of the Kagome antiferromagnetic (KAF) lattice is of high interest because the geometric frustration in the Kagome lattice is expected to give rise to highly degenerated ground states that may host exotic phases such as quantum spin liquid. Here we demonstrate the design and synthesis of a single-layer two-dimensional metal-organic framework (2D-MOF) containing a Kagome lattice of Fe(II) ions assembled on a Au(111) surface. First-principles calculations reveal that the Fe(II) ions are at a high spin state of = 2 and are coupled antiferromagnetically with nearest-neighboring exchange = 5.8 meV. The ground state comprises various degenerated spin configurations including the well-known = 0 and = √3 × √3 phases. Remarkably, we observe a spin excitation at 6 meV using tunneling spectroscopy. This work points out a feasible route toward realizing spin / KAF, a candidate quantum spin liquid system, by replacing Fe(II) by Cu(II) in the same structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c00598DOI Listing
April 2021

A procedure and device for determining complex material permittivity using the free-space resonance method.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):035104

Chengdu Enchi Microwave Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu, China.

The essential technologies of the complex permittivity of microwave dielectric materials are systematically designed, and the complex permittivity of materials is tested nondestructively by the free-space resonance method. A testing system was built by using a mobile surveying platform, and the complex dielectric constant of the material in the X band was nondestructively tested by using the algorithm of variable physical cavity length and constant physical cavity length. Focusing on the impact of variable physical cavity length on the test results, the cavity calibration technology is proposed to reduce the influence on the complex dielectric constant test of materials. The free-space resonance method was used to test the complex permittivity of polytetrafluoroethylene, glass steel plate (fiber reinforced plastics), and corundum plate. The results show that the test results of complex permittivity obtained by the two algorithms are consistent, and the error of complex permittivity is less than 5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0035361DOI Listing
March 2021

TET1 promotes RXRα expression and adipogenesis through DNA demethylation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2021 06 6;1866(6):158919. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 393 Middle Huaxia Road, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

Adipose tissue is important for systemic metabolic homeostasis in response to environmental changes, and adipogenesis involves dynamic transcriptional regulation. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes (TET1, 2 and 3) oxidize the 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA to 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine (5hmC), which associates with transcriptional activation. Step by step, 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) are further generated by TETs and the cytosine can be restored through base-excision repair. It is still unclear how DNA demethylation is involved in adipogenesis. Through a phenotypic screen, we found TET inhibition decreased adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Comparing with the undifferentiated MSCs, the differentiated adipocytes exhibited much higher levels of 5hmC and slightly increased 5fC and 5caC. Higher 5hmC was associated with better differentiation at single-cell level by image analysis. TET1 is upregulated in differentiation and depletion of it significantly impaired the gain of 5hmC. Furthermore, Tet1 depletion significantly hampered the adipocyte differentiation. Using RNA-seq, 5mC and 5hmC-DNA immunoprecipitation, we found that Tet1 knockout led to lower expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism and fat cell differentiation. Genes with loss of 5mC or gain of 5hmC in adipocytes include Lipe, Bmp4 and Rxra, etc. RXRα agonist partially rescued the inhibitory effect of Tet1 knockout for adipogenesis. So, Rxra is one of the critical TET1 modulated genes. Together, TET1-mediated active DNA demethylation plays an important role in adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2021.158919DOI Listing
June 2021

Separation and extraction of non-thermal effects of strong microwave electric field on dielectric properties of materials based on time modulation and cavity perturbation method.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Feb;92(2):024712

School of Electronic Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, China.

The influence of strong microwave electric field (SMEF) on the dielectric properties of materials is the result of the joint action of microwave thermal effect and microwave non-thermal effect. Generally, the thermal effect of SMEF is stronger than the non-thermal effect, which makes the non-thermal effect of SMEF difficult to detect. Moreover, it is difficult to distinguish the influence of these two factors from each other. Therefore, the formation mechanism and characteristics of the non-thermal effect of SMEF have not been elucidated so far. In this paper, a separation and extraction model of the non-thermal effect of SMEF on the dielectric property of material is proposed based on the time modulation method and cavity perturbation method. By adjusting the interaction time between SMEF and materials, reducing the influence of microwave thermal effect, and strengthening the proportion of microwave non-thermal effect, the separation and extraction of the non-thermal effect of SMEF is realized. Through the designed re-entrant coaxial cavity, the corresponding test system is constructed and the typical materials are tested. Experimental results show that the proposed research method is feasible. The research method proposed in this paper provides an effective way for the follow-up study on the formation mechanism and characteristics of the non-thermal effect of SMEF on the dielectric properties of materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0037363DOI Listing
February 2021

The Essential Function of SETDB1 in Homologous Chromosome Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis.

Cell Rep 2021 01;34(1):108575

Yale Stem Cell Center and Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

SETDB1 is a histone-lysine N-methyltransferase critical for germline development. However, its function in early meiotic prophase I remains unknown. Here, we report that Setdb1 null spermatocytes display aberrant centromere clustering during leptotene, bouquet formation during zygotene, and subsequent failure in pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes, as well as compromised meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin, which leads to meiotic arrest before pachytene and apoptosis of spermatocytes. H3K9me3 is enriched in centromeric or pericentromeric regions and is present in many sites throughout the genome, with a subset changed in the Setdb1 mutant. These observations indicate that SETDB1-mediated H3K9me3 is essential for the bivalent formation in early meiosis. Transcriptome analysis reveals the function of SETDB1 in repressing transposons and transposon-proximal genes and in regulating meiotic and somatic lineage genes. These findings highlight a mechanism in which SETDB1-mediated H3K9me3 during early meiosis ensures the formation of homologous bivalents and survival of spermatocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108575DOI Listing
January 2021

N-methyladenosine (mA) methyltransferase WTAP accelerates the Warburg effect of gastric cancer through regulating HK2 stability.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 9;133:111075. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Meizhou People's Hospital, Meizhou, Guangdong, 514089, China. Electronic address:

N-methyladenosine (mA) is one of the most abundant messenger RNAs modification. Increasing evidence illustrates its critical role on gastric cancer. Here, present research focuses on the potential function of mA methyltransferase Wilms' tumour 1-associated protein (WTAP) in gastric cancer tumorigenesis. Firstly, mA immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis (MeRIP-Seq) analysis demonstrated the mA profile in gastric cancer cells. Both WTAP and the mA expression were up-regulated in gastric cancer tissue and cells. The high-expression of WTAP was closely correlated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Functional experiments illustrated that WTAP promoted the proliferation and glycolytic capacity (glucose uptake, lactate production and extracellular acidification rate) in vitro, and the knockdown of WTAP suppressed the tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, HK2 was identified to be the target of WTAP using MeRIP-Seq and MeRIP-qPCR. WTAP enhanced the stability of HK2 mRNA through binding with the 3'-UTR mA site. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the oncogenic role of WTAP and its mA-mediated regulation on gastric cancer Warburg effect, providing a novel approach and therapeutic target in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111075DOI Listing
January 2021

Photo-induced energy transfer relay of N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis: an asymmetric α-fluorination/isomerization cascade.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jan;57(6):729-732

Department of Chemistry, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong SAR, China.

The geometric configuration of olefin products is often driven by thermodynamic control in synthesis. Methods enabling switching of cis/trans selectivity are rare. Recently, photosensitized approaches have emerged as a powerful tool for accomplishing this task. In this report, we report an in situ isomerization of an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-bound intermediate by a photo-induced energy transfer process that leads to selective access of chiral allylic fluorides with a cis-olefin geometry. In the absence of a photocatalyst or light, the reaction proceeds smoothly to give (E)-olefin products, while the (Z)-isomer can be obtained under photosensitizing conditions. Preliminary mechanistic experiments suggest that an energy transfer process might be operative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07264hDOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular cloning, characterization, and gene expression behavior of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors from the Chinese alligator (Alligator sinensis).

J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol 2021 01 11;336(1):50-72. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of the Conservation and Exploitation of Biological Resources, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China.

The Chinese alligator is an endemic crocodilian species in China. We isolated and obtained the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor genes coding from the kidney of Alligator sinensis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene has 2343 base pairs encoding 780 amino acids, while the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene is 2958 bp in length encoding 985 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the distribution of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. The maximum mRNA expressions were observed in the ovary and kidney, suggesting that these receptors may be involved in basic cellular functions or stress response of alligators. Besides this, RT-qPCR was performed to analyze the abundance of GR and MR mRNA transcripts in early embryonic development of the Chinese alligator in the kidney, liver, and heart. The mRNA levels of GR and MR at earlier stages in kidney, liver, and heart indicates that they might involve in the transcriptional regulation of early embryos and activate many precise developmental effects in fetal tissues. We also measured the protein expression in the liver embryonic developmental stages and found that the GR and MR proteins were restricted to both the nuclei and cytoplasm. The protein expression levels in the liver at different embryonic developmental stages have extremely prominent differences. Taken together, our results showed the full coding regions of GR and MR, their characteristics, and embryonic developmental mRNA and protein expressions of both genes in A. sinensis. This study could provide the necessary information for further investigating the diverse functions of GR and MR in A. sinensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.b.23015DOI Listing
January 2021

A positive feedback circuit for ROP-mediated polar growth.

Mol Plant 2021 03 30;14(3):395-410. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China. Electronic address:

Tip growth is a special type of polarized growth in which a single and unique polarization site is established and maintained. Rho of Plants (ROP) proteins, which represent the only class of Rho GTPases in plants, regulate tip growth. The dynamic and asymmetric distribution of ROPs is critical for the establishment and maintenance of tip growth, and requires at least one positive feedback loop, which is still elusive. Here, we report a positive feedback circuit essential for tip growth of root hairs, in which ROPs, ROP activators and effectors, and AGC1.5 subfamily kinases are interconnected by sequential oligomerization and phosphorylation. AGC1.5 subfamily kinases interact with and phosphorylate two guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of ROPs, RopGEF4 and RopGEF10. They also interact with two ROP effectors, ICR2/RIP3 and MIDD1/RIP4, which bridge active ROPs with AGC1.5. Functional loss of the AGC1.5 subfamily kinases or ICR2 and MIDD1 compromised root hair growth due to reduced ROP signaling. We found that asymmetric targeting of RopGEF4 and RopGEF10 is controlled by AGC1.5-dependent phosphorylation. Interestingly, we discovered that the ROP effectors recruit AGC1.5 to active ROP domains at the plasma membrane during root hair growth and are critical for AGC1.5-dependent phosphorylation of RopGEFs. Given the large number of AGC kinases in plants, this positive feedback circuit may be a universal theme for plant cell polar growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2020.11.017DOI Listing
March 2021

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated establishment of a human CSRP3 compound heterozygous knockout hESC line to model cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

Stem Cell Res 2020 12 4;49:102077. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China. Electronic address:

The role of muscle LIM protein (MLP), encoded by CSRP3, is not well understood in humans. CSRP3 knockout mice developed dilated cardiomyopathy with hypertrophy and heart failure after birth. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we generated an MLP deficient human ESC line WAe009-A-41 carrying a compound heterozygous 13 bp deletion/1 bp insertion in the CSRP3 gene. The WAe009-A-41 line exhibited a normal female karyotype (46, XX), expressed pluripotency markers and exhibited capability to differentiate into the three germ layers in vitro. MLP expression was not detectable in WAe009-A-41 line. This cell line can be a useful tool for studying the role of CSRP3 in cardiomyopathy and heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102077DOI Listing
December 2020

Depth-resolved investigation of multiple optical properties and wrinkle morphology in eye-corner areas with multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography.

Skin Res Technol 2021 May 27;27(3):435-443. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Skin Care Product Research, Kao Corporation, Odawara, Japan.

Background: Multi-contrast Jones matrix optical coherence tomography (JM-OCT) can provide quantitative depth-resolved local optical properties by improving the measurement algorithm.

Materials And Methods: We examined the relationship between depth-resolved local optical properties of eye-corner skin measured by JM-OCT and corresponding wrinkle morphology of aged women (n = 21; age range, 71.7 ± 1.7 years). Wrinkle morphology was analyzed by measuring the surface topography of three-dimensional replicas. The same regions were measured three-dimensionally by JM-OCT, and the local optical properties at each depth were computed.

Results: Birefringence (BR) and mean wrinkle depth correlated significantly at a depth of 88.2-138.6 µm from the skin surface, and attenuation coefficient (AC) and mean wrinkle depth correlated significantly at a depth of 12.6-18.9 µm and 189-459.9 μm from the skin surface, although a degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU) did not. Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a significant regression equation (R  = 0.649, P < .001) for predicting mean wrinkle depth was determined by BR at 107.1 µm depth (BR ), DOPU at 170.1 µm (DOPU ), and AC at 252 µm (AC ) as independent variables and that these standardized beta regression coefficients were -0.860, -0.593, and -0.440, respectively, suggesting that BR, DOPU, and AC sufficiently explained mean wrinkle depth.

Conclusion: These results suggest that BR , DOPU and AC may indicate collagen-related structure in the papillary, upper-reticular dermis, and microstructure or tissue density in reticular dermis, respectively, and may be involved in wrinkle formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/srt.12960DOI Listing
May 2021

Determining the level of extra-pair paternity in yellow-bellied prinias, a socially monogamous passerine.

Zool Res 2021 Jan;42(1):108-115

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, Hainan 571158, China.

Previous work based on molecular evidence has shown that most socially monogamous birds follow a genetic polyandrous mating system. However, our knowledge about avian mating systems is heavily biased toward the north temperate zone, with data on tropical birds remaining relatively scarce. This uneven distribution of both phylogenetic and spatial sampling has hampered our understanding and interpretation of results. In this study, we investigated the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in a tropical population of yellow-bellied prinias ( ) in Guangxi, southern China. A total of 129 individuals belonging to 24 nests were sampled, among which 12 out of 83 chicks (14.46%) in seven nests were found to be EPP offspring. In nests in which all nestlings were sampled, only five out of 56 chicks were EPP offspring, accounting for an unbiased EPP rate of 8.93%. This rate is below the average rate of EPP in the family Sylviidae. The possible causes of EPP in prinias and the occurrence of EPP in birds with high resource investment and intensive parental care are discussed. This study highlights the value of genome-wide markers in determining relatedness in a wild bird species without a reference genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840452PMC
January 2021

The Arabidopsis R-SNARE protein YKT61 is essential for gametophyte development.

J Integr Plant Biol 2021 Apr 10;63(4):676-694. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

State Key laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Gametophyte development is a pre-requisite for plant reproduction and seed yield; therefore, studies of gametophyte development help us understand fundamental biological questions and have potential applications in agriculture. The biogenesis and dynamics of endomembrane compartments are critical for cell survival, and their regulatory mechanisms are just beginning to be revealed. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein YKT61 is essential for both male and female gametogenesis. By using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based genome editing, we demonstrated that male and female gametophytes carrying YKT61 loss-of-function alleles do not survive. Specifically, loss of YKT61 function resulted in the arrest of male gametophytic development at pollen mitosis I and the degeneration of female gametophytes. A three-base-pair deletion in YKT61 in the ykt61-3 mutant resulted in a single-amino acid deletion in the longin domain of YKT61; the resulting mutant protein does not interact with multiple SNAREs and showed substantially reduced membrane association, suggesting that the N-terminal longin domain of YKT61 plays multiple roles in its function. This study demonstrates that Arabidopsis YKT61 is essential for male and female gametogenesis and sets an example for functional characterization of essential genes with the combination of Cas9-mediated editing and expression from a Cas9-resistant transgene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13017DOI Listing
April 2021

Multi-institutional development and validation of a nomogram to predict recurrence after curative resection of gastric neuroendocrine/mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Mar 11;24(2):503-514. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, No. 29 Xinquan Road, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian Province, China.

Objective: To establish a novel nomogram to predict individual 1, 3, and 5 years disease-free survival (DFS) of patients with gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma/mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma [(MA)NEC].

Background: Among patients undergoing radical resection of gastric (MA)NEC, there is still a high tendency for relapse.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 777 patients with gastric (MA)NEC at 23 centers in China from 2004 to 2015 was performed. Based on the established nomogram, which included age, ASA, pT, pN and Ki67, the overall patients were divided into low-risk group (LRG) and high-risk group (HRG).

Results: The median follow-up time was 40 months (1-169 months). The C-index, AUC and time-ROC of the nomogram were significantly higher than that of the 8th edition AJCC and ENETS TNM staging systems. The 3-year DFS of patients in HRG generated by the nomogram was significantly lower than that in LRG (all patients: 35% vs 66.9%, p < 0.001), and there were still significant differences in stratified analysis of the TNM staging systems. The local recurrence rate (10.5% vs 2.6%) and distant recurrence rate (45.1% vs 22.6%) in HRG were significantly higher than those in LRG, especially in anastomotic recurrence (6.3% vs 2%), liver recurrence (20.7% vs 13.4%) and peritoneal metastasis (12.7% vs 2.6%).

Conclusions: Compared with AJCC and ENETS TNM staging systems, the established novel validated nomogram had a significantly better prediction ability for DFS and recurrence patterns in patients with gastric (MA)NEC. It can also compensate for the shortcomings of existing AJCC and ENETS TNM staging in predicting individual recurrence risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01119-8DOI Listing
March 2021

FERONIA mediates root nutating growth.

Plant J 2020 11 28;104(4):1105-1116. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

Root nutation indicates the behavior that roots grow in a waving and skewing way due to unequal growth rates on different sides. Although a few developmental and environmental factors have been reported, genetic pathways mediating this process are obscure. We report here that the Arabidopsis CrRLK1L family member FERONIA (FER) is critical for root nutation. Functional loss of FER resulted in enhanced root waviness on tilted plates or roots forming anti-clockwise coils on horizontal plates. Suppressing polar auxin transport, either by pharmacological treatment or by introducing mutations at PIN-FORMED2 (PIN2) or AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1), suppressed the asymmetric root growth (ARG) in fer-4, a null mutant of FER, indicating that FER suppression of ARG depends on polar auxin transport. We further showed by pharmacological treatments that dynamic microtubule organization and Ca signaling are both critical for FER-mediated ARG. Results presented here demonstrate a key role of FER in mediating root nutating growth, through PIN2- and AUX1-mediated auxin transport, through dynamic microtubule organization, and through Ca signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14984DOI Listing
November 2020

NRT1.1-Mediated Nitrate Suppression of Root Coiling Relies on PIN2- and AUX1-Mediated Auxin Transport.

Front Plant Sci 2020 4;11:671. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

Asymmetric root growth (ARG) on tilted plates, or root coiling on horizontally placed plates, is proposed to be a combination of gravitropism, mechanical sensing, and "circumnutation," a word designated by Charles Darwin to describe the helical movement that all plant organs make around the growth direction. ARG is developmentally controlled in which microtubule-regulating proteins and the phytohormone auxin participates. Nutrient deficiency influences ARG. However, it is unclear which nutrients play key roles in regulating ARG, what endogenous components are involved in responding to nutrient deficiency for ARG, and how nutrient deficiency is translated into endogenous responses. We report here that nitrate deficiency resulted in a strong ARG in Arabidopsis. Nitrate deficiency caused root coiling on horizontal plates, which is inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor, and by mutations in () and (). We further show that suppression of ARG by nitrate is mediated by the nitrate transporter/sensor NRT1.1. In addition, PIN2- and AUX1-mediated auxin transports are epistatic to NRT1.1 in nitrate deficiency-induced ARG. This study reveals a signaling pathway in root growth by responding to exogenous nitrate and relaying it into altered auxin transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288464PMC
June 2020

A Vibration Control Method for Hybrid-Structured Flexible Manipulator Based on Sliding Mode Control and Reinforcement Learning.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Feb 4;32(2):841-852. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

The hybrid-structured flexible manipulator has a complex structure and strong coupling between state variables. Meanwhile, the natural frequency of the hybrid-structured flexible manipulator varies with the motion of the telescopic joint, so it is difficult to suppress the vibration quickly. In this article, the tip state signal of the hybrid-structured flexible manipulator is decomposed into elastic vibration signal and tip vibration equilibrium position signal, and a combined control method is proposed to improve tip positioning accuracy and trajectory tracking accuracy. In the proposed combined control method, an improved nominal model-based sliding mode controller (NMBSMC) is used as the main controller to output the driving torque, and an actor-critic-based reinforcement learning controller (ACBRLC) is used as an auxiliary controller to output small compensation torque. The improved NMBSMC can be divided into a nominal model-based sliding mode robust controller and a practical model-based integral sliding mode controller. Two sliding mode controllers with different structures make full use of the mathematical model and the measured data of the actual system to improve the vibration equilibrium position tracking accuracy. The ACBRLC uses the tip elastic vibration signal and the prioritized experience replay method to obtain the small reverse compensation torque, which is superimposed with the output of the NMBSMC to suppress tip vibration and improve the positioning accuracy of the hybrid-structured flexible manipulator. Finally, several groups of experiments are designed to verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed combined control method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.2979600DOI Listing
February 2021

Impulsive Sports Betting: The Effects of Food or Substance Consumption.

J Gambl Stud 2020 Jun;36(2):539-554

Department of Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Marketing, La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

The present study aimed to explore how food or substance consumption (e.g., experiencing hunger, or having consumed alcohol or recreational drugs) could shape consumer impulsive spending on sports betting products. Based on a large online sample of Australian sports bettors, we found that participants with higher hunger level, or having consumed more alcohol or recreational drugs, tended to have increased impulsive bet size. These impulsiveness effects had both direct and indirect effect components. The significant direct effects confirmed that positive relationships directly existed between hunger, alcohol consumption, or recreational drug consumption and impulsive bet size, even when all potential mediators and covariates were statistically controlled. Moreover, results regarding specific indirect effects demonstrated that hunger, alcohol consumption, or recreational drug consumption was also indirectly linked with impulsive bet size, via their relationships with both promotional and financial influences, rather than social influences. Furthermore, participants' Problem Gambling Severity Index score was positively associated with their impulsive bet size. These findings support and complement the literature on impulsivity as well as the research on strategies for staying in control of gambling, and have implications for consumers, regulators, and treatment/help providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10899-020-09938-1DOI Listing
June 2020

Which Staging System is More Suitable for Gastric Neuroendocrine Cancer and Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinomas? A Multicenter Cohort Study.

Neuroendocrinology 2020 Jan 15. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Purpose: To evaluate whether the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) system or the 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging manual are suitable for gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas and/or mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas (G-NECs/MANECs).

Methods: Patients in the a multicentric series with G-NEC/MANEC who underwent curative-intent surgical resection for a primary tumor were included. An optimal staging system was proposed base on analysis of the T and N status and validated by the SEER database.

Results: Compared with the ENETS system, the survival curves of the T category and N category in the 8th AJCC system were better separated and distributed in a more balanced way, but the survival curves of T2 vs T3, N0 vs N1, and N3a vs N3b overlapped. For the T category, the 8th AJCC T category was modified by combining T2 and T3, which was consistent with the T category in the 6th AJCC manual for GC. For the N category, the optimal cut-off values of metastatic lymph nodes using X-tile were also similar to those of the N category in the 6th AJCC system. The Kaplan-Meier plots of the 6th AJCC system showed statistically significant differences between individual substages. Compared with the other two classifications, the 6th AJCC system also showed superior prognostic stratification. Similar results were obtained in both multicentric and SEER validation sets.

Conclusions: Compared to the 8th AJCC and ENETS systems, the 6th AJCC staging system for GC is more suitable for G-NEC/MANEC and can be adopted in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505924DOI Listing
January 2020

Interest in inducements: A psychophysiological study on sports betting advertising.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 01 21;147:100-106. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

School of Health, Medical, and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Australia.

Recent research has shown an association between the viewing of wagering advertising, which often presents inducements to gamble, and maladaptive sports-betting behaviours; however, the mechanism/s underlying the development of the intention to gamble remains relatively understudied. Eye-tracking and tonic electrodermal activity was recorded from 59 participants (including 49 regular gamblers and 10 non-gamblers), while they watched a series of advertisements. Following each advertisement, participants were asked to rate how likely they would be to take up the offer presented, therein. The number of fixations placed on each offer differed according to the type of inducement shown (p < .001), with reduced risk and cash back inducements being looked at more often than better odds and bonus bet inducements by all groups. Increased electrodermal activity while viewing the advertisements was associated with greater severity of gambling-related harm (p < .001), as well as greater ratings of desire for most advertisements. Rating of desire was, likewise, positively associated with gambling-related harm (p < .001). These results may suggest that, while the offers in gambling advertisements may be looked at by most viewers, unless there an attendant increase in arousal, it is quite unlikely that these inducements will elicit a desire to gamble. For individuals already at risk of gambling problems, exposure to these advertisements, especially those offering what is perceived to be safer betting options that minimise financial losses, may exacerbate existing harms. Such information may prove useful in guiding industry practice, government regulations, therapeutic interventions, and future research on this topic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.10.015DOI Listing
January 2020

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence elastography.

Biomed Opt Express 2019 Oct 16;10(10):5162-5181. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

Computational Optics Group, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8573, Japan.

Polarization-sensitive optical coherence elastography (PS-OCE) is developed for improved tissue discrimination. It integrates Jones matrix-based PS-optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) with compression OCE. The method simultaneously measures the OCT intensity, attenuation coefficient, birefringence, and microstructural deformation (MSD) induced by tissue compression. porcine aorta and esophagus tissues were investigated by PS-OCE and histological imaging. The tissue properties measured by PS-OCE are shown as cross-sectional images and a three-dimensional (3-D) depth-trajectory plot. In this trajectory plot, the average attenuation coefficient, birefringence, and MSD were computed at each depth, and the trajectory in the depth direction was plotted in a 3-D feature space of these three properties. The tissue boundaries in a histological image corresponded with the depth-trajectory inflection points. Histogram analysis and t-distributed stochastic neighbour embedding (t-SNE) visualization of the three tissue properties indicated that the PS-OCE measurements provide sufficient information to discriminate porcine esophagus tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.10.005162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788587PMC
October 2019

COMPARISON OF PROJECTION-RESOLVED OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY-BASED METRICS FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF RETINAL MICROVASCULAR IMPAIRMENTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS.

Retina 2020 Sep;40(9):1783-1792

Eye Center, Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; and.

Purpose: To determine the ability of nonperfusion, vessel density, and morphologic measurements using projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography to detect early retinal microvasculature impairments in diabetes mellitus.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed on Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild nonproliferative DR and age-matched controls imaged with optical coherence tomography angiography. Foveal avascular zone-related metrics and extrafoveal avascular area were measured in optical coherence tomography angiography images. Vessel density and fractal dimension were calculated with and without a skeletonization process. The vessel diameter index and vessel tortuosity were computed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) estimated diagnostic performances.

Results: Dilated capillary diameter was observed in the deep capillary plexus in the diabetic groups. Vessel density and fractal dimension of skeletonized deep capillary plexus significantly and progressively decreased in the no DR and mild nonproliferative DR groups compared with controls. Superficial extrafoveal avascular area, vessel density, and fractal dimension of the skeletonized deep capillary plexus had the highest diagnostic performance to differentiate mild nonproliferative DR from control eyes, with AUCs of 0.885, 0.876, and 0.876, respectively.

Conclusion: Vessel density and fractal dimension from the skeletonized deep capillary network may be the most sensitive for detecting early retinal capillary loss in diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002655DOI Listing
September 2020

Are sports bettors looking at responsible gambling messages? An eye-tracking study on wagering advertisements.

J Behav Addict 2019 Sep 26;8(3):499-507. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

School of Health Medical and Applied Sciences,Central Queensland University, Branyan, QLD,Australia.

Background And Aims: The broadcast of wagering advertisements during televised sports matches has been associated with various adverse outcomes. In order to counter these effects, legislative bodies require wagering operators to include responsible gambling messages in their advertisements; however, the effectiveness of these messages is unclear. This study sought to examine the extent to which responsible gambling messages are looked at, in the wider context of gambling advertisements.

Methods: Forty-nine regular sports bettors and 10 non-gamblers viewed a series of sports betting advertisements, while an eye-tracker recorded the number of fixations placed on responsible gambling messages, as well as other text-based wagering content.

Results: Responsible gambling messages were, generally, presented in a non-conspicuous manner. Eye-tracking data revealed that significantly fewer fixations were placed on responsible gambling messages, compared to wagering information ( < .001); however, this effect did not differ according to level of gambling risk ( = .169). The number of fixations placed on the different types of responsible gambling messages was found to vary, based on gambling risk ( = .006), as well as, what appears to be, the physical characteristics of these messages.

Discussion: Very few fixations were placed on, or near, responsible gambling messages, compared to other wagering information, meaning that, in their current form, they are unlikely to be effective in protecting against gambling harm. Preliminary evidence shows that presenting messages on a high-contrast/block-color background increases the number of fixations on these.

Conclusion: Further research is needed to identify ways of increasing the effectiveness of responsible gambling initiatives in the sports betting context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044613PMC
September 2019

Morphology and cytochemical patterns of peripheral blood cells in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

Tissue Cell 2019 Aug 29;59:10-17. Epub 2019 May 29.

Key Laboratory for Conservation and Use of Important Biological Resources of Anhui Province, College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui, 241000, China. Electronic address:

Domestic Pigeon (Columba livia) is one of few domesticated birds with an important economic value. In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the morphology and cytochemical patterns of peripheral blood cells in domestic pigeons were conducted by using wright's and various cytochemical staining techniques including periodic acid-Schiff(PAS), sudan black B(SBB), peroxidase(POX), alkaline phosphatase(ALP), acid phosphatase(ACP), chloroacetic acid AS-D naphthol esterase(AS-D) and α-naphthol acetate esterase(α-NAE) staining. Besides erythrocytes and thrombocytes, five types of leukocytes were identified: heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Lymphocytes were the most abundant leukocytes, followed by heterophils, eosinophils, monocytes; basophils were the fewest. Erythrocytes and thrombocytes were positive for PAS, and negative for all the other cytochemical staining. Heterophils and eosinophils exhibited positive to all cytochemical staining except for α-NAE. Basophils exhibited strongly positive for POX and AS-D, positive for PAS and ALP, while negative for SBB, ACP and α-NAE staining. Monocytes exhibited positive for PAS and α-NAE, and weakly positive for ACP, while negative for SBB, POX, ALP and AS-D staining. Lymphocytes showed positive for PAS and ACP, weakly positive for AS-D, while negative for SBB, POX, ALP and α-NAE staining. Our results add up knowledge about the domestic pigeon blood cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2019.05.003DOI Listing
August 2019
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